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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2019

Somrerk Chandra-ambhorn, Jennarong Tungtrongpairoj, Anuwat Jutilarptavorn, Thanasak Nilsonthi and Tanongsak Somphakdee

The purpose of this study is to investigate the formation, pickling ability and adhesion of thermal oxide scales on the hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the medium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the formation, pickling ability and adhesion of thermal oxide scales on the hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the medium and thin slabs. Because the scale on the steel produced from the medium slab was relatively thick of about 11 µm, it contained cracks after hot-rolling. Thus during pickling, the scale was uniformly attacked with the simultaneous dissolution of the inner scale because of the penetration of acid through cracks. However, the scale on the steel produced from the thin slab was thinner of about 6 µm and thus, nearly crack-free. The pickling solution thus attacked the scale surface uniformly. At longer pickling periods, pits were also nucleated and propagated. Concurrently, the tensile testing machine with a CCD camera has been applied to observe scale adhesion.

Design/methodology/approach

The formation, pickling ability and adhesion of thermal oxide scales on the hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the recycled slab, e.g. medium slab and thin slab, were investigated. The morphology and phase identification were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the adhesion behaviour of oxide scale was investigated by immersion test and tensile test with a CCD camera.

Findings

For the scale formation, it was found that the hematite and magnetite were formed on the hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the medium and thin slabs. For the immersion test, it was found that the scale on hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the medium slab was more difficult to be pickled as represented by the longer time for the complete pickling. This was consistent with the result of tensile test; the steel produced from the medium slab had better scale adhesion as represented by the higher strain initiating the first spallation of scale.

Originality/value

The effects of slab types and its alloying element were investigated to understand the scale adhesion behaviour. The empirical pickling mechanisms and the mechanical adhesion energy were proposed. It led to the understanding in the control of alloying element in the hot-rolled steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Somrerk Chandra-ambhorn, Sermsak Srihirun and Thamrongsin Siripongsakul

The purpose of this study is to investigate the aesthetic blackening coating formed by a hydrothermal process, focusing on the formation of magnetite and the oxide…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the aesthetic blackening coating formed by a hydrothermal process, focusing on the formation of magnetite and the oxide adhesion for improving the corrosion resistance of the steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The aesthetic black coating was applied on AISI 4140 steel using a hydrothermal process with a non-toxic solution consisted of ferrous sulphate hydrate (FeSO4·7H2O), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O). Upon process parameters temperature and time, the morphology of the coatings and oxidation kinetics were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Furthermore, the samples with coatings were subjected to the adhesion test using a tensile testing machine equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.

Findings

From the formation parameters due to temperature and time for the conversion coatings, it was found that the oxidation kinetics had special characteristics which were in accordance with a linear rate law and Arrhenius relation. For the samples blackened, the XRD analysis results revealed that the magnetite was successfully formed on the surface of the steel. On the other hand, increasing the blackening temperature worsened the scale adhesion as observed by the lower strain provoking the first spallation and the higher sensitivity of the oxide to spall out with the imposed strain.

Originality/value

The effects of parameters of the formation of conversion coatings were investigated to understand the kinetics of the coatings. Furthermore, a tensile adhesion test using a CCD camera was applied to evaluate the adhesion between the native oxide formed by conversion coating.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2018

Somrerk Chandra-Ambhorn, Neramit Krasaelom, Tummaporn Thublaor and Sirichai Leelachao

This study aims to apply the pack cementation to develop the Fe-Al layers on the surface of FC 25 cast iron in order to increase the high-temperature corrosion resistance…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply the pack cementation to develop the Fe-Al layers on the surface of FC 25 cast iron in order to increase the high-temperature corrosion resistance of the alloy.

Design/methodology/approach

Pack cementation was applied on the surface of FC 25 cast iron at 1,050°C. The bare and aluminised alloys were subjected to the oxidation test in 20 per cent O2-N2 at 850 °C. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterisation.

Findings

The layers of pack cementation consisted of Fe2Al5, FeAl2 and FeAl, and solid solution alloyed with Al. The oxidation kinetics of the bare cast iron was parabolic. Mass gain of the aluminised cast iron was significantly decreased compared with that of the bare cast iron. This was because of the protective alumina formation on the aluminised alloy surface. Al in the Fe–Al layer also tended to be homogenised during oxidation.

Originality/value

Even though the aluminising of alloys was extensively studied, the application of that process to the FC 25 cast iron grade was originally developed in this work. The significantly reduced mass gain of the aluminised FC 25 cast iron makes the studied alloy be promising for the use as a valve seat insert in an agricultural single-cylinder four-stroke engine, which might be run by using a relatively cheaper fuel, i.e. LPG, but as a consequence requires the higher oxidation resistance of the engine parts.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Somrerk Chandra-Ambhorn, Sompong Chueaprakha and Thamrongsin Siripongsakul

The dissimilar welds between AISI 304L and Fe-15.6Cr-8.5Mn were investigated on oxidation at 700°C with the effects of dissolved nitrogen in the welds. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The dissimilar welds between AISI 304L and Fe-15.6Cr-8.5Mn were investigated on oxidation at 700°C with the effects of dissolved nitrogen in the welds. This paper aims to clarify the oxidation behaviors to expand the range of application for Fe-Cr-Mn stainless steel.

Design/methodology/approach

Dissimilar welds between AISI 304L and Fe-15.6Cr-8.5Mn were fabricated using gas tungsten arc welding to investigate the oxidation behavior of the welds at 700°C. Pure Ar and Ar-4%N2 shielding gases were used to evaluate the effects of nitrogen gas. The welds were introduced to the cyclic oxidation test. In each cycle, the furnace was heated up to 700°C, and the temperature was kept at 700°C for 8 h, then the mass gain because of oxidation was examined. The scales after oxidation test were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy with EDX and X-ray diffraction analysis.

Findings

Addition of 4 per cent nitrogen to Ar shielding gas reduced delta-ferrite content in the weld. Ar-4%N2 shielding gas resulted in dissolved nitrogen which helped increase the diffusivities of chromium or oxygen vacancies in the oxide to facilitate the chromia formation at the inner part near the steel substrate. This protective layer can help reduce the Fe outward diffusion, thus reducing mass gain because of iron oxide formation.

Originality/value

The oxidation behavior of dissimilar welds between AISI 304L and Fe-15.6Cr-8.5Mn were investigated at 700°C. The evaluation is beneficial for expanding the range of application of Fe-Cr-Mn stainless steel at high temperature.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Somrerk Chandra-ambhorn, Wisarut Wachirasiri and Gobboon Lothongkum

This paper aims to construct the E-pH diagrams for AISI 316L stainless steel in chloride solutions containing SO42− ions and therefore investigate the role of SO42− ions…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to construct the E-pH diagrams for AISI 316L stainless steel in chloride solutions containing SO42− ions and therefore investigate the role of SO42− ions on pitting corrosion of stainless steel.

Design/methodology/approach

A cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation method was performed to obtain polarisation curves at different pH. From these curves, corrosion, primary passivation, pitting and repassivation potentials were determined and plotted as a function of pH giving the E-pH diagram.

Findings

The addition of SO42− ions to 10,650 ppm NaCl solution up to 3,000 ppm widened the passivation regime of the E-pH diagram mainly by shifting the pitting corrosion potential to the noble direction. This indicated the inhibiting role of SO42− on the nucleation of new pits in the transpassive region. It also stabilised the pitting corrosion potential at the pH ranging from 5 to 11. However, at pH 7, it caused the pit area to increase, implying the catalytic role of SO42− on the pit growth. Finally, it did not change the types of ions dissolved in solutions after pitting.

Practical implications

The diagrams can be used as a guideline in industries to determine the passivation regime of the AISI 316L stainless steel in chloride- and sulphate-containing solutions.

Originality/value

This paper reported the E-pH diagrams for the AISI 316L stainless steel in chloride solutions containing SO42− ions. The roles of pH and SO42− ions on pitting corrosion were innovatively discussed using a point defect model.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 63 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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