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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

Seongwon Choi and Thomas Powers

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the core tenets of social marketing communications in managing acute infectious disease outbreaks based on a historical review of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the core tenets of social marketing communications in managing acute infectious disease outbreaks based on a historical review of two major pandemics in South Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

Two researchers reviewed newspapers, journal papers, archived documents and other historical materials to examine social marketing communications used in both Spanish flu and COVID-19 pandemics by South Koreans.

Findings

Despite two events being a century apart and the social context of two eras being starkly different, behavioral recommendations for both pandemics were nearly identical. Two major lessons arose from the review. First, a full disclosure of the pandemic-related information is important. Second, proper management of conflicting information is highly desired as an integral part of pandemic social marketing communication campaigns.

Originality/value

Understanding the importance of social marketing in raising public awareness, this paper provides a historical comparison between the 1918–1919 Spanish flu and COVID-19, focusing on the social communications used during these two pandemics. The paper contributes to the health marketing literature as well as to practice by drawing implications relevant to social marketing communication used in disease pandemics.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

John Overby, Mike Rayburn, David C. Wyld and Kevin Hammond

Epidemiologists are concerned the next deadly global cognition will be a new kind of deadly flu which humans have no resistance. Since the 1960s, their alarm has been…

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Abstract

Epidemiologists are concerned the next deadly global cognition will be a new kind of deadly flu which humans have no resistance. Since the 1960s, their alarm has been focused on a bird (avian) virus (H5N1). This virus is generally harmless in its host species, but it is extremely deadly when contracted by humans. H5N1 mutates quickly and tends to pick up genes from flu viruses that affect other species. The flu is far more contagious and harder to contain than the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) virus. It is projected that 30‐40 per cent of the population would be infected in a H5N1 flu pandemic, and as many as one‐third would die. The 1918 Spanish flu caused 20 to 50 million deaths world wide. One scientist observed that the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic could have caused civilisation to disappear within a few weeks. Currently, more than 50 million chickens have been slaughtered in eight Asian countries in efforts to curb the spread of avian influenza. This article examines the roots and dangers of the potential avian influenza pandemic, examining the business and social ramifications that could ensue if the worst case scenario occurs.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Muhiuddin Haider, Shamsun Nahar Ahamed and Teresa Leslie

The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness about the issues the world and, more so, Bangladesh faces in overcoming avian influenza. Also, the purpose is to examine…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness about the issues the world and, more so, Bangladesh faces in overcoming avian influenza. Also, the purpose is to examine whether the avian influenza situation and communication strategy adopted in the country follows risk communication principles.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review using recently published works, government documents, and organizational reports is employed.

Findings

If not controlled, avian influenza has the potential to become a global pandemic with extremely high morbidity and mortality rates. Bangladesh presently has policies and programs in place to attempt to control the virus but many challenges, such as the implementation of an effective risk communication strategy, remain.

Originality/value

This paper identifies a wide variety of sources that would be useful information for policy makers and program managers.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Gulcin Ozbay, Mehmet Sariisik, Veli Ceylan and Muzaffer Çakmak

The main purpose of this study is to make a comparative evaluation of the impacts of previous outbreaks and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the tourism industry…

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Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to make a comparative evaluation of the impacts of previous outbreaks and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the tourism industry. COVID-19 appears to have disrupted all memorizations about epidemics ever seen. Nobody has anticipated that the outbreak in late December will spread rapidly across the world, be fatal and turn the world economy upside down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome and others caused limited losses in a limited geography, thus similar behaviors were expected at first in COVID-19. But it was not so. Today, people continue to lose their lives and experience economic difficulties. One of the most important distressed industries is undoubtedly tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a literature review. In this review, a comparative evaluation between the impact of previous outbreaks and COVID-19 on the tourism industry has been made based on statistics and previous research studies.

Findings

The information and figures obtained show that COVID-19 and previous outbreaks have such significant differences that cannot be compared. COVID-19 has been one of the worst to live in terms of spreading speed, the geography where it spreads, loss of lives and negative effects in the whole area.

Originality/value

It is noteworthy that COVID-19 is very severe in terms of death cases and also its impacts on the economy compared to other pandemics. It remains to be argued that COVID-19 can also be a reference in terms of possible new outbreaks in the future, and is an effective actor in determining future strategies.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Naeem Abas, Esmat Kalair, Saad Dilshad and Nasrullah Khan

The authors present the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on community lifelines. The state machinery has several departments to secure essential…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors present the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on community lifelines. The state machinery has several departments to secure essential lifelines during disasters and epidemics. Many countries have formed national disaster management authorities to deal with manmade and natural disasters. Typical lifelines include food, water, safety and security, continuity of services, medicines and healthcare equipment, gas, oil and electricity supplies, telecommunication services, transportation means and education system. Supply chain systems are often affected by disasters, which should have alternative sources and routes. Doctors, nurses and medics are front-line soldiers against diseases during pandemics.

Design/methodology/approach

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed how much we all are connected yet unprepared for natural disasters. Political leaders prioritize infrastructures, education but overlook the health sector. During the recent pandemic, developed countries faced more mortalities, fatalities and casualties than developing countries. This work surveys the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health, energy, environment, industry, education and food supply lines.

Findings

The COVID-19 pandemic caused 7% reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during global lockdowns. In addition, COVID-19 has affected social fabric, behaviors, cultures and official routines. Around 2.84 bn doses have been administrated, with approximately 806 m people (10.3% of the world population) are fully vaccinated around the world to date. Most developed vaccines are being evaluated for new variants like alpha, beta, gamma, epsilons and delta first detected in the UK, South Africa, Brazil, USA and India. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all sectors in society, yet this paper critically reviews the impact of COVID-19 on health and energy lifelines.

Practical implications

This paper critically reviews the health and energy lifelines during pandemic COVID-19 and explains how these essential services were interrupted.

Originality/value

This paper critically reviews the health and energy lifelines during pandemic COVID-19 and explains how these essential services were interrupted.

Details

Continuity & Resilience Review, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7502

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Abstract

Details

Pandemics and Travel
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-071-9

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Kim Abildgren

The Spanish Flu 1918–1920 saw a high degree of excess mortality among young and healthy adults. The purpose of this paper is a further exploration of the hypothesis that…

Abstract

Purpose

The Spanish Flu 1918–1920 saw a high degree of excess mortality among young and healthy adults. The purpose of this paper is a further exploration of the hypothesis that high mortality risk during The Spanish Flu in Copenhagen was associated with early life exposure to The Russian Flu 1889–1892.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 37,000 individual-level death records in a new unique database from The Copenhagen City Archives combined with approximate cohort-specific population totals interpolated from official censuses of population, the author compiles monthly time series on all-cause mortality rates 1916–1922 in Copenhagen by gender and one-year birth cohorts. The author then analyses birth cohort effects on mortality risk during The Spanish Flu using regression analysis.

Findings

The author finds support for hypotheses relating early life exposure to The Russian Flu to mortality risk during The Spanish Flu. Some indications of possible gender heterogeneity during the first wave of The Spanish Flu – not found in previous studies – should be a topic for future research based on data from other countries.

Originality/value

Due to lack of individual-level death records with exact dates of birth and death, previous studies on The Spanish Flu in Denmark and many other countries have relied on data with lower birth cohort resolutions than the one-year birth cohorts used in this study. The analysis in this paper illustrates how archival Big Data can be used to gain new insights in studies on historical pandemics.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

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Abstract

Details

The Emergence of Modern Hospital Management and Organisation in the World 1880s–1930s
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-989-2

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Timothy Feddersen, Jochen Gottschalk and Lars Peters

The spread of bird flu outside of Asia, particularly in Africa and Europe, topped headlines in 2006. The migration of wild birds brought the virus to Europe, where for the…

Abstract

The spread of bird flu outside of Asia, particularly in Africa and Europe, topped headlines in 2006. The migration of wild birds brought the virus to Europe, where for the first time it spread to productive livestock, bringing it closer to the Western world. Due to today's globalized and highly interconnected world, the consequences of a potential bird flu pandemic are expected to be much more severe than those of the Spanish flu, which killed 50-100 million people between 1918 and 1921. A vaccine for the bird virus is currently not available. As of July 2006, 232 cases of human infection had been documented, mostly through direct contact with poultry. Of those, 134 people died. The best medication available to treat bird flu was Roche's antiviral drug Tamiflu. However, Tamiflu was not widely available; current orders of government bodies would not be fulfilled until the end of 2008. Well aware that today's avian flu might become a global pandemic comparable to the Spanish flu, Roche CEO Franz Humer had to decide how Roche should respond. While the pharmaceutical industry continued its research efforts on vaccines and medications, Tamiflu could play an important role by protecting healthcare workers and helping to contain the virus---or at least slow down its spread. Due to patent protection and a complicated production process with scarce raw ingredients, Roche had been the only producer of the drug. Partly in response to U.S. political pressure, in November 2005 Roche allowed Gilead to produce Tamiflu as well. Even so, it would take at least until late 2007 for Roche and Gilead to meet the orders of governments worldwide. The issue was a difficult one for Roche: What were the risks; what were the opportunities? If a pandemic occurred before sufficient stockpiles of Tamiflu had been built up, would Roche be held responsible? What steps, if any, should Roche take with respect to patent protection and production licensing in the shadow of a potential pandemic?

Students will weigh the benefits of short-term profit maximization against the risks that a highly uncertain event could pose to a business and consider nonstandard approaches to mitigate these risks. Students will discuss the challenges of addressing low-probability, high-impact events; potential conflicts with the short-term view of the stock market and analyst community; and challenges of the patent protection model for drugs for life-threatening diseases.

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2021

Claudia Lanza, Antonietta Folino, Erika Pasceri and Anna Perri

The aim of this study is a semantic comparative analysis between the current pandemic and the Spanish flu. It is based on a bilingual terminological perspective oriented…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is a semantic comparative analysis between the current pandemic and the Spanish flu. It is based on a bilingual terminological perspective oriented to evaluate and compare the terms used to describe and communicate the pandemic's issues both to biomedical experts and to a non-specialist public.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis carried out is a terminological comparative investigation performed on two corpora, the first containing scientific English articles, the second Italian national newspapers' issues on two pandemics, the Spanish flu and the current Covid-19 disease, towards the detection of semantic similarities and differences among them through the implementation of computational tasks and corpus linguistics methodologies.

Findings

Given the cross-fielding representativeness of terms, and their relevance within specific historical eras, our study is conducted both on a synchronic and on a diachronic level to discover the common lexical usages in the dissemination of the pandemic issues.

Originality/value

The study presents the extraction of the main representative terms about two pandemics and their usages to share news about their trends among the population and the integration of a topic modeling detection procedure to discover some of the main categories representing the lexicon of the pandemics with reference to a list of classes created by external thesauri and ontologies on pandemics. As a result, a detailed overview of the discrepancies, as well as similarities, retrieved in two historical corpora dealing with a common subject, i.e. the pandemics' terminology, is provided.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 78 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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