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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Ting‐Jin Lim, Azhar‐Mat Easa, Abdul‐Alias Karim, Rajeev Bhat and Min‐Tze Liong

The aim of this study is to develop a soy‐based cream cheese (SCC) with textural characteristics comparable to that of commercial dairy cream cheese (DCC) via the addition…

1225

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to develop a soy‐based cream cheese (SCC) with textural characteristics comparable to that of commercial dairy cream cheese (DCC) via the addition of microbial transglutaminase (MTG), soy protein isolate (SPI) and maltodextrin (MD).

Design/methodology/approach

Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed in this study to determine the effects of MTG, MD and SPI on firmness of SCC.

Findings

The second‐order model generated via RSM was significant with only a 9.76 per cent variation not explained by the model. The coefficient of regression revealed that MTG, MD and SPI showed significant linear effects (P<0.0001) on the firmness of SCC, while MTG and SPI showed significant quadratic effects. The model successfully predicted and developed a SCC model with similar firmness as that of DCC; via the combination of 2.57 per cent (w/w) of MTG, 19.69 per cent (w/w) of SPI and 19.69 per cent (w/w) of MD. Physicochemical analyses revealed that SCC possessed lower fat content, reduced saturated fatty acid and zero trans fat. Further rheological measurements revealed that SCC was more solid‐like at room temperature, but less elastic at refrigerated temperature compared to DCC. SEM and SDS‐PAGE analyses affirmed that the textural changes of SCC were attributed to MTG‐induced cross‐linking.

Originality/value

The research demonstrated that a non‐dairy cream cheese could be developed using soy. In addition, the SCC also contained better nutritional properties compared to its dairy counterpart.

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Hua‐Neng Xu, Shufeng Ma, Wenping Lv and Zhouping Wang

Soy protein has been considered as a renewable and environmentally friendly source of adhesives. The purpose of this paper is to investigate a new approach for making a soy

Abstract

Purpose

Soy protein has been considered as a renewable and environmentally friendly source of adhesives. The purpose of this paper is to investigate a new approach for making a soy protein adhesive modified by SiO2 nanoparticles.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the adhesive properties by determining the viscosity, wettability and shear strength of soy protein adhesive. The effects of nano‐SiO2 content, wood surface roughness and processing pressure on shear strength between soy protein adhesive and wood were investigated. Four nano‐SiO2 contents (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 percent), two wood surface roughness (40 and 280 grits), and two processing pressure (1 and 2 MPa) were tested. Adhesive performance was evaluated based on the maximum force required for shearing the adhesive bond between cherry wood pieces.

Findings

The modified soy protein adhesives by SiO2 nanoparticles showed a significant enhancement in dry strength with nano‐SiO2 content of 1 percent. The mechanism appears to be related to the increased interaction between adhesive and wood and the elimination of voids on the wood surface by SiO2 nanoparticles.

Research limitations/implications

The adhesive resins used in the present context was soy protein isolate, not from commercially available soy flour. The wet strength was not satisfactory. Further study is needed to solve this problem.

Practical implications

The method developed provided a simple and practical solution to improving the shear strength of soy protein adhesives.

Originality/value

The enhancement method for adhesion strength of soy protein was novel and could find numerous applications in wood industry, avoiding formaldehyde emission and reducing the dependence on petroleum products.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

George A. Gkionakis, George Heliopoulos, Anthony K.D. Taylor and John Ahmad

The objective of this article is to investigate the binding of several lactones to soya protein isolate and soya protein under different conditions and, particularly, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this article is to investigate the binding of several lactones to soya protein isolate and soya protein under different conditions and, particularly, the extent of binding of the lactones γ‐9, γ‐10, δ‐10 and δ‐11, in different concentrations as well as the effect of various parameters on their binding ability.

Design/methodology/approach

Capillary column gas chromatography was used for the determination of lactones and the manual system was used for taking samples and for headspace analysis. Infrared spectroscopy was used for confirmation and investigation.

Findings

The percentage of binding of lactones γ‐9, γ‐10, δ‐10, δ‐11 on the soya protein is almost the same (about 33‐34 per cent). According to the Klotz equation, the bound ligand concentration was calculating as the number of moles of ligand bound per mole of protein. The results varied, but were similar. Specific experiments in water system with soya protein isolate (1 per cent) showed that the time taken for lactones γ‐10 and δ‐11 to reach equilibrium, the factors of temperature and pH affected the percentage of lactone bound.

Research limitations/implications

The amount of added lactone in products containing soya protein isolate should be investigated by using panel tests to confirm the improvement of flavour.

Practical implications

Flavour binding of lactones can be used to provide some foods with the required flavour impression by adding lactones to a bland soy protein base.

Originality/value

The flavour binding of lactones, which was investigated in the present paper, has not been adequately investigated in previous scientific research and the effects of the factors that influence their binding are very important.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Azmina Govindji

The role of diet in contributing to the incidence of coronary heart disease, cancer and other common Western diseases is attracting increasing attention. Foods which…

802

Abstract

The role of diet in contributing to the incidence of coronary heart disease, cancer and other common Western diseases is attracting increasing attention. Foods which provide different biologically active compounds, such as phyto‐oestrogens, have been extensively studied and epidemiological evidence suggests that populations consuming a diet high in phyto‐oestrogens have a lower risk of these diseases. This paper reviews some of the key studies on soy isoflavones which suggest that the incorporation of soy protein into the British diet may offer important health benefits. Non‐steroidal dietary oestrogens are found in high concentrations in the traditional diets of the Far East, and by vegans who consume large amounts of soy protein. Consumption of isoflavones across Asia varies considerably and it is estimated that between 25 to 45mg of isoflavones is consumed daily, compared to as little as 5mg daily in Western countries. It is well established that modification of dietary fat, especially saturated fat, soluble fibre and total calories have a role in coronary heart disease risk. In a meta‐analysis of 38 controlled trials on soy proteins, it was concluded that significant reductions in serum and total LDL cholesterol could be achieved. A wide range of epidemiological data shows strong correlations between a diet high in soy protein and vegetables and a reduced risk of breast cancer. The incidence of osteoporosis in Japanese women is significantly lower than in Western women and dietary factors such as soy protein intake may be important in sustaining this protection.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 99 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 March 2022

Haining Guan, Chunmei Feng, Xiaojun Xu, Weiting Sun, Jianchun Han, Dengyong Liu and Xiaoqin Diao

This study aims to investigate the influence of soy protein isolate hydrolysates (SPIH) obtained using 4 h hydrolysis under 200 MPa on proximate composition, cooking loss…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of soy protein isolate hydrolysates (SPIH) obtained using 4 h hydrolysis under 200 MPa on proximate composition, cooking loss, textural properties, color, water distribution, microstructure, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value and carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents of emulsion sausages.

Design/methodology/approach

Sausages with SPIHs at four concentrations (0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%) were prepared, and the sausage with 0.01% butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was used as a positive control. Some sausages were selected for the analyses of quality characteristics and microcosmic properties. Other sausages were stored under 4 °C for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days to investigate the oxidative stability.

Findings

The addition of SPIHs at various levels (0–3.0%) or 0.01% BHA did not affect the proximate composition (protein, fat and ash) of emulsion sausages. The addition of 2.0% SPIH decreased cooking loss and increased moisture content, hardness, springiness, chewiness, resilience and L* value, compared to the sausages without SPIH and with 0.01% BHA (p < 0.05). Furthermore, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results suggested that sausages with 2.0% SPIH had the shortest T2 relaxation time. In addition, 2.0% SPIH and 0.01% BHA could inhibit the oxidation of emulsion sausages when compared with the sample without SPIH (p < 0.05). Moreover, there were no differences between sausages with 2.0% SPIH and 0.01% BHA (p > 0.05).

Originality/value

These findings confirmed that the 2.0% SPIH obtained under 200 MPa can be used as a natural additive to improve quality properties and antioxidant potential of emulsion sausages during storage.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Priscila Giácomo Fassini, Ederlan de Souza Ferreira, Maraiza Aparecida da Silva, Valdir Augusto Neves and Aureluce Demonte

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of isolated soy glycinin (11S) on lipid metabolism in animals subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of isolated soy glycinin (11S) on lipid metabolism in animals subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Male Wistar rats were kept in individual cages under appropriate conditions. The animals were divided into three groups (n=9): normal diet (STD) given a diet containing casein as protein source, recommended in AIN‐93M; hypercholesterolemic (HC) fed a normal diet with 1 per cent cholesterol and 0.5 per cent cholic acid; and hypercholesterolemic+glycinin (HC+11S), fed a hypercholesterolemic diet, plus 11S soy protein (300 mg/kg/day), dissolved in saline and administered by gavage. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and blood and liver removed for biochemical analysis of total cholesterol (TC), HDL‐cholesterol (HDL‐C) and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma, hepatic TC and TG.

Findings

A single daily dose of glycinin given to the hypercholesterolemic group demonstrated its functional role, particularly in raising HDL‐C and reducing triglycerides in the liver.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the action of the 11S globulin in soybean as a serum lipid lowering agent, in addition to its nutritional properties, especially in raising the HDL‐C.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Muhammad Issa Khan, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Imran Pasha, Ayesha Sameen and Muhammad Nadeem

Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo‐Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the…

459

Abstract

Purpose

Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo‐Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the nutrition of chapattis, normally legume flour is used in the region. The purpose of the current study is to assess the nutritional quality and safety of chapattis supplemented with soy flour.

Design/methodology/approach

Wheat and soybean were procured and soy flour was prepared. Trypsin inhibitor contents and mineral contents of different flour and chapattis prepared were determined. Chapattis were prepared from different flour blends and whole wheat flour. To assess the quality and acceptability, the chapattis were presented to a panel of judges and the sensory evaluation was carried out for color, taste, aroma, chew ability, folding ability and overall acceptability characteristics. The data obtained for each parameter were subjected to statistical analysis to determine the level of significance.

Findings

The phytic acid and trypsin content were higher in un‐autoclaved soy flour supplement composite flour. The defattening of soy flour also increases the level of these anti‐nutrients in chapattis. The phytate and trypsin content of composite flour decreased as a result of baking. The protein, fiber and ash contents of composite flour increased while moisture content and nitrogen free extracts (NFE) decreased by the addition of soy flour. Mineral contents of chapattis except Mn increased by the incorporation of soy flour. The chapattis were found acceptable by the panel of judges at 10 percent replacement level of whole wheat flour by soy flour.

Practical implications

The results of the study indicate that 10 percent supplementation of soy flour in wheat flour was found acceptable by consumers as it did not affect the sensory attribute. For improved nutrition and to combat protein energy malnutrition, chapattis flour can be supplemented with soy flour.

Originality/value

The soy supplementation of wheat flour will improve the nutritional quality of the chapatti flour as soy flour is rich in high‐quality protein and mineral. The anti‐nutritional can be minimized or inactivated by autoclaving the soybean.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Chengsheng Gui, J. Zhu, Xq Liu and Zhongtao Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to prepare a water-resistant adhesive (SA) from soy flour (SF) with less water-soluble components.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare a water-resistant adhesive (SA) from soy flour (SF) with less water-soluble components.

Design/methodology/approach

Defatted SF was suspended and stirred in water. Then, the pH of dispersion was adjusted to a predetermined value (i.e. 8, 9 or 10) by the addition of 2M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. After stirring at a predetermined temperature (25°C, 35°C, 45°C) for different time (1 h, 2 h, 3 h), the 2M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution was added in a dropwise manner into the dispersion until the pH value was adjusted to 4.5. Then, the dispersion was centrifuged at 6,000 rpm for 2 min. The obtained precipitate with less water-soluble components was used as an adhesive (SA) directly.

Findings

SA had a wet strength of 1.02 MPa when used for the fabrication of poplar plywood. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution was applied to improve the tack of SAs to wood surface and the viscosities of SAs were decreased from 10,200 cP to 4,100 cP at room temperature after the PVA addition. The soy proteins in SAs were not denatured to a large extent according to the differential scanning calorimetry and light microscopy. The remained multilevel structures of soy protein played a positive contribution to the water resistance of SAs, and the bond lines of cured SAs were much more stable than those of the cured SF and soy protein concentrate (SPC).

Research limitations/implications

The fluidity and solid content of soy adhesives is much lower than formaldehyde adhesives. Further investigations are needed to improve the fluidity of soy adhesives with high solid contents.

Originality/value

Novel water-resistant soy adhesives were provided.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Sharmila Vengu, Haswini Paniker Ravandran, Sri Puvanesvari Gannasin and Kharidah Muhammad

Deep-fried banana (Musa spp.) fritters is one of the frequently consumed fruit based snacks in Southeast Asian countries despite its substantial amount of oil content…

Abstract

Purpose

Deep-fried banana (Musa spp.) fritters is one of the frequently consumed fruit based snacks in Southeast Asian countries despite its substantial amount of oil content. Consistent with the demand for low fat food with maintained palatability, this study aimed to determine the quality of banana fritters as affected by batter system containing selected hydrocolloids such as pectin (PCN), whey protein isolate (WPI) and soy protein isolate (SPI).

Design/methodology/approach

Banana fritter batters were prepared with individual addition of 2% PCN (w/w), 10% WPI (w/w), 10% SPI (w/w), combination of 2% PCN and 10% WPI, combination of 2% PCN and 10% SPI and control (without hydrocolloid addition). Batter viscosity (Pa.s) and batter pick-up (%) were determined. Banana fritters were analysed for moisture and fat contents, moisture loss, colour, hardness and sensory characteristics.

Findings

Hydrocolloid addition in the batter system resulted in a higher batter pick-up and viscosity in comparison to control batter system. Moisture loss from banana fritters with batter formulation of 2% PCN and 10% SPI was the lowest while the reduction in oil content (55%) was the highest. Banana fritters with inclusion of hydrocolloids in the batter formulation were equally accepted as the control sample by the sensory panelists with a score range between 6 and 7 for most of the sensory attributes evaluated except for oiliness.

Originality/value

Application of PCN and SPI in batter system to develop banana fritters with low oil content, moist fruit core and crunchy crust is reported for the first time. Batter premix containing PCN and SPI can be produced for fresh and frozen fritters preparation.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Richard Brown

Much of the debate surrounding genetic modification has centred on food product ingredients, in particular soya derivatives, and the supposed inability to segregate GM…

Abstract

Much of the debate surrounding genetic modification has centred on food product ingredients, in particular soya derivatives, and the supposed inability to segregate GM from non‐GM soybeans. Protein Technologies International has, however, implemented a system, Identity Preservation, which ensures the delivery of non‐GM soy protein to its customers. The system covers seeds, on‐farm storage, planting, growing and harvesting, transportation, processing and distribution, with independent third‐party verification. It is, believes the company, a way of ensuring that consumers can obtain the health benefits of soy protein consumption even if they are actively avoiding GM ingredients.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 99 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of 194