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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2021

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Social Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-790-6

Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Sophie Bacq, Frank Janssen and Jill R. Kickul

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the factors that influence social entrepreneurial ventures’ (SEVs) pursuit of a blended value approach…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the factors that influence social entrepreneurial ventures’ (SEVs) pursuit of a blended value approach. This paper predicts and examines that the mindset of SEV senior decision-makers leads them to perceive organisational goals differently.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tests the hypotheses on an original data set of 171 SEVs by means of discriminant analysis.

Findings

The results suggest that social entrepreneurs who display an agency-oriented mindset tend to perceive organisational goals as being single: either social or financial. Conversely, social entrepreneurs who have a stewardship-oriented mindset tend to perceive organisational goals as blending both. The findings also underline that senior decision-makers’ mindsets in terms of governance are far from being uniform in SEVs.

Research limitations/implications

The findings empirically contribute to the argument that agency principles do apply to broader contexts than profit-oriented organisations (Wiseman et al., 2012) and frame SEVs as a promising context that redefines principal-agent relationships. It follows that the expected association between non-economic goals and stewardship put forward in the literature needs to be nuanced: only a blended value approach of social and financial objectives is associated with stewardship, whereas single social goals are best perceived by agency-oriented senior decision-makers. The results are limited to a single survey, using cross-sectional data.

Practical implications

The findings have a bearing on goal setting in social entrepreneurship. The results suggest that practitioners who display a stewardship mindset are more likely to perceive a double bottom line than those displaying an agency mindset.

Originality/value

A novel feature of the model is the incorporation of senior decision-makers’ heterogeneous “governance mindsets” (agency and stewardship) and one of the first empirical tests of blended value in social entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Jill Kickul, Mark Griffiths and Sophie Bacq

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how extending social innovation and impact learning to the field was accomplished.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how extending social innovation and impact learning to the field was accomplished.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses how experiential learning can be adapted to social entrepreneurship education and how to structure the course and deliverables. It highlights the importance of students' selection and preparation.

Findings

The paper shares some students' reflections on their fieldwork and how they dealt with new ideas. It also provides three central lessons – “go real”, “go deep”, “get feedback” – that were learned through the experience.

Research limitations/implications

Since information from only one course offering has been reported, a simple generalization should be made cautiously. For this reason, the transferability of this experiential learning course to other regions of the world is discussed and recommendations are offered for educators who want to engage in a successful “boundary‐less classroom.”

Originality/value

Initial evidence is provided that the success of experiential learning in social innovation and impact can be guaranteed by a number of elements, including students' preparation to assist them as they confront challenges found in the field experience. Experiential learning would not be transferable without deep intercultural understanding and a well‐chosen selection of social enterprises and social entrepreneurs with whom to collaborate.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

Lisa K. Gundry, Jill R. Kickul, Mark D. Griffiths and Sophie C. Bacq

Social entrepreneurship is primarily concerned with the development of innovative solutions to society's most challenging problems. Since social entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Social entrepreneurship is primarily concerned with the development of innovative solutions to society's most challenging problems. Since social entrepreneurship flourishes in resource-constrained environments, social innovation may depend on the extent to which social entrepreneurs can combine and apply the resources at hand in creative and useful ways to solve problems – “bricolage.” Moreover, innovating for social impact relies on a set of institutional and structural supports – “innovation ecology,' which can facilitate or impede innovation. Our research empirically examines these variables as drivers of systemic social change through scaling and replication – “catalytic innovation” (i.e., the development of products and services targeted to unserved markets). Results of a survey conducted with 113 social entrepreneurs indicate that, while innovation ecology is associated with the degree of catalytic innovation, it is mediated by the role and degree of bricolage that social entrepreneurs bring to solving problems. These findings reinforce the role of entrepreneurs as the indispensable agents of social change.

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Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

G. T. Lumpkin and Robert J. Pidduck

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to…

Abstract

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to conceptualize and measure it. This chapter makes the case that EO has grown beyond its roots as a firm-level unidimensional strategy construct and that a new multidimensional version of EO is needed to capture the diverse manifestations and venues for entrepreneurial activity that are now evident around the world – global entrepreneurial orientation (GEO). Building on the five-dimension multidimensional view of EO set forth when Lumpkin and Dess (1996) extended the work of Miller (1983) and Covin and Slevin (1989, 1991), the chapter offers an updated definition of EO and a fresh interpretation of why EO matters theoretically. Despite earnest efforts to reconcile the different approaches to EO, in order to move the study of EO and the theoretical conversation about it forward, we maintain that as a group of scholars and a field, we need to acknowledge that two different versions of EO have emerged. Given that, we consider original approaches to measuring EO, evaluate formative measurement models, consider multiple levels of analysis, call for renewed attention to EO configurations, and discuss whether there is a theory of EO.

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Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

G.T. Lumpkin and Jerome A. Katz

From its earliest incarnations, entrepreneurship has been linked to innovation, and often innovations with a societal or social impact. Although classical economists…

Abstract

From its earliest incarnations, entrepreneurship has been linked to innovation, and often innovations with a societal or social impact. Although classical economists discussed the role entrepreneurs play in handling risk in an economy (Hébert & Link, 2009), perhaps the greater risks have been the social impacts which entrepreneurship brought to societies (Drucker, 1985). The power of mercantile economies like the Phoenician or two thousand years later the British came as much from the new ideas and processes they introduced to the societies of trading partners as from the goods traded.

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

Book part
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Jason Spicer and Christa R. Lee-Chuvala

Alternative enterprises – organizations that operate as a business while still also being driven by a social purpose – are sometimes owned by workers or other…

Abstract

Alternative enterprises – organizations that operate as a business while still also being driven by a social purpose – are sometimes owned by workers or other stakeholders, rather than shareholders. What role does ownership play in enabling alternative enterprises to prioritize substantively rational organizational values, like environmental sustainability and social equity, over instrumentally rational ones, like profit maximization? We situate this question at the intersection of research on: (1) stakeholder governance and mission drift in both hybrid and collectivist-democratic organizations; and (2) varieties of ownership of enterprise. Though these literatures suggest that ownership affects the ability of alternative enterprises to maintain their social missions, the precise nature of this relationship remains under-theorized. Using the case of a global, social, and environmental values-based banking network, we suggest that alternative ownership is likely a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to combat mission drift in enterprises that have a legal owner. A supermajority of this network’s banks deploy alternative ownership structures; those operating with these structures are disproportionately associated with social movements, which imprint their values onto the banks. We show how alternative ownership acts through specific mechanisms to sustain enterprises’ missions, and we also trace how many of these mechanisms are endogenous to alternative ownership models. Finally, we find that ownership models vary in how well they enable the expression and maintenance of these social values. A ladder of mission-sustaining ownership models exists, whereby the dominance of substantive, non-instrumental values over operations and investment becomes increasingly robust as one moves up the rungs from mission-driven investor ownership to special shareholder and member-ownership models.

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Organizational Imaginaries: Tempering Capitalism and Tending to Communities through Cooperatives and Collectivist Democracy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-989-7

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Asma Akter, S M Sohel Rana and Abdul Jalil Ramli

This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding on social entrepreneurial behavior (SEB). Previous researchers mostly focused on social entrepreneurial intention leaving…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding on social entrepreneurial behavior (SEB). Previous researchers mostly focused on social entrepreneurial intention leaving a gap between intention and behavior. The present study, however, tries to explore the issues related to actual SEB by taking data from those who are actively involved in social entrepreneurial activities.

Design/methodology/approach

For testing the hypothesized model of this study, a survey was conducted taking samples from 320 respondents who are actively involved in social entrepreneurial activities. The collected data were analyzed by SmartPLS version 2.0.M3 for validating the results.

Findings

The findings generated from the empirical data reveal that self-efficacy was found to be the most significant followed by moral obligation, innovativeness, social support and empathy (EM) in influencing SEB. In addition to that, perceived desirability partially mediated the relationship between EM, social support, innovativeness and SEB.

Originality/value

This study establishes the importance of some distinctive factors influencing SEB. It is believed that the present study has important implications for society as a whole for solving societal problems and it enriches existing body of knowledge as well.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

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