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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Jaemun Byun and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

This study aims to investigate, when a service failure occurs, whether circumstantial cues could be used to encourage more positive responses by customers toward…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate, when a service failure occurs, whether circumstantial cues could be used to encourage more positive responses by customers toward restaurants through the mediation of causal attribution.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (cause of service failure: easily observable vs difficult-to-observe) × 2 (kitchen design: open vs closed) between-subject experiment is used to analyze customers’ causal attributions of service failures and resultant responses.

Findings

When a service failure whose cause is easy to identify occurs, customers at open-kitchen restaurants show more negative responses than those at closed-kitchen restaurants because they are likely to attribute the responsibility to the restaurant. Attribution is confirmed to mediate the relationship between the interaction of service failure by kitchen design and customers’ responses.

Practical implications

Diverse circumstantial cues should be actively used to encourage more positive responses by customers. The mediating role of causal attribution should be considered in managing customers’ responses toward service failures.

Originality/value

This study finds that circumstantial cues could be useful in dealing with service failures in restaurants by confirming the mediating role of causal attribution.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

EunHa Jeong and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

This study aims to examine the effects of self-image congruities (i.e. the match between the image of a product or brand and a customer’s image of themselves) as an…

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1176

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of self-image congruities (i.e. the match between the image of a product or brand and a customer’s image of themselves) as an affective psychological process in the context of a restaurant setting. The study proposed that a customer’s perception of congruity between his or her self-image and a restaurant could be a salient antecedent for eliciting positive affects toward restaurants, which may influences customers’ evaluations of the functional attributes of a restaurant. The relative effects of actual versus ideal self-image congruity on positive affects, along with the moderating effect of the type of restaurant, were also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was developed and distributed to randomly selected respondents in the USA and a total of 376 responses were used for the data analyses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the relationships among five constructs: actual self-image congruity, ideal self-image congruity, positive affect, evaluation of the restaurant experience and revisiting intentions. To investigate the moderating effect of the restaurant type – more specifically, to examine differences in relative importance of actual versus ideal self-image congruity based on the type of restaurant (casual dining versus fine dining) – multiple group analyses were executed.

Findings

The results showed that both actual and ideal self-image congruity significantly influence positive affect, which has a significant influence on customers’ evaluations of the functional attributes of a restaurant. Actual self-image congruity effect on positive affect was significant in casual dining restaurants, but it was not significant in fine-dining restaurants. Ideal self-image congruity effect on positive affect was significant in both casual and fine-dining restaurant.

Practical implications

This study provides practical implications for developing an effective marketing communication in terms of promoting different segments of restaurant (casual dining vs fine-dining) based upon the customers’ perception of self-image congruity.

Originality/value

This paper includes a theoretical model that explains whether self-image congruity is a salient antecedent influencing restaurant customers’ positive feelings toward a restaurant brand. It also examined the relative effects of actual versus ideal self-image congruities in different restaurant settings.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Hong Soon Kim and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

This paper aims to explore the effect of hiring outside chief executive officers (CEOs) on restaurant performance. As outside CEOs have a mandate to bring changes but lack…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the effect of hiring outside chief executive officers (CEOs) on restaurant performance. As outside CEOs have a mandate to bring changes but lack internal knowledge, this study expected that outside CEOs impose a significant influence on restaurant performance. It was further expected that the relationship is substantially moderated by franchising and recession.

Design/methodology/approach

The CEO data was manually collected from firms’ annual filings and the EXECOMP database. The COMPUSTAT database was used for company financial data. A two-way panel regression was used to examine the proposed relationships.

Findings

The results revealed that outside CEOs have a positive effect on growth but a negative effect on restaurant profitability. It was further turned out that franchising significantly moderates the outside CEO-performance relationship. However, the moderating effect of recession turned out to be insignificant.

Practical implications

The results suggested that outside CEOs play a critical role in determining restaurant performance. The results further imply that franchising helps to maximize the positive effect of outside CEOs while mitigating the adverse effects of outside CEOs.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the effect of outside CEOs in the hospitality context. Moreover, this study extended the literature by revealing the relationship in the restaurant industry and highlighting the importance of long-term organizational context.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Jong-Hyeong Kim and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

This study aims to address a lack of studies on the attributes of ethnic restaurants that influence customers’ perceptions of authenticity. Particularly, this study…

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3081

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address a lack of studies on the attributes of ethnic restaurants that influence customers’ perceptions of authenticity. Particularly, this study extended Gilmore and Pine’s authenticity framework (is the offering true to itself and is the offering what it says it is) by incorporating a servicescape factor (i.e. employees).

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a 2 × 2 × 2 between-participants design which examined the effects of using an authentic sauce in a dish, advertising “authenticity” and employing staff from the native culture of the ethnic food on authentic experiences. Follow-up contact was made by phone and mail to assess their memory of ethnic Korean food tried in experimental conditions. Participants were asked how clearly and vividly they could recollect the food experience.

Findings

The results showed that all of the tested factors significantly influenced the subjects’ perceived authenticity of the food and recollection of the food experience. However, the authors did not find any significant interaction effects.

Practical implications

This study suggests factors that influence customers’ authentic experiences and memory. Thus, the findings provide important implications for delivering authentic and memorable experiences.

Originality/value

Previous researchers have emphasized the importance and urgency of providing authentic and memorable experiences. However, it is still unclear what specific attributes of ethnic restaurants influence individuals’ perceptions of authenticity and memory.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Sung Gyun Mun and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

The purpose of this study was to extend the understanding of restaurant firms’ overall debt and equity financing practices by considering what drives equity financing…

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2652

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to extend the understanding of restaurant firms’ overall debt and equity financing practices by considering what drives equity financing. More importantly, this study attempted to identify whether an optimal financial leverage point exists in the relationship between debt financing and equity financing for restaurant firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used fixed-effects regression models with a sample of 1,549 unbalanced firm-year panel data to identify restaurant firms’ financial practices and the impacts of financial constraints.

Findings

First, restaurant firms tend to issue long-term debt to pay back existing debt. However, the amount of debt does not exactly match the debt’s maturity. Second, small restaurant firms’ net debt financing, as well as net equity financing, has an inverted-U-shaped relationship with financial leverage. Finally, the effect of financial leverage on external financing significantly differs between small and large restaurant firms.

Practical implications

Restaurant firms routinely use both debt and equity financing interchangeably to manage their financial constraints and target debt ratio. Further, firm size is an important indicator of financial constraints, while equity financing plays an important role in managing an optimal target debt ratio.

Originality/value

This study is unique in that it considers determinants of restaurant firms’ long-term debt financing as well as equity financing. This study also examines differences in long-term debt and equity financing practices between financially constrained and unconstrained firms.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Dori Davari, Saeed Vayghan, SooCheong (Shawn) Jang and Mehmet Erdem

This study aims to gain an understanding of hotel experiences during the pandemic by examining sentiments of guests posted online.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to gain an understanding of hotel experiences during the pandemic by examining sentiments of guests posted online.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper incorporates the balance theory, in a dyadic system to analyze the ways in which guests were motivated to restore a position of balance during the unprecedented COVID-19 crisis. Qualitative content analysis was used to detect thematic patterns of hotel experiences based on examining online reviews shared by actual guests of two major hotel brands – one more closely associated with convenience-driven automation (high-tech) and the other known for providing more guest–employee interaction (high-touch).

Findings

The analysis of the reviews yielded six main themes: “purpose of visit,” “COVID safety concerns,” “technology adoption,” “COVID limitations,” “exceeded expectation” and “hospitality of staff.” Staff displaying a welcoming attitude was the main factor in creating a convivial experience for guests at both hotel brands, but the technology was not highlighted as much in guests’ reviews. Despite the pandemic, guests of both hotel brands had similar levels of enjoyment regarding their hotel experiences regardless of the high-touch or high-tech nature of the operations.

Research limitations/implications

User-generated content often reflects the opinions of those who are very satisfied or not satisfied at all. Different data collection techniques could be used to get a “big picture” view of the balance between high-touch and high-tech experiences.

Practical implications

The findings offer support to researchers and practitioners who advocate that high-touch and high-tech can indeed co-exist, and that these distinct service delivery modes do not have to be mutually exclusive.

Originality/value

This paper provides new trajectories that can broaden the approaches undertaken by hospitality/tourism scholars and practitioners based on user-generated content. This study is one of the first to adopt the lens of the balance theory, in a dyadic system, to investigate how guests may be psychologically motivated to balance their perceptions and expectations during a time of crisis.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

JungYun (Christine) Hur and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

Given the increasing importance of relationship management in service recovery encounters, this study aims to investigate the role of consumer–organization relationship…

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1645

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increasing importance of relationship management in service recovery encounters, this study aims to investigate the role of consumer–organization relationship norms (communal versus exchange) in connection with the service recovery process.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a thorough review of the previous literature, the model was developed. Using a scenario-based survey method, a total of 204 usable responses were obtained via self-administered questionnaires in the USA. Anderson and Gerbing’s two-step approach was used to assess the measurement and structural models.

Findings

The findings indicate that consumers’ recovery processes are influenced by relationship norms. For consumers in the communal relationship, perceived social recovery had a greater influence on satisfaction with the service recovery. Consumers in the exchange relationship reacted more sensitively to perceived economic recovery in terms of satisfaction with the service recovery.

Research limitations/implications

The focus of this study is restaurant consumers’ responses to service recovery in the context of an established relationship. Therefore, the results may not be generalizable for other consumers and segments.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications for increasing the understanding of consumer behavior in established relationships and suggesting effective recovery strategies.

Originality/value

This study investigates the effect of different relationship norms that could explain varying consumer responses to service recovery within a high-quality relationship. It also provides directions for improving consumers’ satisfaction with service recovery. This differs from previous studies that mainly focused on relationship quality.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

DongHee Kim and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of three types of perceived healthiness (physical, psychological and economic health) on restaurant consumption…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of three types of perceived healthiness (physical, psychological and economic health) on restaurant consumption activities among senior consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 325 restaurant customers in the USA through a Web-based survey conducted by an online marketing research firm. Following previous studies’ categorization of senior consumers, this study distinguished between “senior consumers” (age 60 or older) and “younger consumers” (age 39 or younger) to better compare different age-related behaviors. A series of two-way ANOVA was conducted for dining-out frequency and the number of choice sets.

Findings

The results revealed that senior diners’ perceptions of healthiness are critical in determining senior consumers’ restaurant behaviors, such as information processing and purchasing behaviors. The results provide evidence that seniors with a positive perception of their physical and psychological status seek a greater number of alternative restaurant choices, which is actively related to purchasing frequency.

Practical implications

The managerial implications indicate that restaurant marketers should avoid stereotypes and instead rely on more recent and accurate information regarding today’s senior consumers.

Originality/value

The position taken in this study recognizes the need to enhance the understanding of senior consumers’ patterns regarding their perceived physical, psychological and economic health. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate the impact of three types of health on seniors’ dining behaviors.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Jong-Hyeong Kim and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

This study aims to identify the influences that lead to better memorability of a service by focusing on type of service failure, recovery condition and frequency of occurring.

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1319

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the influences that lead to better memorability of a service by focusing on type of service failure, recovery condition and frequency of occurring.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a quasi-experimental design in which customers answered questions about a restaurant they had recently patronized and then evaluated experimentally generated failure and recovery scenarios. Two follow-up contacts were made (by phone and e-mail) to assess their memory of the imagined service failures stimulated by the scenarios. Participants were asked how clearly and vividly they could recollect the service failure and to indicate their behavioral intentions at the time of recall.

Findings

The type of service failure and the subsequent recovery efforts significantly affect whether negative service experiences are memorable. Specifically, individuals showed a higher likelihood of vividly recalling a core service failure than an interactional one. Moreover, service recoveries were found to be helpful in decreasing the memorability of service failures, and that they were effective in decreasing the resulting negative customer behavioral intentions (i.e. switching behaviors and negative word-of-mouth). However, frequently occurred service failures did not significantly influence the memorability of the failures.

Practical implications

The current study suggested what characteristics of service failures and situations lead to strong memorability and significantly affect future behavior. Thus, the findings provide important implications for avoiding and handling the failures that trigger strong memorability.

Originality/value

Previous researchers have emphasized on the importance and urgency of preventing critical service failures. However, it is still unclear what type of service failures and/or factors are critical ones. The current study expands the knowledge by incorporating service failures with memory and investigates the characteristics of memorable service failures, which are likely to be remembered more vividly.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Hwijin Jeon Baldick and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

This study aims to examine the motivating factors that influence intentions to book shared rooms through Airbnb as well as the moderating effects of past experience and gender.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the motivating factors that influence intentions to book shared rooms through Airbnb as well as the moderating effects of past experience and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzed data from 214 leisure travelers who had previously stayed in shared rooms through Airbnb and 207 participants who had not yet experienced Airbnb. A covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) technique was performed to test the significance of attitude, subjective norms, extroverted personality, perceived risk and perceived price. Furthermore, the study explored past experience and gender as moderators.

Findings

The results suggest that attitude, subjective norms and perceived risk significantly impacted intentions to book shared rooms through Airbnb. However, perceived price was not a significant determinant. In addition, this study verified that past experience and gender moderated the relationship between important referents and attitude/booking intentions.

Practical implications

This study gives Airbnb hosts a better understanding of travelers who choose Airbnb’s shared rooms. In addition, hosts who offer shared rooms can implement marketing strategies and complementary activities to not only reduce the risk of booking shared rooms but also attract more travelers.

Originality/value

While previous studies examined Airbnb as one homogeneous type of accommodation, this study focused on Airbnb’s shared rooms. A clearer understanding of consumers who intend to book Airbnb’s shared rooms will enable hosts to develop effective marketing strategies.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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