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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2021

Walter Timo de Vries and Urs Hugentobler

In light of the discussions on outer space property management, this conceptual review paper aims to discuss and evaluate if, when and under which conditions certain land…

Abstract

Purpose

In light of the discussions on outer space property management, this conceptual review paper aims to discuss and evaluate if, when and under which conditions certain land management and property right frameworks can apply to allocate and/or restrict property rights in outer space.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies a pragmatic review approach which seeks to better understand if and how the basic tenets of the land management frameworks could better shape and revise the challenges in outer space regulations.

Findings

Despite the fact that regulatory guidelines on outer space rights are existing, the analysis shows that these lack a number of practical tools and measures aiming at intervening if stakeholders do not follow the rules. With the use of land management frameworks, it is possible to derive policy options for making the outer space management more practical and action-oriented, in particular for the removal of space debris. These include amongst others more attention for formulating global public restrictions in outer space, incorporating regulatory guidelines for accessing open space regimes, addressing responsiveness and robustness in adherence and compliance to regulations

Research limitations/implications

Given the conceptual and discursive character of the paper, there are no specific empirical data, yet several recommendations for further research include expanding the boundary work between the land management and regulatory outer space domain.

Practical implications

The insights derived from land management and real estate related property theories could potentially provide new starting points for (re)formulating the regulatory framework for outer space property discourses.

Social implications

Interpreting the outer space regulations from known and practiced land management perspective helps to bridge the policy–society knowledge and necessity gap on outer space activities.

Originality/value

The specific land management perspective and discursive analysis on outer space debris provide new options for devising and extending regulatory guidelines for assigning responsibilities on outer space debris and debris rights, restrictions and responsibilities.

Details

Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9407

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Space debris.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB238840

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Chao Dong and Chongchong Zhao

Online encyclopedia has facilitated users to easily access interesting knowledge and find solutions for daily problems. However, for the staff in specific domains…

Abstract

Purpose

Online encyclopedia has facilitated users to easily access interesting knowledge and find solutions for daily problems. However, for the staff in specific domains, especially in secret-related domains, a domain-micropedia is still necessary for work.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors propose an approach to extract entities from DBpedia and construct the SDPedia in space debris mitigation domain. First, the authors select the root categories about space debris mitigation domain by manual methods. Subsequently, the authors propose Distance of Electrical Resistance, Pages Common Words and AVDP algorithms to implement the extraction. The authors also achieve the data visualization by generating swf files and embedding them into web pages.

Findings

In the experiments, the precision, recall and F1-measure are used to evaluate the proposed algorithms. The authors set a series of thresholds to pursue the highest F1-measure. The experimental data indicate that the AVDP algorithm gets the highest F1-measure and is statistically effective for the entities extraction from DBpedia.

Originality/value

The authors propose an approach of deriving linked data from DBpedia and construct their own SDPedia, which has been applied in the space debris mitigation domain currently. Compared with DBpedia, the authors also add the linked data visualization. Moreover, the methodology can be used in many other domains in the future.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Sara Dalledonne

The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse part of the relevant legal instruments currently available for regulating environmentally harmful space activities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse part of the relevant legal instruments currently available for regulating environmentally harmful space activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper opted for a functional research method combined with a comparative methodology. To make the argument, this paper relies on the contextual analysis of primary and secondary sources of law, instrument of soft law and the relevant background material (e.g. journal articles, textbooks, law reform and policy papers).

Findings

The central section will focus on the principles of international environmental law to outline their utility in the contemporary context. Finally, the conclusive part will point out the several ways in which the use of analogies can shape the outer space regime, especially concerning how those principles that are developed to safeguard the Earth, can also be extended for the protection of the space ecosystem.

Originality/value

Environmental hazards are rapidly increasing and the current international law and policy on planetary protection are inadequate to meet the challenges of the near future. There is no possibility of an environment-friendly and sustainable future if not strictly connecting it with a comprehensive and transparent acknowledgement of the human mistakes made on Earth. There are valuable lessons to be learned from our past, and it is under this perspective that the trend of polluting the outer space can be reverted. This paper fulfils an identified need to study the correlation between principles of international environmental law, space law and the current situation in the outer space.

Details

Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9407

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Karol Seweryn and Jurek Z. Sasiadek

This paper aims to present a novel method for identification and classification of rotational motion for uncontrolled satellites. These processes are shown in context of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a novel method for identification and classification of rotational motion for uncontrolled satellites. These processes are shown in context of close proximity orbital operations. In particular, it includes a manipulator arm mounted on chaser satellite and used to capture target satellites. In such situations, a precise extrapolation of the target’s docking port position is needed to determine the manipulator arm motion. The outcome of this analysis might be used in future debris removal or servicing space missions.

Design/methodology/approach

Nonlinear, and in some special cases, chaotic nature of satellite rotational motion was considered. Four parameters were defined: range of motion toward docking port, dominant frequencies, fractal dimension of the motion and its time dependencies.

Findings

The qualitative analysis was performed for presented cases of spacecraft rotational motion and for each case the respective parameters were calculated. The analysis shows that it is possible to detect the type of rotational motion.

Originality/value

A novel procedure allowing to estimate the type of satellite rotational motion based on fractal approach was proposed.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Lianyu Fu and Fan Yang

To provide a solution for PCB drilling with strict requirements on hole wall quality.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a solution for PCB drilling with strict requirements on hole wall quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The influential mechanism of key micro drill bit parameters on hole wall roughness is analyzed. A new type of micro drill bit is developed on the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental verifications.

Findings

The key factors in drill bit design which can enable superior hole wall quality are described. Experimental results show that very good hole wall quality is achieved by such newly developed drill bits. Meanwhile, the new drill bits show good performance in terms of wear‐resistance and hole registration accuracy. A solution for PCB drilling with strict requirements on hole wall quality is provided.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the influential mechanism of key parameters of micro drill bit design on the hole wall quality of PCBs. A new kind of micro drill bit which can achieve superior hole wall quality has been developed.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Lianyu Fu, Xueguang Li and Qiang Guo

The purpose of this paper is to present key points relating to the development of micro drill bits with high aspect ratios and to provide a solution for high aspect ratio…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present key points relating to the development of micro drill bits with high aspect ratios and to provide a solution for high aspect ratio hole drilling.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis of challenges in high aspect ratio hole drilling, key points for the development of micro drills bit with high aspect ratio are discussed. A design example of a micro drill bit with 0.3 mm diameter and a 7.2 mm flute length is presented. Experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the developed micro drill bit.

Findings

Helix angle, web thickness and flute land ratio are three key parameters that significantly influence the behaviour of micro drill bits with high aspect ratios. Large helix angle, web thickness and flute land ratio are beneficial in terms of improving the performance of high aspect ratio micro drill bits. Step drilling is essential to prevent drill breakage and to ensure smooth debris evacuation. Meanwhile, proper steps and drilling parameters are of great importance to complete high aspect ratio hole drilling.

Originality/value

The paper highlights key points relating to the development of micro drill bits with high aspect ratios that can provide a satisfactory solution for high aspect ratio micro drill bit design.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Zhiming Chen, Lei Li, Yunhua Wu, Bing Hua and Kang Niu

On-orbit service technology is one of the key technologies of space manipulation activities such as spacecraft life extension, fault spacecraft capture, on-orbit debris

Abstract

Purpose

On-orbit service technology is one of the key technologies of space manipulation activities such as spacecraft life extension, fault spacecraft capture, on-orbit debris removal and so on. It is known that the failure satellites, space debris and enemy spacecrafts in space are almost all non-cooperative targets. Relatively accurate pose estimation is critical to spatial operations, but also a recognized technical difficulty because of the undefined prior information of non-cooperative targets. With the rapid development of laser radar, the application of laser scanning equipment is increasing in the measurement of non-cooperative targets. It is necessary to research a new pose estimation method for non-cooperative targets based on 3D point cloud. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a method based on the inherent characteristics of a spacecraft is proposed for estimating the pose (position and attitude) of the spatial non-cooperative target. First, we need to preprocess the obtained point cloud to reduce noise and improve the quality of data. Second, according to the features of the satellite, a recognition system used for non-cooperative measurement is designed. The components which are common in the configuration of satellite are chosen as the recognized object. Finally, based on the identified object, the ICP algorithm is used to calculate the pose between two frames of point cloud in different times to finish pose estimation.

Findings

The new method enhances the matching speed and improves the accuracy of pose estimation compared with traditional methods by reducing the number of matching points. The recognition of components on non-cooperative spacecraft directly contributes to the space docking, on-orbit capture and relative navigation.

Research limitations/implications

Limited to the measurement distance of the laser radar, this paper considers the pose estimation for non-cooperative spacecraft in the close range.

Practical implications

The pose estimation method for non-cooperative spacecraft in this paper is mainly applied to close proximity space operations such as final rendezvous phase of spacecraft or ultra-close approaching phase of target capture. The system can recognize components needed to be capture and provide the relative pose of non-cooperative spacecraft. The method in this paper is more robust compared with the traditional single component recognition method and overall matching method when scanning of laser radar is not complete or the components are blocked.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a new pose estimation method for non-cooperative spacecraft based on point cloud. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively identify the features of non-cooperative targets and track their position and attitude. The method is robust to the noise and greatly improves the speed of pose estimation while guarantee the accuracy.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Deborah Mongeau and Pamela Stoddard

As the 1960s drew to a close, Congress found itself grappling with an increasing array of complex technological issues that it was ill equipped to analyze and that could…

Abstract

As the 1960s drew to a close, Congress found itself grappling with an increasing array of complex technological issues that it was ill equipped to analyze and that could be the cause of costly blunders if acted upon incorrectly. To alleviate this situation, the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was created in 1972 under Public Law 92–484 in order to advise Congress on issues in science and technology so that relevant information would be available when pertinent legislation was being developed. Under the leadership of its director John Gibbons, OTA has earned the distinction of providing Congress, that most political of bodies, with timely and objective information without becoming mired in political skirmishes. Despite this distinction, OTA is one of the smallest government agencies, with a budget of twenty million dollars and a staff of 140. Its organization is remarkable for its simplicity. A bipartisan congressional Technology Assessment Board governs the agency overall but appoints the director who has full responsibility for running it. The nine agency divisions are organized according to scientific disciplines and report to the director with little or no intervening bureaucracy. Outside expert advice is available from the Technology Assessment Advisory Council. The result is an organization that is equally balanced politically and scientifically, that is streamlined and efficient, and that allows input from its governing members. This structure also allows great flexibility in the research and production of assessment reports. To do an assessment, OTA deploys its experts to go out and gather the information needed on the wide‐ranging topics it has been commissioned to research. The topics are chosen according to the need and interest of both houses and both political parties. Outside experts are sometimes called upon to do research but OTA exercises the final responsibility over their reports. Factual conclusions and options are presented but opinions are never given. The manner in which the information is acted upon is always left to Congress, a major reason for OTA's success.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Peter Simon Sapaty

Abstract

Details

Complexity in International Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-716-5

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