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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

Walt Crawford

If you use a personal computer, you probably use more than one program and you probably use some programs more often than others. If your personal computer is an IBM PC or…

Abstract

If you use a personal computer, you probably use more than one program and you probably use some programs more often than others. If your personal computer is an IBM PC or compatible, you have probably become confused when starting to use a new program or one you have not used recently. The author completes a baker's dozen of “Common Sense Personal Computing” articles with a somewhat lighthearted look at a fairly serious problem — how programs frustrate occasional users, make life interesting for power users and trap unwary users of all sorts. He discusses odd and inconsistent uses of keystrokes, overuse of function and special keys, and problems in identifying functions and keystrokes.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Rabha Ibrahim

In this study, the authors introduce a solvability of special type of Langevin differential equations (LDEs) in virtue of geometric function theory. The analytic solutions…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors introduce a solvability of special type of Langevin differential equations (LDEs) in virtue of geometric function theory. The analytic solutions of the LDEs are considered by utilizing the Caratheodory functions joining the subordination concept. A class of Caratheodory functions involving special functions gives the upper bound solution.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on the geometric function theory.

Findings

The authors present a new analytic function for a class of complex LDEs.

Originality/value

The authors introduced a new class of complex differential equation, presented a new technique to indicate the analytic solution and used some special functions.

Details

Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-5166

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

Paul W. Meyer

Contends that economic activities constitute a fundamental field of activity of human society. States that polarity between economy and society means these extremes cannot…

Abstract

Contends that economic activities constitute a fundamental field of activity of human society. States that polarity between economy and society means these extremes cannot be realized because new syntheses – generally accepted for a shorter or longer – period have to be found again and again. Differentiates between areas of utilisation as part of life and the economy as a supply system ending with the withdrawal of objects, does not exclude the fact that it draws on desires, experiences, and users' problems of good direction. Confirms that economy as a field of human activity is organised as a combine of individual economic subjects/optional organisational formed by these subjects regarding preparation of means and supply of objects. Draws on the use of figures using matrixes to explain various functions in major and partial functions and discusses related terms in depth, with regard to marketing. Chronicles that results were more complicated than could be expected from the topic, but that it remains to be clarified where the specialization marketing has a functional‐systematic place.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2014

Girma Berhanu

This chapter provides a comprehensive presentation and discussion of special education in Sweden. The presentation and discussion are tied deeply to the country’s general…

Abstract

This chapter provides a comprehensive presentation and discussion of special education in Sweden. The presentation and discussion are tied deeply to the country’s general education system which incorporates social and political aspects as well as beliefs in equity for all.

The municipalities in Sweden have a large degree of independence as such special education can be organized in different ways. Yet, within each municipality’s educational structure is the common theme that students are different therefore teaching cannot be the same for everyone. The following chapter sections provide the reader with a better understanding of Sweden’s general special education system today: legislative acts that ensure equal access to education; the special education context; the history of special education and service in Sweden; the expansion of special education starting in the 1960s and early 1970s; current prevalence data; a clarification of differentiation, inclusion and categorization; teacher preparation advances; problems in schools and student’s difficulties; a description of inclusive education; and current challenges to inclusive education.

Details

Special Education International Perspectives: Practices Across the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-096-4

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1953

DRS. C. VAN DIJK

In order to gain a thorough understanding of the aims of special library training in the Netherlands as designed after the second world war, it is first of all necessary…

Abstract

In order to gain a thorough understanding of the aims of special library training in the Netherlands as designed after the second world war, it is first of all necessary to obtain some idea of the special library situation in that country.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1972

ROBERT GUSTAFSON

THE DC‐10 era is effecting subtle changes in the maintenance procedures. The basic objectives of maintaining safe equipment at a reasonable cost have not changed. The…

Abstract

THE DC‐10 era is effecting subtle changes in the maintenance procedures. The basic objectives of maintaining safe equipment at a reasonable cost have not changed. The means of achieving the objectives are changing. Digital equipment, which has so much to offer in terms of reliability, capability, and cost, will require a new degree of sophistication on the part of maintenance people and equipment. Digital circuits operate on the basis of information transfer at a high cyclic rate. The control of this data transfer is the function of special purpose digital computers. Although the computer has cither serial or parallel arithmetic organisation, the output information is in a serial digital format at a reasonably high output rate. These system characteristics have resulted in maintenance people requiring a new type of electronics knowledge — the ability to work with digital logic diagrams, computer organisation and computer programs. The performance data cannot be readily evaluated by voltage measurements or analog traces on an XY recorder as has been accomplished in the past. At the same time that the equipment is becoming more difficult to understand and test, manual testing is becoming more lengthy and, in some respects, tedious because of the digital mechanisation of the functions. Airlines will not be able to afford to use their skilled maintenance technicians for routine tasks. They will be better utilised for troubleshooting problems. As a result, the relatively unsophisticated test benches of the past are becoming obsolete and are being replaced by either sophisticated manual test equipment or sophisticated automatic test equipment.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Vladimir Kobelev

The purpose of this paper is to propose the new dependences of cycles to failure for a given initial crack length upon the stress amplitude in the linear fracture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the new dependences of cycles to failure for a given initial crack length upon the stress amplitude in the linear fracture approach. The anticipated unified propagation function describes the infinitesimal crack-length growths per increasing number of load cycles, supposing that the load ratio remains constant over the load history. Two unification functions with different number of fitting parameters are proposed. On one hand, the closed-form analytical solutions facilitate the universal fitting of the constants of the fatigue law over all stages of fatigue. On the other hand, the closed-form solution eases the application of the fatigue law, because the solution of nonlinear differential equation turns out to be dispensable. The main advantage of the proposed functions is the possibility of having closed-form analytical solutions for the unified crack growth law. Moreover, the mean stress dependence is the immediate consequence of the proposed law. The corresponding formulas for crack length over the number of cycles are derived.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the method of representation of crack propagation functions through appropriate elementary functions is employed. The choice of the elementary functions is motivated by the phenomenological data and covers a broad region of possible parameters. With the introduced crack propagation functions, differential equations describing the crack propagation are solved rigorously.

Findings

The resulting closed-form solutions allow the evaluation of crack propagation histories on one hand, and the effects of stress ratio on crack propagation on the other hand. The explicit formulas for crack length over the number of cycles are derived.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, linear fracture mechanics approach is assumed.

Practical implications

Shortening of evaluation time for fatigue crack growth. Simplification of the computer codes due to the elimination of solution of differential equation. Standardization of experiments for crack growth.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the closed-form analytical expression for crack length over number of cycles. The new function that expresses the damage growth per cycle is also introduced. This function allows closed-form analytical solution for crack length. The solution expresses the number of cycles to failure as the function of the initial size of the crack and eliminates the solution of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation of the first order. The different common expressions, which account for the influence of the stress ratio, are immediately applicable.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2008

Helinä Melkas and Vesa Harmaakorpi

The purpose of this article is to investigate data, information and knowledge in regional innovation networks. Emphasis has been put recently on regional innovation…

3224

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to investigate data, information and knowledge in regional innovation networks. Emphasis has been put recently on regional innovation systems, where various actors are involved in innovative processes. The article responds to the need to study matters related to knowledge management and information quality in such environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Regional innovation networks and data, information and knowledge as well as research on them are discussed at a theoretical level. An existing innovation network of the Lahti region, Finland, was utilised as a pilot environment when building the knowledge management framework that is introduced. The framework is based on established knowledge management literature and practice.

Findings

The results confirm that the aspects of data, information and knowledge need to be addressed systematically in regional innovation networks. They are intertwined with knowledge management and network management. The knowledge management framework introduced incorporates, apart from information quality considerations, future‐oriented self‐transcending knowledge as well as knowledge vision and knowledge assets. Considerations of absorptive capacity and information brokerage in the regional knowledge environment are emphasised.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the framework will be assessed in future studies. This will also improve understanding of practical implications. Research implications are related to data, information and knowledge quality – as well as absorptive capacity between the two subsystems of the regional innovation system.

Originality/value

The article combines in a novel way research fields that have previously barely been combined – information quality, knowledge management and regional innovation networks. It provides new insights into a societally important theme and shows possible avenues of further research.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Anne‐Mette Hjalager

The focus of this paper is on virtual working and the ultramobile – contingent – workforce in a Nordic welfare economy. The institutional frameworks for virtual working…

1252

Abstract

The focus of this paper is on virtual working and the ultramobile – contingent – workforce in a Nordic welfare economy. The institutional frameworks for virtual working are investigated and analysed. Danish legal frameworks and collective bargaining arrangements are shown to provide substantial opportunities for flexibility, which benefits small and medium‐sized enterprises in particular. Since the early 1990s, temp and recruiting agency activity has somewhat widened in scope and scale, in accordance with a general deregulation of this labour market service. Restrictions that still exist in many European countries have been abolished in Denmark, but other forces counteract a rapid development of the agency sector. The Internet is opening up new opportunities for a flexibilisation of work by expanding geographical and organisational limits and lowering search and promotion costs. Finally, the paper also discusses the new “meta” organisations, the aim of which is the social protection of virtual workers in an increasingly competitive, globalised and individualised world.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Marion A. Kempeners and Hein W. van der Hart

Organizational structures of account management systems are one of the most interesting and controversial parts of account management systems, because of the variety of…

6473

Abstract

Organizational structures of account management systems are one of the most interesting and controversial parts of account management systems, because of the variety of organizational options that are available. The main focus is on the organization of account management systems and particularly on the decisions that have to be made in the design of the system. Fifteen so‐called decision topics, each representing a major decision in the process of designing an account management system, are selected. The decisions are mainly based on the matching of the working paper “Organizing the account force” of Shapiro and Moriarty with case study field research. In a table, a cross‐reference has been made of the cases and the 15 decision topics selected. Furthermore, a model is presented that can be used as a guide for companies that are planning to implement an account management system or want to improve their account management system further.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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