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Hong Kong has been a major entrepôt for China for decades and its intermediate role has been enhanced in recent years. With the open door policy of China, Hong Kong…
Hong Kong has been a major entrepôt for China for decades and its intermediate role has been enhanced in recent years. With the open door policy of China, Hong Kong manufacturers have relocated extensively their low‐cost operations to the Pearl River Delta in Southern China. Under the outward processing arrangement, raw materials, components and work‐in‐progress are shipped to China for further processing and the finished products are shipped back to Hong Kong for re‐export to other countries. This mode of operation has created tremendous loads on the already congested cross‐border traffic between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta. In order to modernize its outdated and inadequate transportation systems, China has embarked on huge infrastructure development programmes in the Pearl River Delta and other fast developing regions. Hong Kong has also launched multi‐billion‐dollar ports and airport development projects scheduled to be completed in 1997/98. On completion of these projects, the strategic position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt of Southern China will be further enhanced, despite increasing competition from neighbouring ports and airports in the medium to long term.
China's population–land contradiction is a crucial issue, and by deeply analyzing causes of wasting arable land, this article recommends some policies to avoid waste.
Based on the current high-, middle- and low-class differentiation in the agricultural products' consumption structure against urban residents' rapid income growth, this article proposes that agricultural products with distinctive regional characteristics should be developed according to regional natural agricultural resources and market demand, so as to ensure that China's scarce arable land can be used effectively.
Choices in regional agricultural production relate to operational farmers' enthusiasm for profitability and production, residential farmers' ability to ensure their own food security, agriculture's sustainable development and arable land resources' optimal allocation. Therefore, the varietal structure of agricultural products and regional production layout should be compatibly decided according to consumer demand and resource endowment.
During the process of industrialization and urbanization, wasting of arable land has become a social development problem. On the basis of agriculture's regional resource endowment, this article reconstructs the functional positioning of various Chinese agricultural regions and solves the difficult problem of consumption structure transformation and homogeneous competition through the geographical division of labor, thereby optimizing allocation of arable land resources.
In this chapter, we will review the history, deregulation, policy reforms, and airline consolidations and mergers of the Chinese airline industry. The measurement of…
In this chapter, we will review the history, deregulation, policy reforms, and airline consolidations and mergers of the Chinese airline industry. The measurement of airline competition in China’s domestic market will also be discussed. Although air deregulation is still ongoing, the Chinese airline industry has become a market-driven business subject to some mild regulations. Then, we will review the impressive development of the high-speed rail (HSR) network in China and its effects on the domestic civil aviation market. In general, previous studies have found that the introduction of HSR services has a significant negative impact on airfare and air travel demand in China. The rapidly expanding network of HSR has important policy implications for Chinese airlines.
The war in Iraq, the threat of terrorism and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic have made international business activities increasingly difficult and…
The war in Iraq, the threat of terrorism and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic have made international business activities increasingly difficult and risky. The worldwide economic downturn and slow growth in domestic markets are forcing companies to depend more than ever on overseas trade. SARS emerged in China in November 2002 and has spread to 26 countries. The SARS epidemic has caused the most severe economic crisis in Southeast Asia since the wave of bank failures and currency devaluations that swept the region five years ago. The SARS epidemic has prompted health officials to implement travel advisories and restrictions, in order to defer nonessential travel to regions of Asia with large numbers of SARS cases. They are enforcing quarantine and isolation measures in major cities to try and limit the spread of SARS. The President of the United States has signed an executive order adding SARS to the list of communicable diseases that can be quarantined. A major disruption in China could paralyze just‐in‐time supply chains and cause an economic crisis for retailers and other businesses worldwide. The SARS epidemic has caused many economists to drastically reduce their economic‐growth forecasts for Asia. New infectious diseases, such as SARS, can emerge and easily travel around the globe, infecting less‐resilient hosts and mutating because of the influence of viruses and bacteria in their new environment. Health officials are even more concerned about the pandemic disaster that hasn’t happened, but may still. However, the SARS epidemic has created positive economic benefits for some companies.
Low levels of human capital in rural China are rooted in the poor schooling outcomes of elementary school students. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into…
Low levels of human capital in rural China are rooted in the poor schooling outcomes of elementary school students. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the distribution of academic performance in rural China and identify vulnerable groups.
The authors draw on a data set of 25,892 observations constructed from 11 school-level surveys spanning nine provinces and one municipality in China conducted from 2013 to 2015.
The authors find that the distribution of academic performance is uneven across provinces and subgroups. In general, male students, Han, living in richer counties, living with their parents and studying in rural public schools do better academically than female students, non-Han, living in poorer counties, left behind and studying in private migrant schools in cities.
Using the results of this study, policymakers should be able to better target investments into rural education focusing on at risk subpopulations.
With limited data sources, the research on the academic performance of students in rural China is largely absent. The findings of this study help to fill the gaps in the literature base.