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1 – 10 of over 92000
Article
Publication date: 14 April 2014

Dimitris Manolopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between R&D internationalization and finance decisions by providing survey evidence on the funding sources of R&D in light…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between R&D internationalization and finance decisions by providing survey evidence on the funding sources of R&D in light of recent perceptions of MNEs' decentralized knowledge-related competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws upon a survey of 83 decentralized R&D units located in countries outside the EU core of mature economies. Funding sources are classified as MNE-internal and external. Using simulation-based models, six ordered probit regression models were run with each funding source forming the dependent variable.

Findings

There are three significant findings. First, decentralized R&D funding relies mainly on MNE-internal sources. Second, decentralized R&D funding patterns reflect on the interdependencies within an overall MNE R&D strategy that is articulated through varied laboratory roles. Third, while the strategy-finance interaction is confirmed, the prevalence of parent funding is challenged. Instead, evidence recorded here suggests support for the decentralized, “subsidiary-focused” perspective that has recently regained a considerable momentum in the literature.

Research limitations/implications

Notwithstanding that this study reinforces the interaction between strategic decisions and funding patterns, more work is required to identify the effects of other aspects of strategy on the funding sources of decentralized R&D activity. However, it is seemingly the first study that investigates MNEs' R&D financial decisions in economies outside the EU core, incorporating also a wide array of external funding sources.

Practical implications

Funding choices for decentralized R&D labs should be contingent upon their unique contribution to the competitive evolution of the MNE group. Further, R&D activity seems to leverage the autonomy of subsidiary managers.

Originality/value

This research is one of the very few empirical studies providing evidence on the funding sources of decentralized R&D laboratories, and suggests possible predictors that have not been put forward hitherto.

Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2017

Raphael Bar-El, Ilanit Gavious, Dan Kaufmann and Dafna Schwartz

The literature documents a shortage in the supply of external funding to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in general and to innovative SMEs in particular. This…

Abstract

The literature documents a shortage in the supply of external funding to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in general and to innovative SMEs in particular. This study separates cognitive from financial constraints on innovative SMEs’ growth opportunities. Using data gathered through in-depth interviews with the CEOs of 115 SMEs, we reveal that over and above a problem with supply, there exists a twofold problem on the demand side. Specifically, we document that there is a tendency for these companies to avoid approaching external funding sources, especially ones that gear their investments toward innovation. Our results reveal a cognitive bias (over-pessimism) affecting the entrepreneurs’ (lack of) demand for external financing over and above other firm-specific factors. CEO tenure — our proxy for human and social capital — is significantly lower (higher) in firms that did (did not) pursue external funding. This finding may provide some support for our hypothesis regarding the cognitive bias and over-pessimism of the more veteran CEOs who have had negative experiences regarding recruiting external resources. The impact of this entrepreneurial cognition is shown to be economically detrimental to the enterprise. Nevertheless, the negative effects are not limited to the micro level, but have implications at the macro level as well, due to under-realization of the potential for employment, productivity, and growth of the firms comprising the vast majority of the economy.

Details

Human Capital and Assets in the Networked World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-828-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Rose B. Okiy

To address the issue of poor government funding for Nigerian libraries. This situation has led many librarians over the years to explore the possibility of raising…

1086

Abstract

Purpose

To address the issue of poor government funding for Nigerian libraries. This situation has led many librarians over the years to explore the possibility of raising additional funds from alternative sources of income.

Design/methodology/approach

Explores the current levels of funding for Nigerian academic libraries and identifies some alternative funding sources. On identifying these sources, the success of alternative sources of income is presented and suggestions are made for funding in the future.

Findings

Funding for libraries and information centers in Nigeria is largely through government allocations to the overseeing ministries or institutions. Government funding has been poor, requiring libraries to look for alternative sources of income in order to meet the increasingly sophisticated demand of library users for electronic information services. Several methods for generating income have been identified, explored by many libraries, and discussed in library literature, but have yielded little in the way of additional funding.

Originality/value

On evaluating all the sources of income available to Nigerian academic libraries, this paper suggests that the most stable and reliable source of funds remains with allocations from the federal government. As the support from the government has not been adequate, suggestions are included on areas where the government could raise taxes to support education in general, and libraries specifically, within Nigeria.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Deborah Kelly and Alfred Lewis

This article aims to examine the dynamic nature of the sources of funding for not‐for‐profit (NPs) organizations with particular reference to NPs in the human service…

2300

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to examine the dynamic nature of the sources of funding for not‐for‐profit (NPs) organizations with particular reference to NPs in the human service sector NPs in the US.

Design/methodology/approach

The universe of NPs include government and so‐called third sector organizations which such as charities, healthcare organizations, educational institutions and disaster relief organizations. Specifically the authors examined the human service sector of NPs with the aim of analyzing the relationships between government subsidy and the level of commercial activities of NPs.

Findings

The expectation is that NPs with greater level of commercial of for‐profit type activities are better managed than NPs that are solely reliant on government subsidies.

Originality/value

This article examines the dynamic nature of the sources of funding for not‐for‐profit (NPs) organizations with particular reference to NPs in the human service sector NPs in the US.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Helen M. Gothberg and Edith H. Ferrell

It is obvious to many librarians that requests for information on funding sources are increasing in most types of libraries. Public support programs are dwindling, and…

Abstract

It is obvious to many librarians that requests for information on funding sources are increasing in most types of libraries. Public support programs are dwindling, and corporate profits are receding. The publishing field has responded to this need by producing a new array of tools to help grant seekers find appropriate funding sources.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Manzurul Alam, Megan Paull, Anne Peachey, David Holloway and John Griffiths

The purpose of this paper is to explore how performance management systems in nonprofit organizations are influenced by their funding sources. It explains how resources…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how performance management systems in nonprofit organizations are influenced by their funding sources. It explains how resources motivate organizations to diversify their strategies with attended performance management systems.

Design/methodology/approach

It adopts a qualitative case study approach involving semi-structured interviews with key informants in a nonprofit organization to understand the evolving nature of performance management systems associated with different funding sources.

Findings

The findings suggest that the case study organization changed its revenue base along with its performance management systems to satisfy the reporting and accountability requirements of different funding sources. Despite external funding sources detailing different restrictions and requirements, the overall performance management system was able to manage these different expectations.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on a single case study, and its findings need to be interpreted with care, as there are differences between nonprofit organizations because they differ in their environments, services and funding.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to extant knowledge on how organizational performance management is influenced by funding sources, providing insights at the operational and governance levels.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Päivi Eriksson, Saija Katila and Mervi Niskanen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of gender on the usage of different funding sources in a sample of Finnish small‐ to medium‐sized enterprises…

1103

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of gender on the usage of different funding sources in a sample of Finnish small‐ to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). The aim is also to embed the results into the country‐context, which is characterized by the long history of women's economic activity and bank‐based capital markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The database includes variables on terms of credit for the firms' most recent loans and detailed information on the firms' banking relationships. The total number of firm‐year observations in the database is 3,519. The analysis is based on multivariate tests.

Findings

The funding patterns of women‐owned SMEs (WOS) and men‐owned SMEs (MOS) in the data are different: WOS are more likely to use additional equity investments by current owners as a funding source. They do so at least partly because of their positive attitudes towards this funding source. The results also contradict prior studies, which indicate that MOS have easier access to bank lending. The results suggest that there are no gender‐related differences in the use of bank debt. Also in contrast to prior studies, the paper finds no differences in firm size or profitability between WOS and MOS.

Research limitations/implications

The results of study both confirm and contradict the results of prior research and the paper suggests that this is due to the context‐specific features of the Finnish labour market and the gender system as well as the bank‐centered financial markets.

Practical implications

Concerning the issues of gender and finance, policy makers and financial experts in any country should not uncritically rely on the research results arrived at in other countries.

Originality/value

Only a handful of studies have investigated issues of gender and finance in SMEs embedding the results into the country‐context.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2018

María Vidales and Carmelo García-Pérez

The purpose of this paper is to analyse, from an empirical point of view, the importance of each of the main sources of funding in developing countries (foreign direct…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse, from an empirical point of view, the importance of each of the main sources of funding in developing countries (foreign direct investment, official development assistance, external debt and remittances) in achieving sustainable, social and inclusive development.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology followed to achieve this purpose is the construction of three econometric models. The general model incorporates as a dependent variable the Human Development Index (HDI) and, as explanatory variables, the four sources of funding indicated above, as well as three exogenous variables (human capital, corruption and natural resources). This model is complemented by two extensions that aim to analyse the behaviour of explanatory variables in reducing inequalities and improving each of the HDI components.

Findings

The results of the estimations of the econometric models show that foreign direct investment and remittances are the sources of funding with the greatest impact on achieving development. Moreover, official development assistance while not making a positive contribution to the achievement of development as a whole, could be adequate to reduce inequalities.

Originality/value

The added value of this paper consists in carrying out a joint analysis of these four sources of funding because previous researches focussed the attention on some of them, drawing partial conclusions. The conclusion of this study is that the four sources of funding analysed can be considered complementary to promote sustainable and inclusive development, although foreign direct investment has a much more important role.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 February 2019

Marcia Siqueira Rapini, Tulio Chiarini, Pablo Bittencourt and Thiago Caliari

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the academic side of university–firm linkages, reporting the results of research (called the “BR Survey”, a primary database…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the academic side of university–firm linkages, reporting the results of research (called the “BR Survey”, a primary database) conducted in Brazil with leaders of research groups that interacted with firms. The authors analysed the answers from 662 research groups (from both universities and research institutes) to investigate whether the intensity of private funds affects the results of the interactions. The main intent is to answer the following question: Is there a difference between funding sources and the type of results achieved by research groups when interacting with firms?

Design/methodology/approach

To verify the impact of some variables on the perception of the main results of university–firm interactions, highlighting the impact of funding sources, the authors present a Logit Model defined with binary dependent variables. The null value is categorized as a “scientific result” (new scientific discoveries and research projects; publications, theses and dissertations; human resources’ and students’ education) and the value 1 is classified as an “innovative/technological result” (new products, artefacts and processes; improvement of industrial products and processes; patents, software, design and spin-off firms).

Findings

The authors found that the modes of interaction (relationship types) and some knowledge transfer channels, besides the number of interactions with firms, have statistically significant coefficients, so their values present different impacts on the results of the interaction. The results suggest that the Brazilian innovation policy towards a more active and entrepreneurial role of universities is fostering innovative/technological results from university–firm interactions.

Originality/value

The originality of the study lies on the results found that given the fact that private funding sources do not affect the conventional mission of Brazilian universities – teaching and research – university research groups should be even more incentivized to search for private funds to carry out their research. This may be a solution to the public fund scarcity and may help in reducing the historical distance between universities and firms in Brazil.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Marcelo J. Alvarado-Vargas, Stephen K. Callaway and Sonny Ariss

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effects of different R&D funding inputs – including funding for basic research, applied research, and development …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effects of different R&D funding inputs – including funding for basic research, applied research, and development – on different innovation outcomes (e.g. inventions, patents, licenses, and start-ups).

Design/methodology/approach

The study borrowed the resource dependence theory perspective by focusing on the proportion of funding secured from various external sources that fund university R&D, and assessed its effect on the nature and outcomes of the university research activity.

Findings

Results indicated that greater funding of basic research was associated with more inventions and patents; greater funding of applied research was associated with more licenses; and greater funding for development activities was associated with more university start-ups.

Originality/value

The contributions of this study are two folded: first, it added to the debate that more R&D investment is indeed associated with more innovation outcomes; and second, it is important to differentiate the R&D funding inputs as they are related to different innovation outcomes.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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