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Attempts to discover an internal logic in the high‐speed events taking place in the former Soviet Union. In addressing the problems of the country′s disintegration, examines the issue in its socioeconomic, political and territorial‐administrative aspects. Analyses, for this purpose, the nature of Soviet society prior to Gorbachev′s reforms, its present transitional stage and its probable direction in the near future.
More than at any time during the past seven decades, Western companies are cultivating commercial relationships in the Soviet Union. Western direct investment began nearly…
More than at any time during the past seven decades, Western companies are cultivating commercial relationships in the Soviet Union. Western direct investment began nearly four years ago; and by July 1990, there were almost 2,000 Western‐Soviet joint ventures, with about 20 percent operational. Altogether, Western companies have made more than $1.5 billion of joint venture investments in the Soviet Union.
The fate of a country like the Soviet Union concerns not only its leaders and its population. Whatever happens to the Soviet system, the directions which that nation…
The fate of a country like the Soviet Union concerns not only its leaders and its population. Whatever happens to the Soviet system, the directions which that nation follows will affect the whole world. Therefore, an understanding of the Soviet regime, its limitations and potentials, and the options available to that country, would give the rest of the world the intellectual weapon necessary to meet challenges presented by Soviet development. The stakes may be very high; if the full productive capacity of the Soviet Union were developed, the Japanese economic miracle and the serious problems it has created for the United States might fade into relative insignificance.
Gorbachev′s vision of democratic, decentralised and market‐orientedsocialism has generated diverse and controversial perceptions in theSoviet Union. Gorbachev′s claim that…
Gorbachev′s vision of democratic, decentralised and market‐oriented socialism has generated diverse and controversial perceptions in the Soviet Union. Gorbachev′s claim that the USSR is not retreating from socialism but advancing towards it, having dismantled the Stalinist Command model, is assessed.
Examines Gorbachev′s (1985‐1991) period of Soviet development as anexemplar of a self‐declared movement towards a more democratic andhumane socialism. Gorbachev′s…
Examines Gorbachev′s (1985‐1991) period of Soviet development as an exemplar of a self‐declared movement towards a more democratic and humane socialism. Gorbachev′s perestroika envisaged a fundamental structural and technological renovation of Soviet economy, reactivation of Soviet persons and attitudes, and overall redirection of the nation′s economic, political and social priorities. Analyses Gorbachev′s model of democratizing socialism with respect to underlying causes or origins, and institutions and policies initiated in the Gorbachev years.
This paper addresses a highly under-research question of employee voice in Belarus using labour process theory, specifically, Ramsay’s (1977) cycles of control theory to…
This paper addresses a highly under-research question of employee voice in Belarus using labour process theory, specifically, Ramsay’s (1977) cycles of control theory to assess the evolution of voice at transitional periphery. Using the sample of 10 industrial enterprises, the paper explores the degree of management control over formal voice and the role of trade unions in defending of independent voice at the collective level. Informal voice at the individual level is also analysed. The findings demonstrate that the degree of direct control over formal voice in Belarus exceeds that in the Soviet Union due to suppression of independent trade union voice. The loss of workers’ control over the labour process has led to decreasing informal voice at the individual level. However, the earlier argument on workers’ patience is not supported due to a growing number of organised workers protests.
This paper aims to map the critical changes in the history of trade unionism in the countires which until the late 80s early 90s formed the USSR, and spans a period from…
This paper aims to map the critical changes in the history of trade unionism in the countires which until the late 80s early 90s formed the USSR, and spans a period from 1905 to 2005.
The author has chosen to assess the role of trade unions in the former Soviet states by placing them into their historical context. The diversity of their development in the various states is discussed and the painful transition journey they made in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union is described as a means of explaining the structure and role they play in the newly created democracies within the region.
The paper emphasizes the powerful and influential role that trade unions enjoyed under the old regime when they were very much – de facto – an arm of the state machine. Their role as overseers of social and welfare benefits and enforcers of health and safety regulations and guardians of the Labour Code is compared with that in the post‐communist period when the new governments throughout the region quickly transferred those functions back to the state and in most cases consciously set out to marginalize the unions. The paper summarizes the state of play of the trade unions in the region as they seek to adapt to the new conditions and establish a new raison detra.
The existing literature contains few accounts of trade union activity and how it changed as a result of the collapse of communism in the former Soviet territories. This study of the Cultural Workers Union provides a sound base from which to launch further research into the development of free trade unions in other sectors of the region in the post‐communist period.
This paper's primary value is that it starts to fill a gap in our understanding of employee relations in the new democracies of what was the USSR and in particular the form that trade unions have taken, the role they play and the challenges that they face.
The failings of the new experiment launched in the Soviet Unionbetween 1985‐1990 under the formula of glasnost and perestroika, are outlined and explained. As an…
The failings of the new experiment launched in the Soviet Union between 1985‐1990 under the formula of glasnost and perestroika, are outlined and explained. As an alternative, one which if successful may lead to an “economic miracle” even greater than that of the recovery of Germany and Japan after the Second World War, a programme for recovery and stabilisation of the Soviet economy and finances is formulated. There is a need for critical evaluation of both capitalism and socialism to correct their weaknesses by introducing a new social economic order – “liberal socialism”, if you use the terminology in the East; “social liberalism” in the West. This can be achieved only if certain conditions are met (conditions of equilibrium: monetary, banking, organised markets, and competition). Wide‐ranging reforms are advocated, including the passing of a Law of Social and Economic Justice in the privatisation of industry, artisanship and commerce; reforms of organised securities, commodities and foreign exchange markets; the establishment of the Federal Central Bank of the Soviet Union; agrarian reforms; and new legislation in communications, public administration and international balance of payments. The ultimate goal of the plan is the realisation of a social economy of free, just and stable markets.
Surveys the various challenges involved in establishing a joint venture in the Soviet Union. Discusses the Soviet joint venture law 1987 which allows a foreign company to take an equity position in a Soviet enterprise. Looks at profit repatriation, asset valuation and operational and political issues. Suggests that joint ventures are constrained by Soviet labour law which contains restrictions to protect both Soviet labour and Soviet enterprises.
Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States are going through deep and dramatic changes and are entering a new era. The development of high‐technology…
Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States are going through deep and dramatic changes and are entering a new era. The development of high‐technology industries is considered crucial to help revitalize the economies of Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, the eastern provinces of Germany (former German Democratic Republic), Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the old Soviet Union. Moreover, the current status, operation, and progress of the information processing industry represent the most fascinating areas of old East Bloc industrialization. It is widely known that the majority of industries in these countries are obsolete in comparison with the Western countries. Computer and communications technologies comprise this branch of industry where the technological gap between East and West is the widest. Catching up with western countries would take eastern countries ten years for software and supercomputers, eight years for mainframes, six years for microprocessors, and five years for minicomputers. Western countries consider this necessity to catch up as one of the main obstacles to future European integration.