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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

W. David Rees and Christine Porter

To establish how people become managers.

1839

Abstract

Purpose

To establish how people become managers.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 50 managers carried out at the end of 2004 by students on the BA in Business and Management course at the University of Westminster. A total of 25 students chose two managers each to interview. Of the managers, 38 were from the UK.

Findings

Out of 50 managers surveyed, 47 were specialists before they acquired management responsibilities. Only 12 received management training before becoming managers and that training was not always felt to be effective. The transition from specialist to becoming a manager of specialists was often stressful. Only two people became managers as a direct result of undertaking business studies degree programmes.

Research limitations/implications

Specialists often acquire managerial responsibilities, and often quite early in their career. Those aspiring to management have found that their entry route is via a specialist department. Consequently, it is appropriate to see that managers have the right blend of specialist and managerial skills and that they are given help in adjusting to managerial roles. The implications of the specialist route into management needs to be reflected in the structure of increasingly popular undergraduate programmes in business studies. There is a case for such courses having both specialist options and a managerial component.

Originality/value

There is little research about how people become managers. It is particularly important that the specialist route identified is understood by those wishing to become managers, by universities and colleges running both business and specialist courses and by employers.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2022

Nina Sophie Pflugfelder and Frank Ng

The purpose of this article is to explore the association of the Relational Capital (RC) embedded in a medical specialist’s social–professional network with the specialist

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to explore the association of the Relational Capital (RC) embedded in a medical specialist’s social–professional network with the specialist’s economic performance based on social network analysis (SNA).

Design/methodology/approach

Using health insurance claims data regarding ∼108,000 physicians treating ∼72,000,000 patients, social–professional networks (patient-sharing-networks (PSNs)) of ∼26,000 medical specialists were simulated. To explore the correlation of the network's characteristics (degree centrality, density, relative betweenness centrality and referrer concentration) with economic performance, ordinary-least-squares (OLS)-regression models were estimated for ten common specialties (gynecology, internal medicine, orthopedics, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, dermatology, urology, neurology, radiology and rehabilitative medicine).

Findings

The study confirms the applicability and strong explanatory power of SNA metrics for RC measurement in ambulatory healthcare. Degree centrality and relative betweenness centrality correlate positively with economic performance, whereas density and referrer concentration exhibit negative coefficients. These results confirm the argument that RC has a strong association with the economic performance of medical specialists.

Originality/value

The study pioneers SNA for RC measurement in healthcare. It is among the first publications on specialists' PSNs. Questions for future research are proposed.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Traci Carrano Traci Carrano and Darrell Norman Burrell

The emergence of COVID-19 has exacerbated and spurred the growth of mental health issues in ways that have challenged mental health workers tremendously. The complex…

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of COVID-19 has exacerbated and spurred the growth of mental health issues in ways that have challenged mental health workers tremendously. The complex nature of COVID-19 has made the need of mental health professionals extremely important. Hospital ward overcrowding, social distancing requirements, sequestrations, limits to face-to-face consultations have created barriers to mental health access, especially those in need of Certified Peer Recovery Specialists. Certified Peer Recovery Specialists play a critical role in the treatment of mental illness through their support and engagement of those recovering from substance abuse. Many in this role are hired because they have a strong skillset for help-oriented clinical work but are often challenged, especially in times like this to development and demonstrate leadership skills. This paper explores the nature and need to develop leadership skills and leadership challenges for people in this field through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and a content analysis of the current and seminal literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the nature and need to develop leadership skills and leadership challenges for people in mental health through IPA and a content analysis of the current and seminal literature.

Findings

The essential necessity to invest in the cultivation of peer recovery specialists and mental health professionals as organizational leaders.

Originality/value

Hospital ward overcrowding, social distancing requirements, sequestrations, limits to face- to- face consultations have created barriers to mental health access, especially those in need of Certified Peer Recovery Specialists. Certified Peer Recovery Specialists play a critical role in the treatment of mental illness through their support and engagement of those recovering from substance abuse.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Rachel Gifford, Taco van der Vaart, Eric Molleman and M. Christien van der Linden

Emergency care delivery is a process requiring input from various healthcare professionals within the hospital. To deliver efficient and effective emergency care…

Abstract

Purpose

Emergency care delivery is a process requiring input from various healthcare professionals within the hospital. To deliver efficient and effective emergency care, professionals must integrate rapidly at multiple interfaces, working across functional, spatial and professional boundaries. Yet, the interdisciplinary nature of emergency care presents a challenge to the optimization of patient flow, as specialization and functional differentiation restrict integration efforts. This study aims to question what boundaries exist at the level of professionals and explores how these boundaries may come to influence integration and operational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

To provide a more holistic understanding of the inherent challenges to integration at the level of professionals and in contexts where professionals play a key role in determining operational performance, the authors carried out an in-depth case study at a busy, Level 1 trauma center in The Netherlands. In total, 28 interviews were conducted over an 18-month period.

Findings

The authors reveal the existence of structural, relational and cultural barriers between (medical) professionals from different disciplines. The study findings demonstrate how relational and cultural boundaries between professionals interrupt flows and delay service processes.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of interpersonal and cultural dynamics for internal integration and operational performance in emergency care processes. The authors unveil how the presence of professional boundaries creates opportunity for conflict and delays at important interfaces within the emergency care process, and can ultimately accumulate, disrupting patient flow and increasing lead times.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 42 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 July 2008

Carlin Dowling and Robyn Moroney

The extant literature has established that industry-specialist auditors gain performance-enhancing industry-specific sub-specialty knowledge (e.g., Solomon, Shields, &…

Abstract

The extant literature has established that industry-specialist auditors gain performance-enhancing industry-specific sub-specialty knowledge (e.g., Solomon, Shields, & Whittington, 1999) via training and on the job experience. This knowledge has been shown to allow specialists to outperform non-specialists on a range of industry-specific tasks. The current study extends this line of research by comparing and contrasting the relative performance gains enjoyed by industry-specialist auditors in two different industry settings, one regulated and the other unregulated. When specializing in regulated industries, auditors gain very detailed industry-specific knowledge which is not the case for specialists in unregulated industries (Dunn & Mayhew, 2004). By comparing industry-specialists to non-specialists with matching industry-based experience, this study measures the relative benefits of specialization in different industry settings, rather than the benefits of specialization per se, which has been well established in the literature. This study finds that the performance gains made by regulated industry-specialists significantly outweigh those made by unregulated industry-specialists on industry-specific tasks. The implications of these results for future research and practice are explored in the body of the chapter.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-961-6

Abstract

Details

Organisational Roadmap Towards Teal Organisations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-311-7

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2022

Khairul Anuar Kamarudin, Ainul Islam, Ahsan Habib and Wan Adibah Wan Ismail

This paper aims to investigate the effect of auditor switching and lowballing on conditional conservatism, particularly how different types of auditor switching, namely…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of auditor switching and lowballing on conditional conservatism, particularly how different types of auditor switching, namely, upward, downward and lateral switching to/from Big 4 and industry specialists, affect earnings quality in the following selected Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea and Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

Using conditional conservatism as a proxy for earnings quality, this study hypothesises that upward switching from non-Big 4 to Big 4 auditors, or from non-specialist to specialist auditors, would result in high conditional conservatism, while downward switching would lead to low conditional conservatism. The study further tests whether lowballing provides a viable explanation for reduced earnings conservatism in firms that switch from Big 4 to non-Big 4 auditors, or from specialist to non-specialist auditors.

Findings

The analysis, on a sample of 28,073 firm-year observations from 2007 to 2016, shows that the decision to downgrade auditors leads to lower conditional conservatism in the year of switching, compared with other firms and the pre-switching year. The evidence further shows that, when firms downgrade their auditors, lowballing contributes to a decrease in conditional conservatism in the first year of audit switching. Further, this research finds that switching to specialist auditors will result in increased conditional conservatism, while switching from specialist auditors to non-specialist auditors will result in reduced conditional conservatism.

Practical implications

The findings of this study are useful to investors who are looking to diversify their investment portfolio in developing markets, as evidence about auditor switching and quality of financial reporting may be an important factor in their investment decisions. Downward auditor switches and lowballing could act as red flags to investors in the sense that these events could signal a decrease in conditional conservatism and, hence, quality of earnings.

Originality/value

This research offers new evidence to support the view that management decisions to switch to lower-quality auditors will force newly appointed auditors to acquiesce to clients’ demands for reporting low-quality earnings.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Paula R. Dempsey

The purpose of this study is to learn what factors liaison librarians in academic research libraries consider in determining whether to refer chat reference patrons to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to learn what factors liaison librarians in academic research libraries consider in determining whether to refer chat reference patrons to subject specialists.

Design/methodology/approach

Subject specialists were asked what policies guided their decisions to refer to a specialist and then assessed unreferred chat session transcripts both within and outside their specializations to determine need for a referral.

Findings

Few respondents were guided by formal policies. Contrary to an initial hypothesis, subject area was not a key factor in referring chat. A broader set of criteria included reference interviewing, provision of relevant resources and information literacy instruction. Respondents valued both the depth that subject specialists can provide to reference interactions and the ability of a skilled generalist to support information literacy.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are most applicable to large, public doctoral universities with liaison librarian programs. Assignment of respondents to subject specialist categories was complicated by their broad range of background and expertise.

Practical implications

The study contributes new understanding of referrals to subject specialists who have potential to guide development of formal referral policies in academic library virtual reference services.

Originality/value

The study is the first empirical examination of chat reference referral decisions.

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Alaa A.D. Taha, Waheed Ramo and Haetham H. Kasem Alkhaffaf

This study aims to investigate the impact of external auditor–cloud specialist engagement on cloud auditing challenges from the perspective of auditors from the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of external auditor–cloud specialist engagement on cloud auditing challenges from the perspective of auditors from the Association of Certified Public Accountants in a developing country as an example of Middle East emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research design was used to assess the influence of external auditor–cloud specialist engagement on three main cloud auditing challenges (i.e. technology security, regulatory standards and strategy). Data collection was conducted through field and online surveys. A total of 201 (181 male and 20 female) auditors made up a sample of a developing country’s economy. In addition, structural equation modelling was performed to test the proposed hypotheses of the study’s conceptual model.

Findings

The study found a significant effect of external auditor–cloud specialist engagement on overcoming the challenges of cloud auditing. Results showed that using IT specialists helps overcome strategic challenges more than other kinds of challenges, such as technology security and organisational standards.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that efforts to promote cloud auditing in organisations may succeed if the focus is on overcoming cloud auditing challenges and highlighting the external auditor–cloud specialist engagement to enhance job performance.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few studies that analyse the impact of external auditor–cloud specialist engagement on cloud auditing challenges by adopting a quantitative approach from the perspective of auditors from the Iraqi Association of Certified Public Accountants.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Genevieve Elizabeth O’Connor and Laurel Aynne Cook

The purpose of this paper is to address a critical problem for health-care organizations: patient referral leakage. This paper explores the nature of patient referrals by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address a critical problem for health-care organizations: patient referral leakage. This paper explores the nature of patient referrals by examining how health-care providers’ breadth and depth of connectivity within a hospital network and identification with each other influence the likelihood of future patient referrals.

Design/methodology/approach

The data was collected by using a multi-sourced data set from the health-care industry. The proposed model was tested by using logistic regression to determine the likelihood of a primary care physician’s (PCP) referral to a specialist within a hospital network.

Findings

A model linking provider connectivity to examine co-creation practices in the form of patient referrals is tested. Results indicate that patient referrals are multidimensional. A PCP’s likelihood to refer to a specialist within the hospital network is influenced by the breadth and depth of connectivity of each provider.

Research limitations/implications

This investigation extends service ecosystems to patients, health-care providers and hospital organizations, making it the first to explore how different degrees of connectivity (breadth of referral partners and depth of exchange) between and among health-care providers influence the likelihood of future patient referrals. Findings complement extant literature on service ecosystems by empirically showing that provider relationships are interdependent and rely on the mutual coordination of benefits within the entire health-care organization and network.

Practical implications

Managers and health-care professionals can use the framework to build and strengthen relational ties/alliances within a service organization. An ecosystems perspective reduces patient referral leakage through enhanced organizational performance, competitive advantage and continuity of care.

Originality/value

The authors offer a novel view of referral relationships using hard-to-access proprietary data. Moreover, this study responds to the need for transformative service research by offering service researchers and policymakers a means to enhance consumer well-being. The main contribution of this study is a framework to gain a better understanding of patient referral relationships between employees (i.e., health-care providers) in an organization, thereby affording an opportunity to bolster operational efficiencies, improve clinical outcomes and strengthen referral pathways. By viewing health-care networks through a service ecosystems perspective, contextual boundaries and the relative power of relationships are also identified. The novel use of rarely available hospital data in this setting helps explain how patient leakage compromises the health of the ecosystem and its members.

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