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Casey J. Dawkins

Purpose – Evidence suggests that during the 1990s, many US metropolitan areas saw fundamental changes in the spatial distribution of household income. Following two…

Abstract

Purpose – Evidence suggests that during the 1990s, many US metropolitan areas saw fundamental changes in the spatial distribution of household income. Following two decades of increasing economic segregation, many metropolitan neighborhoods saw declines in economic segregation, particularly those neighborhoods located within central cities and rural areas. This paper adapts the Spatial Ordering Index proposed by Dawkins (2007b) to explore these trends.

Methodology/Approach – Using US Census data, I calculate economic segregation indices for a sample of 205 US metropolitan areas in 1990 and 2000 and decompose changes in the indices into portions attributable to changes in the spatial distribution of households and portions capturing changes in the spatial distribution of aggregate income. I also examine regional variations in the decompositions.

Findings – The results suggest that changes in the spatial distribution of households and of income each influenced metropolitan economic segregation in different ways during the 1990s. Furthermore, the spatial dynamics of income segregation exhibited significant regional heterogeneity.

Originality/Value of paper – This paper presents a new approach to measuring the dynamics of economic segregation.

Details

Occupational and Residential Segregation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-786-4

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Robin Dubin

From a theoretical point of view, a spatial econometric model can contain both a spatially lagged dependent variable (spatial lag) and a spatially autocorrelated error…

Abstract

From a theoretical point of view, a spatial econometric model can contain both a spatially lagged dependent variable (spatial lag) and a spatially autocorrelated error term (spatial error). However, such models are rarely used in practice. This is because (assuming a lattice model approach is used for both the spatial lag and spatial error) the model is difficult to estimate1 unless the weight matrices are different for the spatial lag and the spatial error.

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Spatial and Spatiotemporal Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-148-4

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Book part

Siti Rusdiana, Zurnila Marli Kesuma, Latifah Rahayu and Edy Fradinata

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of spatial modeling in adolescent and under-five children’s nutritional status.Design/Methodology/Approach

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of spatial modeling in adolescent and under-five children’s nutritional status.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The indicator used to identify spatial autocorrelation is the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA). LISA is a method of exploratory analysis of spatial data capable of detecting spatial relationships at the local level and its effects globally. Aplication of stochastic modeling in spatial nutrition identification mapping can be categorized into two cases based on spatial autocorrelation and non-spatial autocorrelation.

Findings – This results of this study indicate that there is no spatial autocorrelation in the adolescent nutritional dataset. The thematic map for anemia showed that that the highest number of anemia in adolescents was in KutaAlam sub-districts (48 people). Sub-districts that were second most common were Meuraxa, Jaya Baru, and Baiturrahman sub-districts. The fewest cases were found in Lueng Bata sub-district (12 people). There were no sub-districts affected by neighboring areas, in the case of adolescents’ anemia in Banda Aceh. For the under-five nutritional data set, it shows that there are four factors that significantly affect spatial influence, which are malnutrition, chronic energy deficiency, woman of child-bearing age, proportion of family planning, percentage of households with PHBS and coverage of access to clean water.

Research Limitations/Implications – Anemia data were obtained with a school-based survey. Household survey would be better to implement in spatial analysis.

Practical Implications – The comparison of the dataset with the two methods provides a simple example to implement special autocorrelation in practice.

Social Implications – The results contribute to a much better comparison in many cases in the nutritional field.

Originality/Value – This is the initial nutritional status of adolescents in Banda Aceh.

Details

Proceedings of MICoMS 2017
Type: Book
ISBN:

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Article

Yu Xiaohui, Yang Ruhui and Liu Bo

Urban spatial form influences the social, economic, and ecological development modes of the city. The spatial form during the urbanization of Hanjiang River Basin in…

Abstract

Urban spatial form influences the social, economic, and ecological development modes of the city. The spatial form during the urbanization of Hanjiang River Basin in Southern Shaanxi needs to be studied. In this study, research methodologies on urban spatial form in China and abroad were summarized. The concept of ecology background was applied, and the research framework for urban spatial form, which integrated the background, framework, core, axis, cluster, and skin, was established. Valley cities in the Hanjiang River Basin in Southern Shaanxi were classified into wide valley, narrow valley, and canyon cities. The spatial form characteristics of these three types of valley cities were discussed. A case study based on a typical city-Yang County-was conducted to discuss the characteristics of the aforementioned six elements of urban spatial form. Finally, spatial form characteristics were summarized. These characteristics provide a basis for the study of the small valley urban spatial form in the Hanjiang River Basin in Southern Shaanxi.

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Open House International, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Nur Adibah Binti Abdul Nasir, Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Fatemeh Khozaei and Muhammad Hafeez Bin Abdul Nasir

Since the appearance of COVID-19 social distancing and staying home have been recommended repeatedly by the governments for disease prevention. As the challenge continues…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the appearance of COVID-19 social distancing and staying home have been recommended repeatedly by the governments for disease prevention. As the challenge continues to remain the current study seeks to examine the factors affecting social distancing through space planning and management. More specifically the current study aims to examine the appropriateness of the spatial organization and space configuration of a clubhouse with a linear plan layout in the mitigation of the spread of infections due to serious pandemic COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

For an enhanced understanding of the impact of spatial arrangements of public spaces plan on the effective implementation of social distancing this study has used the space syntax analysis method. The MPSP clubhouse building in Penang, Malaysia was selected as the case study. The level of permeability and wayfinding were determined in the building plan and were illustrated using photoshop software to depict the interrelation between the indoor spaces and building circulation. Graphs of the depth of space were used to analyze the level of permeability and wayfinding to illustrate the possibility of social distancing in the plan.

Findings

The result of the study shows the significant role of proper plan layout design on social distancing. While clear and direct wayfinding can positively be associated with more effective social distancing, the inefficient design of user access, inappropriate locations of multiple entry and exit and indefinite directions of users' inside buildings can impose slight limitations. The average level of permeability might suggest ineffective spatial arrangement, ignoring the needs of spatial segregation. The study further found that the linear plan layouts with proper zoning and effective management strategies can be considered a proper layout to facilitate social distancing and the spread of COVID-19.

Originality/value

The current study is unique in terms of examination of the spatial configuration of linear public spaces plan layout for possible temporary adaptability to curb disease spread during the unexpected advent of a pandemic. Based on researchers' best of knowledge it is the first time that the impact of recreational space design on social distancing has been examined. The study also originally sheds light on the fact that the commonly used guideline for the social distancing of 1–2 m between 2 persons, in reality, is practically inadequate given the nature of the sports activities.

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International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article

Ti-Ching Peng

Population ageing is fast becoming a major social concern across the globe. This ageing trend unavoidably fuels elders’ demand for healthcare services. As the main users…

Abstract

Purpose

Population ageing is fast becoming a major social concern across the globe. This ageing trend unavoidably fuels elders’ demand for healthcare services. As the main users of health care service, whether the healthcare is geographically approachable in local areas is more imperative to senior residents with restricted mobility. This paper proposes to examine the effect of elders’ healthcare accessibility on property prices of Taipei Metropolis, Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

Luo and Qi’s (2009) enhanced two-step floating catchment area method – taking both healthcare demand and supply into account – was used to measure three types of healthcare services: “physician-to-elder ratio”, “hospital bed-to-elder ratio” and “ambulance-to-elder ratio”. Spatial quantile regression (SQR) model was then used to examine the spatial effect of healthcare accessibility on different property price ranges.

Findings

The “physician-to-elder ratio” and “hospital bed-to-elder ratio” demonstrated expected consistent positive effects across all quantiles of property prices (p < 0.01) in SQR, and its effects aggravated as the quantiles of property prices rose. The “ambulance-to-elder ratio” demonstrated a non-linear influence on property prices (i.e. a negative effect on lowest quantile prices but a positive on higher quantile prices) possibly due to the semi-obnoxious characteristic of the ambulance. That is, residents living in lower priced neighbourhoods may dislike ambulances’ annoying sound of sirens (i.e. ambulances’ disamenity), while residents living in higher valued neighbourhoods may on the contrary appreciate ambulances’ healthcare services (i.e. amenity).

Practical implications

These findings are expected to offer some insights for government’s policies in providing elders in their later years with good residential quality and easy access to healthcare resource.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few studies that consider the capitalization of the spatial healthcare accessibility to elders into property prices. In this ageing trend across the globe, although all the accessibility to medical resources should be equally critical, the application of spatial quantile regression revealed residents’ inconsistent tendency against semi-obnoxious ambulances. It provides a different perspective in defining the importance of healthcare accessibility in neighbourhoods.

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International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article

Yaoyi Zhou, Chiara Tagliaro and Ying Hua

In large organizations, space planning relies on workgroup leaders to indicate spatial adjacency preferences. However, many factors affect workgroups’ adjacency…

Abstract

Purpose

In large organizations, space planning relies on workgroup leaders to indicate spatial adjacency preferences. However, many factors affect workgroups’ adjacency preferences, and it is not clear how the choices are made. This paper aims to explore whether the adjacency preferences are influenced by the collaboration relationship or constrained by the organizational structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors studied a large company’s spatial adjacency planning with an in-depth analysis of its formal organizational structure and collaboration network. A sample of 183 managers was surveyed regarding groups with whom they want to be spatially adjacent and groups with whom they mostly interact. The data enabled us to test three structural factors related to adjacency preference: department affiliation, workgroup’s prestige and collaboration relation. The authors used the quadratic assignment procedure analysis to examine the correlations between network matrices.

Findings

The results suggest that department affiliation and collaboration relations are significantly correlated to adjacency preferences. The authors did not find evidence supporting the notion that a workgroup’s prestige affects the preference. Among the three factors, collaboration relation best predicts the preference, which echoes Pena et al.’s (1977) argument that space planners should look into how groups function, rather than merely following the organizational chart.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research was the first to explore the choice of spatially adjacent workgroup through a detailed network analysis of the formal structure, work collaboration relations and other group-level characteristics. The findings have noteworthy cross-disciplinary implications, given that spatial proximity can be taken as a human resource management strategy to facilitate the overall interactions between workgroups.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate , vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article

Kamal Sai Sadharma Erra and Debashis Acharya

This paper aims to test for spatial convergence in financial inclusion across major Indian states and union territories.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test for spatial convergence in financial inclusion across major Indian states and union territories.

Design/methodology/approach

After initially building an Index of Financial Inclusion (IFI) for major Indian states between 2003 and 2016, exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) is employed to draw inferences about mean and variance of IFI. The paper then seeks to confirm the ESDA results through spatial panel regression techniques. Finally, spatial results are correlated with results from aspatial convergence measures.

Findings

The study finds that there is no evidence of spatial convergence in financial inclusion over the study period, suggesting that those states that were relatively less financially included remained so through the study period. The study also asserts the relevance of certain important determinants, namely, per capita income, infrastructure, industrialization and gender.

Research limitations/implications

This study has two limitations. First, only banking institutions are considered in measuring financial inclusion. Second, due to lack of a consistent indicator of gender participation across states, we had to employ sex ratio as a proxy.

Practical implications

The study suggests that policies to expand financial inclusion in Indian states, especially those with low inclusion levels are likely to benefit neighbouring states also, thereby accelerating the financial inclusion drive across states.

Originality/value

The study is a first in the Indian context to estimate the spatial dependence of financial inclusion and provides relevant implications for policymakers and bankers to target financial inclusion schemes in backward states.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Jurgita Lazauskaite-Zabielske, Arunas Ziedelis and Ieva Urbanaviciute

Using the theoretical framework of job demands-resources and boundary management, the purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating role of work and life boundary…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the theoretical framework of job demands-resources and boundary management, the purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating role of work and life boundary characteristics in the relationship between time-spatial job crafting, work engagement and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 176 employees working in the IT sector and having an opportunity to use flexible work arrangements were surveyed online.

Findings

Work and life boundary characteristics were found to moderate the relationship between time-spatial job crafting and work engagement as well as between time-spatial job crafting and job performance. Moreover, boundary characteristics moderated the indirect relationship between time-spatial job crafting and job performance through work engagement.

Practical implications

Time-spatial job crafting becomes a key strategy for maintaining work engagement and job performance, when work–life boundaries are less flexible and less permeable.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates that boundary characteristics determine the effects of time-spatial job crafting on work engagement and job performance.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Leslie W. Hepple

Within spatial econometrics a whole family of different spatial specifications has been developed, with associated estimators and tests. This lead to issues of model…

Abstract

Within spatial econometrics a whole family of different spatial specifications has been developed, with associated estimators and tests. This lead to issues of model comparison and model choice, measuring the relative merits of alternative specifications and then using appropriate criteria to choose the “best” model or relative model probabilities. Bayesian theory provides a comprehensive and coherent framework for such model choice, including both nested and non-nested models within the choice set. The paper reviews the potential application of this Bayesian theory to spatial econometric models, examining the conditions and assumptions under which application is possible. Problems of prior distributions are outlined, and Bayes factors and marginal likelihoods are derived for a particular subset of spatial econometric specifications. These are then applied to two well-known spatial data-sets to illustrate the methods. Future possibilities, and comparisons with other approaches to both Bayesian and non-Bayesian model choice are discussed.

Details

Spatial and Spatiotemporal Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-148-4

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