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Article

Patricia Huddleston, Judith Whipple, Rachel Nye Mattick and So Jung Lee

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast customer perceptions related to satisfaction with conventional grocery stores as compared to specialty grocery stores

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast customer perceptions related to satisfaction with conventional grocery stores as compared to specialty grocery stores. The study examines store attributes of product assortment, price, quality, and service in order to determine which attributes have the greatest impact on store satisfaction for each store format.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail survey was sent to a sample of specialty and conventional grocery store customers. The ten state sample was drawn from US households located in postal (ZIP) codes in areas where national specialty stores (e.g. whole foods) were located.

Findings

Perception of satisfaction were higher among specialty grocery store customers compared to conventional grocery store customers. For both store formats, store price, product assortment, service and quality positively influenced satisfaction. Stepwise regression indicated that each store attribute contributed differently to store satisfaction for conventional and specialty store formats.

Research limitations/implications

The results demonstrate that price, product assortment, quality, and employee service influence store satisfaction regardless of store type (conventional stores or specialty stores). However, the degree of influence of these attributes varied by store type. The results imply that while specialty store shopper satisfaction characteristics are clearly delineated, conventional store shopper characteristics are more difficult to pinpoint. Research limitations include a sample that is more highly educated and has higher incomes than the average American household.

Originality/value

Despite the growth of new product categories and new industry players, few studies have investigated customer satisfaction within the retail food industry. Comparisons of specialty and conventional food stores are equally scarce.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article

Takuya Urakami and Xueying Wu

The purpose of this paper is to highlight two important strategies (private label strategy and specialty store strategy) of the Japanese wholesale apparel market and then…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight two important strategies (private label strategy and specialty store strategy) of the Japanese wholesale apparel market and then to clarify the characteristics of those apparel wholesalers who own or intend to establish specialty private label stores.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was carried out on 3,008 apparel wholesalers in Japan and probit regression analyses were applied to identify what types of apparel wholesalers already own or whether they intend to establish specialty private label stores.

Findings

The main findings are as follows: large‐scale apparel wholesalers tend to own specialty private label stores but these wholesalers experience a worse financial outcome; apparel wholesalers with brand strength tend to possess their own specialty stores; and apparel wholesalers, who do not currently own specialty stores, plan to strengthen their brands in order to take advantage of apparel distribution channels.

Originality/value

Because of a lack of published data, no empirical studies have investigated the effectiveness of private label or specialty store strategies developed by Japanese apparel wholesalers. The present study has sought to address this problem by conducting questionnaire surveys with all Japanese apparel wholesalers and has, therefore, been able to clarify the situation regarding survival in the apparel market by considering those apparel wholesalers that already own or intend to establish specialty private label stores.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

Ravi Pappu and Pascale G. Quester

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether retailer brand equity levels vary between department store and specialty clothing store categories.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether retailer brand equity levels vary between department store and specialty clothing store categories.

Design/methodology/approach

Retailer brand equity is conceptualized in this paper as a four‐dimensional construct comprising retailer awareness, retailer associations, retailer perceived quality and retailer loyalty. Categorization theory is used to explain the differences in retailer equity across the two different store categories. A doubly multivariate design is incorporated in a structured questionnaire used to collect data via mall‐intercepts in an Australian state capital city.

Findings

Results suggest that retailer brand equity varies significantly between department store and specialty store categories. Department store brands yielded significantly higher ratings for all the retailer brand equity dimensions than specialty store brands.

Originality/value

Researchers have argued that retailers possess brand equity. However, extant research does not provide any specific guidance in relation to the question of whether retailer brand equity levels vary from one store category to another. The present research fills an important gap by demonstrating that retailer brand equity levels vary significantly between department store and specialty clothing store categories.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article

Ritu Lohtia and Ramesh Subramaniam

States that there is compelling evidence that the Japanese retail distribution system is changing. This study uses census data for ten years (1985 to 1994) to understand…

Abstract

States that there is compelling evidence that the Japanese retail distribution system is changing. This study uses census data for ten years (1985 to 1994) to understand past changes in the structure of the retail distribution system. To understand the likely changes to the distribution system in the future, data were collected from 136 Japanese manufacturers and retailers. Results suggest significant future changes in the number of retailers, specialty stores, general merchandise stores, discount stores, and non‐store retailing.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Cristina Calvo-Porral and Jean-Pierre Lévy-Mangin

The purpose of this paper is to address the following issue: “Does the products’ perceived quality influences the consumer behaviour in the specialty retailing setting?”

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the following issue: “Does the products’ perceived quality influences the consumer behaviour in the specialty retailing setting?”

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, the authors propose and empirically test a conceptual model on the creation of consumer satisfaction and loyalty in specialty retailing, to examine the influence of products’ quality perception and its potential moderating role. Data were analysed through structural equation modelling on a sample of 592 consumers

Findings

The findings show that the store-based attributes have different influence on customer satisfaction and loyalty, according to the quality perception of products, and suggest the moderating role of products’ perceived quality.

Practical implications

Retailing managers may use the product’s perceived quality as a segmentation variable in the specialty food retailing context.

Originality/value

The major contribution of this paper is the empirical analysis of one subjective customer-based variable in the specialty retailing setting.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Ronald L. Hess Jr and Lawrence Ring

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the unique competitive positioning characteristics of off-price retailers and how they compare to other types of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the unique competitive positioning characteristics of off-price retailers and how they compare to other types of retailers. The authors compare off-price and upscale off-price retailers with four major formats of retailers: first, discount department store/warehouse club retailers; second, moderate department store retailers; third, department store retailers; and finally, specialty department store retailers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a representative sample that was randomly drawn from four primary metropolitan cities in the USA. The data were collected using telephone interviews by a prominent, marketing research firm. A series of discriminant analyses were conducted to examine the data.

Findings

The findings of the paper indicate that the off-price formats were consistently positioned at extreme points along the price/value continuum, signifying the strongest value-orientation among the other retail formats. The authors also found that while the upscale off-price format followed the specialty department stores in terms of fashion. The results point to an important disadvantage of the off-price format – although strong on price/value, they often fall short on fashion and many other store attributes that may be important to luxury-oriented customers.

Research limitations/implications

The paper employed a sample from several cities collected using a telephone interview methodology within the US. Due to these limitations, the findings of this paper may be hampered by this methodology and not generalize to regions outside of the US. Future research should examine how the demise of most of the upscale off-price retailers and growth of flash web sites have changed the competitive structure of retailing.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate that the positioning of the off-price retail format is unique from other formats. The retail formats occupy distinct positions. The off-price retail format is strongly associated with the price/value position but only moderately fashionable to customers, especially when compared with the department and specialty department store formats. In contrast, the upscale off-price format, while also strongly positioned along the price/value continuum, is considered much more fashionable than the off-price retail format. In fact, the upscale off-price retail format only trails the specialty department store format in terms of fashion.

Originality/value

The unique characteristics of the off-price retail format and growing interest from upscale department stores underscores the need for a comprehensive understanding of the motives of the off-price shopper. This paper provides retailers with a more complete understanding of the store attributes that differentiate the off-price retail format from other major retail store formats. The overall objective of this study is to offer a comprehensive view of the positioning of off-price retailers compared with many alternative retail formats.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 42 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article

Yukie Ide

The paper studies the relative use of a variety of distribution channels by Japanese consumers when purchasing clothing. In this way it aims to illustrate the potential of…

Abstract

The paper studies the relative use of a variety of distribution channels by Japanese consumers when purchasing clothing. In this way it aims to illustrate the potential of various channels for the sale of a range of garment types by three groups of consumers and, therefore, provided guidance to potential entrants to the Japanese market. The study was carried out by means of a convenient sample and covered the years 1990–93. The three groups of consumers covered were female students, their mothers and their fathers. A total of 46 articles of female clothing and 32 articles of male clothing were covered in the survey. The results suggested that in the case of some garments consumers did not appear to distinguish clearly between channels of distribution as forward methods of purchase. This was particularly true of male consumers. Many items were habitually purchased, however, via only one channel — this was especially the case with women consumers. Males made very little use of mail order but much greater use of department stores and specialty stores.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

Kathryn Bishop Gagliano and Jan Hathcote

Examines the differences between consumers′ expectations and perceptionsof service quality they received when shopping apparel specialty stores.Also takes into account…

Abstract

Examines the differences between consumers′ expectations and perceptions of service quality they received when shopping apparel specialty stores. Also takes into account consumer demographic characteristics. Utilizes SERVQUAL scale and methodology developed by Parasuraman et al., (1991). Calculates gap scores by subtracting the expectation scores from the perception scores. Using a factor analysis procedure, four determinants of service quality emerged: (1) Personal Attention; (2) Reliability; (3) Tangibles; and (4) Convenience. Findings indicate greatest disparity between expectations and perceptions for the Personal Attention factor. Consumer demographic characteristics of race, marital status, and income provided significant differences between expectations and perceptions for Reliability and Convenience. Also considers the importance of service as a patronage criterion for apparel specialty store consumers. Indicates that service ranked third in importance behind merchandise assortment and price.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article

Sarah P. Rousey and Michelle A. Morganosky

Asks how consumers are responding to the diverse array of retail choices as new formats continue to emerge in US retailing and increasingly in overseas markets. Through…

Abstract

Asks how consumers are responding to the diverse array of retail choices as new formats continue to emerge in US retailing and increasingly in overseas markets. Through the collection of interview data, analyses penetration levels and patronage movement as well as market change push and pull factors. Studies ten retail formats including department stores, speciality stores, mass merchandisers, discount stores, mail order catalogues, off‐price stores, manufacturers’ outlets, warehouse clubs, used stores and television home shopping channels. Consumers evidenced high levels of cross‐shopping between formats. Discusses the means by which various formats deliver value to the consumer in light of current market strategies.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article

Cristina Calvo-Porral and Jean-Pierre Levy-Mangin

The purpose of this paper is to address the following question: “Does purchase frequency influence consumer behaviour in the specialty food retailing setting?”, since…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the following question: “Does purchase frequency influence consumer behaviour in the specialty food retailing setting?”, since purchase frequency is a consumer-based undertaken variable. For this purpose, the authors provide and empirically test a conceptual model focussed on specialty food retailing.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a structured questionnaire in the USA, gathering 592 valid responses and analysis was developed through structural equation modelling.

Findings

Findings indicate that satisfaction and loyalty towards specialty food stores are strongly influenced by consumers’ purchase frequency of specialty food products. Additionally, the findings support the moderating role of purchase frequency on the relationship between store service and satisfaction, as well as on the link store environment satisfaction.

Originality/value

Specialty food retailers should carry out marketing strategies focussing on consumer behaviour and segmentation could be developed considering purchase frequency.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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