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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Eva Schwab

This chapter examines the notion of spatial justice and its applicability in the context of informality. In the first part it examines the concept of informal urbanism in…

Abstract

This chapter examines the notion of spatial justice and its applicability in the context of informality. In the first part it examines the concept of informal urbanism in the context of informal settlements and experiences with upgrading programmes. Drawing on critical evaluations of some of the most well-known upgrading programmes, the chapter in the second part then theorises the notion of spatial justice. I argue for a multidimensional, fragmentary, context- and culture-specific concept, which encompasses equity, empowerment and recognition. As an operationalisation of the notion of spatial justice developed in this chapter and a conclusion to it, a framework is proposed to underpin the assessment of spatial justice in public space based upgrading programmes in informal settlements. It contains aspects regarding the quality of the material space, the integrity of its production process, issues of management and regulation as well as the use of space.

Details

Spatial Justice and Informal Settlements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-767-6

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2020

Ahmadali Asefi and Amir Ghanbarpour Nosrati

Sports facilities can play a vital role in encouraging physical activity and sport. Also, just the distribution of sports facilities is very important for better access to…

Abstract

Purpose

Sports facilities can play a vital role in encouraging physical activity and sport. Also, just the distribution of sports facilities is very important for better access to these facilities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate spatial justice in the distribution of built outdoor sports facilities in the city of Isfahan, Iran and provide insight for planning in terms of equitable accessibility.

Design/methodology/approach

All facilities located in the 15 areas of the city, whether private or public, built for the purpose of physical activity and sports programs were considered in this study (107 cases). To obtain information on the locations of the outdoor sports facilities, Isfahan Atlas data, which has been compiled by Isfahan Municipality was used. Arc geographic information systems environment and its different algorithms were also used to perform different calculations and prepare maps.

Findings

The results indicated the unfair distribution of built outdoor sports facilities in the city of Isfahan in terms of spatial justice based on the number of built outdoor sports facilities in each area, the population, land area, population density and the spatial pattern of the facilities.

Practical implications

In this regard, urban authorities and sport managers should make an effort to decrease or obviate inequity in access to outdoor sports facilities for the purpose of promoting participation in physical activity and sport and providing residents with numerous other benefits.

Originality/value

This paper has concluded that spatial justice in the distribution of built outdoor sports facilities for the improvement of access to these facilities is very important.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Eva Schwab

This chapter presents the topic of the ‘new generation’ of upgrading initiatives in informal settlements in Latin America and the rationale for this book, its objectives…

Abstract

This chapter presents the topic of the ‘new generation’ of upgrading initiatives in informal settlements in Latin America and the rationale for this book, its objectives and research questions, focusing on the issues of spatial justice and public open spaces in informal settlements. It also provides a short insight into the research setting, i.e. the social, economic and physical characteristics of the case study location, Comuna 13 in Medellín, including short descriptions about the three spaces that were investigated in detail. It also provides a brief overview of the research methodology applied.

Details

Spatial Justice and Informal Settlements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-767-6

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2020

Ahmed Osman El-Kholei

Social, spatial and environmental justice are inseparable, and key for sustainable urban development. The city is the cradle of innovation and production. Also, the city…

Abstract

Purpose

Social, spatial and environmental justice are inseparable, and key for sustainable urban development. The city is the cradle of innovation and production. Also, the city is the site of riots, where protesters demand their right to access services and resources. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: Why do plans to resolve urban ills in developing countries fail to deliver and achieve social justice?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates weaknesses, limitations and outcomes of planning processes in a developing country. The author used two qualitative research tools: document analysis augmented with informal interviews. The author uses Egypt as a case study in an attempt to answer this question. The author reviewed two types of documents: official reports that the Egyptian authorities produced and donor agencies prepared plus both published and unpublished research. Interviewees are those who participated in elaborating and executing urban plans and policies.

Findings

Achieving social, spatial and environmental justice is amongst the reasons for planning metropolitan areas and their regions. Unfortunately, rarely plans accomplish social, spatial or environmental justice. Institutional setup is the reason for failed urban planning – institutional failures lead to both policy and market failures, thus complicating urban problems.

Originality/value

Approved plans must have the power of legislation, and planners need to reclaim their authority and autonomy, which requires regulating the profession. Planning education must be at the graduate level and available to other disciplines, such as economics, public administration, law and the like. Planners must acquire the following competencies: technical competencies for analytical actions; hermeneutic competencies for communicative actions; and critical competencies to observe professional ethics. They must emancipate themselves from their bias to enlighten and empower their constituents.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2012

Rita Padawangi

Purpose – Many cities are located in coastal areas and many of them are identified as prone to climate change impacts, especially sea level rise and floods. Master plans…

Abstract

Purpose – Many cities are located in coastal areas and many of them are identified as prone to climate change impacts, especially sea level rise and floods. Master plans of cities can feature responses to these challenges, as in the case of Jakarta's master plan 2010–2030. However, as this chapter will argue, the top-down nature of planning would likely produce, reproduce, or reaffirm unjust urban geographies in the name of climate change adaptation. North Jakarta and its coastal area, which were prone to climate change risks, has been home for more than 40,000 poor households, most of which live in houses less than 50m2 in informal settlements with lack of basic needs infrastructures. This chapter addresses the question, “How are poor communities in the north coast of Jakarta affected by extreme weather events, and how are their everyday experiences addressed in master plan Jakarta 2010–2030?”

Methodology/approach – Analysis is based on community profiles, census information, and a workshop with representatives of these communities. This chapter will also analyze relevant parts of Jakarta's 2010–2030 master plan. The discussion covers the following: (1) the making of place-based communities of the urban poor in the north coast of Jakarta compared to the master plan, and (2) the impact of climate change on the urban poor's livelihoods in the north coast.

Findings – The current master plan 2010–2030 features plans to mitigate climate change and environmental risks for the coastal area, especially sea level rise, land subsidence, and pollution. The study reveals that North Jakarta communities were unaware of what the city planners have drafted, but most of them realized climate challenges based on their everyday experience. They aspired to be involved in the planning process, but their informal status hampered their opportunity to be heard.

Originality/value of chapter – Rather than looking at how Jakarta as a city is affected by climate change, this chapter focuses on specific communities in North Jakarta that are prone to climate change-induced risks. Climate change impacts are spatially unequal, and even in the same region that theoretically bears the same risks, the impact distribution of climate change can be unequal for different social groups. The chapter also questions the ability of urban planning to respond to these challenges when planning practice itself has not yet taken into account citizens’ social awareness and participation meaningfully.

Details

Urban Areas and Global Climate Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-037-6

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Eva Schwab

Abstract

Details

Spatial Justice and Informal Settlements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-767-6

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Moslem Zarghamfard, Abolfazl Meshkini, Ahmad Pourahmad and Beniamino Murgante

Housing policy is a key tool in urban development and has multiple functions that directly affect human welfare. This study aims to review housing policies in Iran from a…

Abstract

Purpose

Housing policy is a key tool in urban development and has multiple functions that directly affect human welfare. This study aims to review housing policies in Iran from a critical perspective. In fact, the study and pathology of housing policies are considered in this research.

Design/methodology/approach

To advance this research, a quantitative (fuzzy TOPSIS and fuzzy AHP) method was used to rank the policies and the qualitative method (interview and literature review) was used for the pathology of housing policies.

Findings

The failure of policies to provide housing in Iran is decisive, but social housing policy has a relative superiority to other policies. Causes of failure of Iranian housing policies are as follows in a pathological perspective: commodification and speculative approach to housing; lake of social and physical sustainability; social stratification and classification; inconsistency with environmental conditions; non-indigenous nature of housing policies; exclusion of local institutions in the decision-making process; and the dominance of a populist perspective on housing.

Originality/value

This study is a comprehensive study because it has been extracted from the dissertation. By reading this study, the reader will be aware of the general conditions of the Iranian housing sector.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2019

Caitlin Blaser Mapitsa

This paper aims to explore the role of migrants in the process of place making, through case studies of migrant engagement with municipal planning in five South African…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the role of migrants in the process of place making, through case studies of migrant engagement with municipal planning in five South African municipalities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on empirical research carried out over two years, using mixed methods research in each municipal case study. Data come from key stakeholder interviews, participant observation, focus groups and demographic data to understand the perceptions and practices of local government officials and migrants within the community.

Findings

This research demonstrated that local government officials are assuming a population that is sedentary and geographically bounded, while migration is actively shaping communities. This mobility provides an opportunity for management practices to become more inclusive and effective.

Originality/value

By examining systems of local governance through the lens of a mobile population, new possibilities emerge about the ways migrant participation can contribute to the definitions of a place.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Nicholas John Clarke, Marieke Cornelie Kuipers and Job Roos

The purpose of this paper is to explore the conceptualisation of the Smart Sustainable City (SSC) with new concepts of resilience thinking in relation to urgent societal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the conceptualisation of the Smart Sustainable City (SSC) with new concepts of resilience thinking in relation to urgent societal challenges facing the built environment. The paper aims to identify novel methodologies for smart reuse of heritage sites with a pluralist past as integral to inclusive urban development.

Design/methodology/approach

SSC concepts in the global literature are studied to define a new reference framework for integrated urban planning strategies in which cultural resilience and co-creation matter. This framework, augmented by UNESCO’s holistic recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL), was tested in two investigative projects: the historic centre of South Africa’s capital Tshwane and the proximate former Westfort leprosy colony.

Findings

The research confirms that SSC concepts need enlargement to become more inclusive in acknowledging “cultural diversity” of communities and engaging “chrono-diversity” of extant fabric. A paradigm shift in the discourse on integrated urban (re)development and adaptive reuse of built heritage is identified, influenced by resilience and sustainability thinking. Both projects show that different architectural intervention strategies are required to modulate built fabric and its emergent qualities and to unlock embedded cultural energy.

Originality/value

Together with a critical review of SSC concepts and the HUL in relation to urban (re)development, this paper provides innovative methodologies on creative adaptation of urban heritage, reconciling “hard” and “soft” issues, tested in the highly resilient systems of Tshwane.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2017

Maimunah Ismail and Nordahlia Umar Baki

This paper aims to examine the influence of two organizational factors, namely, organizational justice and organizational culture, on organizational identification as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the influence of two organizational factors, namely, organizational justice and organizational culture, on organizational identification as perceived by employees following merger and acquisition (M&A) in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study, which adopts the Social Identity Theory as its theoretical foundation, was conducted among employees from selected Malaysian organizations that had undergone M&A from 2009 to 2016. Data were obtained from 302 respondents and analysed using Structural Equation Modelling procedures.

Findings

The results reveal that interactional justice and four dimensions of organizational culture contribute significantly to organizational identification, with a determination power of 61 per cent.

Practical implications

The study offers practical insights to human resource managers in strengthening organizational identification as perceived by employees after an M&A by considering the crucial role of interactional justice and organizational culture.

Originality/value

There have been few investigations that link employees’ perceptions of organizational justice and culture with post-merger organizational identity. This study theorizes on human issues in M&A and enriches the Western literature on organizational identification by providing insights from an Asian (Malaysian) perspective.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited in terms of respondents who were employed in M&A organizations in the Klang Valley areas in Malaysia. The scope is also limited to an examination of two groups of organizational factors, namely, justice and culture, that lead to organizational identification. Implications to managing human resources from the perspective of organizational development are discussed.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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