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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Christopher Balding and Yao Yao

Purpose – Study the investment and risk management approach of sovereign wealth funds when national wealth including natural resources is accounted for rather than only…

Abstract

Purpose – Study the investment and risk management approach of sovereign wealth funds when national wealth including natural resources is accounted for rather than only financial asset.

Methodology/Approach – Using a range of widely used asset classes, we simulate sovereign wealth fund returns when considering only financial assets but also under varying levels of national wealth holdings in oil. We optimize two-asset financial portfolios and three-asset portfolios when including oil to maximize the risk-adjusted returns.

Findings – Sovereign wealth funds by failing to invest for the national wealth portfolio are overlooking a major source of volatility. To reduce the level of volatility associated with yearly national wealth returns, allocating a higher percentage of fixed assets to high-quality fixed income and low-risk equities will maximize the risk-adjusted returns of national wealth for sovereign wealth fund states.

Social implications – By focusing solely on the financial assets managed by sovereign wealth funds, states are exposing themselves to significant national wealth risk.

Originality/Value of the paper – This is the first work to estimate the impact on national wealth of oil-dependent states by failing to account for volatile commodity prices through the investment strategies of sovereign wealth funds.

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Institutional Investors in Global Capital Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-243-2

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Salar Ghahramani

The purpose of this paper is to examine the propensity of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) for shareholder activism and their potential impact on corporate governance.

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938

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the propensity of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) for shareholder activism and their potential impact on corporate governance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study highlights the relationships between SWFs and corporate governance and also applies eight antecedents/determinants of institutional activism to analyze whether SWFs have a predisposition for shareholder activism.

Findings

The study only finds two instances of SWF activism. Additionally, it finds that despite their mostly passive investments, SWFs possess a natural tendency toward shareholder activism. Some are more likely to engage in activism than others, however. SWFs with a higher proportion of their assets invested in equities, those with portfolios fully or partially constructed to emulate the broader financial markets through indexing, and those that depend less on external fund managers are the likeliest candidates for activism. The study also finds that the regulatory environment can curb the natural SWF inclination for activist behavior.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the lack of transparency within the SWF universe, this study largely depends on the limited data available for sovereign wealth funds.

Practical implications

Given the growing importance of SWFs, managers, directors, and policymakers must assess SWF activism, its influence on corporate governance, and its implications for public policy deliberations.

Originality/value

This project, to the best of the author's knowledge, is the first study that applies tested financial models to SWFs in order to determine if they have inherent activist tendencies.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Charlie Cai and Iain Clacher

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the China Investment Corporation (CIC) and its structure, investment activities and possible future investments.

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2669

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the China Investment Corporation (CIC) and its structure, investment activities and possible future investments.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a case study approach and builds up a picture of sovereign wealth globally and then focuses on the CIC and issues surrounding the fund.

Findings

The key implications from the research are that Asian sovereign wealth is going to be increasingly important in global investment. The CICs investment strategy is evolving and becoming evermore sophisticated. As the fund grows this will result in increased demand for local financial services and expertise and so where representative offices are located will impact on those financial centers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should expand the scope of the analysis to include other sovereign wealth funds and try to map out a comprehensive picture of sovereign wealth around the world.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to look at sovereign wealth and is believed to be the first paper to analyze Asian sovereign wealth and the CIC.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Daniel A. Nelson, Kate Habershon, Kathryn W. Hambrick, Meghan E. McCarthy, Alexios S. Hadji and Grace Tan

To discuss US, EU and UK tax-related issues that sovereign wealth funds should consider when investing in private funds.

Abstract

Purpose

To discuss US, EU and UK tax-related issues that sovereign wealth funds should consider when investing in private funds.

Design/methodology/approach

Discusses various tax-related structuring, operational, risk-allocation, and economic matters that private funds, sovereign wealth funds and other non-US institutional investors should consider a series when evaluating potential private fund investments.

Findings

Despite the market disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, sovereign wealth funds continued to make significant capital commitments to private funds in 2020 and, as the world emerges from the pandemic, are expected to make similar or greater commitments in 2021 and beyond.

Originality/value

Practical guidance from lawyers with wide experience in international tax planning and investment fund structuring.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Rolando Avendaño and Javier Santiso

Purpose – To study the allocation in equity markets of sovereign wealth funds’ (SWF) investments with respect to other institutional investors. To analyze the role of…

Abstract

Purpose – To study the allocation in equity markets of sovereign wealth funds’ (SWF) investments with respect to other institutional investors. To analyze the role of political regimes in the sending and recipient countries as a determinant of the allocation of SWF investments.

Methodology/approach – We use mutual funds’ investments as a benchmark for SWF investment allocations. We collect data of SWF and mutual fund equity investments at the firm level and analyse them on a geographical and sector basis. We compare target investments for these two groups by looking at the political regime in the sending and recipient country, using different political indicators (Polity IV, Bertelsmann). We provide a comparison of SWFs and pension funds based on governance features related to investment.

Findings – We find that the fear that sovereigns with political motivations use their financial power to secure large stakes in OECD countries is not confirmed by the data. SWF investment decisions do not differ greatly from those of other wealth managers. Although there can be differences in the allocation, political regimes in the recipient countries do not play a role in explaining the allocation of sovereign wealth funds.

Social implications – Investment from public institutions, such as sovereign wealth funds, can have significant implications at the economic and social level. Sovereign funds are potential sources of capital for emerging economies, and therefore can enchance economic growth. It is important to understand to what extent public institutional investors behave differently from private investors. The “political bias” is not a relevant factor for sovereign funds, or for other institutional investors, for allocating their capital. More often than not, their asset allocation strategies converge with other large investors, these being driven by financial and not political bias.

Originality/value of the chapter – The chapter is an original contribution providing a firm-level analysis of equity holdings for two groups of institutional investors. Moreover, it emphasizes the political dimension of institutional investments, highlighting the priorities and constraints of public investors participating in financial markets. The chapter suggests that SWFs do not discriminate by the political regime of the recipient country in their asset allocation.

Details

Institutional Investors in Global Capital Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-243-2

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Georgios Pavlidis

This paper aims to investigate the idea of building responsible borrowing and lending into sovereign wealth fund (SWF) decision-making. SWFs, which currently manage US$8…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the idea of building responsible borrowing and lending into sovereign wealth fund (SWF) decision-making. SWFs, which currently manage US$8 trillion in assets, are influential institutional investors, but their role in sovereign debt markets needs to be further explored. In this context, this paper aims to critically assess the linkages and convergences between the Santiago Principles on SWF and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) principles on responsible sovereign lending and borrowing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on legal scholarship, reports, policy papers and other open-source data to explore the role of SWFs in sovereign lending, borrowing and debt restructuring.

Findings

Building responsible borrowing and lending into SWF decision-making is feasible and justified on the grounds of both ethics and public duty. It is also justified in financial terms because it would protect SWFs from irresponsible lending and borrowing practices at the micro level while contributing to global financial stability at the macro level.

Originality/value

This is the first comprehensive study to juxtapose two important normative processes, the Santiago Principles and the UNCTAD Principles.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Wilson Ng

Where there has been little in‐depth understanding of sovereign wealth funds, the purpose of this paper is to describe the complex nature of one of the world's largest…

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1435

Abstract

Purpose

Where there has been little in‐depth understanding of sovereign wealth funds, the purpose of this paper is to describe the complex nature of one of the world's largest sovereign wealth funds, Temasek Holdings (“Temasek”), whose “active” investment strategy has been emulated by a number of other funds.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws mainly on public data in developing a case history of Temasek.

Findings

Based on this data, the paper suggests how the firm's underlying strategy seems to be about pursuing the national interests of its sovereign shareholder in both a commercial and non‐commercial manner.

Research limitations/implications

Consistent with a case‐based approach, the paper presents a single example of a sovereign wealth fund.

Practical implications

The aggressive manner in which Temasek has built up its international portfolio coupled with the mixed impact of its “active” investment strategy raise a number of issues about the nature of an important sovereign wealth fund.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is in its cogent, insightful picture of the development of a sovereign wealth fund that was a pioneer of this phenomenon.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Narjess Boubakri, Jean-Claude Cosset and Nabil Samir

Purpose – Run a comparative analysis between investments of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) and mutual funds, focusing on firm-level, country-level, and institutional…

Abstract

Purpose – Run a comparative analysis between investments of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) and mutual funds, focusing on firm-level, country-level, and institutional variables.

Methodology/approach – We use a hand-collected sample of 1,845 acquisitions around the world over the last 25 years (251 for SWFs and 1,594 for mutual funds). We then run univariate parametric and nonparametric tests to assess the differences in the investments of both subsamples.

Findings – We review the literature on the determinants of SWFs' investment decisions. Our analysis adds to the scarce available literature on the investment decisions of SWFs and their comparison with other institutional investors. Our results show that, compared to mutual funds, SWFs indeed exhibit different preferences: for instance, SWFs prefer to acquire stakes in larger, less liquid companies which are financially distressed but which also have a higher level of growth opportunities. They also prefer less innovative firms with more concentrated ownership, which are located in less developed but geographically closer countries with whom they do not necessarily share cultural and religious backgrounds.

Social implications – Our results are important for practitioners and firms seeking to attract a given type of institutional investment. They also add insights to the debate on the “hidden” political objectives behind SWF investments in the Western world.

Originality/value of paper – This is the first attempt to empirically assess the differences in the investment choices of SWFs and mutual funds.

Details

Institutional Investors in Global Capital Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-243-2

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Sivakumar Velayutham and Rashedul Hasan

The purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the participation of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes. Sovereign

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the participation of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes. Sovereign wealth funds in emerging economies are often involved in corporate social responsibility. However, the 1 Malaysian Development Berhad (1MDB) scandal illustrates the possible use of SWF as a vehicle for corruption and abuse.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary objective is to develop good governance practices of CSR by SWFs that could limit corrupt practices. A case study approach is adopted to investigate the CSR involvement of two SWFs – Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global (GPFG) and Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD).

Findings

The finding shows that SWFs should not be directly involved in CSR. It is proposed that independent Non-government Organisations (NGOs), through a competitive funding model, could serve the CSR purpose of SWFs more effectively and bring socio-economic changes in emerging economies.

Originality/value

The funding model identifies the expected outcomes, priorities and uses of the funds. The funding committee should also be independent of the Board and transparent in its allocations.

Details

Public Administration and Policy, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1727-2645

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Roshni Garg and Abha Shukla

This paper aims to systematically review all available evidence on the implications of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) for various stakeholders (recipients of sovereign

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically review all available evidence on the implications of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) for various stakeholders (recipients of sovereign investment, home countries, which incorporate SWFs and the world at large) and offer future research directions.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review (SLR) technique is used to review 102 handpicked articles for the period 2005‐2019.

Findings

This review reveals that the literature on the impact of SWFs emerged only during the financial crisis of 2008–2011 and much of it is qualitative in nature. The literature is lopsidedly focused on the impact of SWFs on target firms and there has been a limited empirical investigation of the impact on other stakeholders. There is a lack of consensus in several areas, which calls for additional research. Few areas, which have not been addressed in the literature and can be taken up by future researchers include the impact of SWFs on macroeconomic fundamentals and stock markets of recipient countries, especially emerging economies; implications of SWFs for alternative asset classes; impact on the welfare of citizens and internationalization strategies of home countries; impact on initial public offerings and unlisted corporations; and impact on innovativeness, efficiency and corporate governance practices of target firms.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper to use the SLR technique to review the literature on SWFs. It considers the impact of SWFs on all stakeholders and covers both qualitative and quantitative literature published over a long period of 2005‐2019. It also systematizes all available evidence on this theme and identifies important research gaps, which may be helpful for academicians, practitioners and policymakers.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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