Search results1 – 2 of 2
The purpose of this study is to perform a detailed review on the numerical modeling of multiphase and multicomponent flows in microfluidic system using phase-field method…
The purpose of this study is to perform a detailed review on the numerical modeling of multiphase and multicomponent flows in microfluidic system using phase-field method. The phase-field method is of emerging importance in numerical computation of transport phenomena involving multiple phases and/or components. This method is not only used to model interfacial phenomena typical to multiphase flows encountered in engineering and nature but also turns out to be a promising tool in modeling the dynamics of complex fluid-fluid interfaces encountered in physiological systems such as dynamics of vesicles and red blood cells). Intrinsically, a priori unknown topological evolution of interfaces offers to be the most concerning challenge toward accurate modeling of moving boundary problems. However, the numerical difficulties can be tackled simultaneously with numerical convenience and thermodynamic rigor in the paradigm of the phase field method.
The phase-field method replaces the macroscopically sharp interfaces separating the fluids by a diffuse transition layer where the interfacial forces are smoothly distributed. As against the moving mesh methods (Lagrangian) for the explicit tracking of interfaces, the phase-field method implicitly captures the same through the evolution of a phase-field function (Eulerian). In contrast to the deployment of an artificially smoothing function for the interface as used in the volume of a fluid or level set method, however, the phase-field method uses mixing free energy for describing the interface. This needs the consideration of an additional equation for an order parameter. The dynamic evolution of the system (equation for order parameter) can be described by Allen–Cahn or Cahn–Hilliard formulation, which couples with the Navier–Stokes equation with the aid of a forcing function that depends on the chemical potential and the gradient of the order parameter.
In this review, first, the authors discuss the broad motivation and the fundamental theoretical foundation associated with phase-field modeling from the perspective of computational microfluidics. They subsequently pinpoint the outstanding numerical challenges, including estimations of the model-free parameters. They outline some numerical examples, including electrohydrodynamic flows, to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Finally, they pinpoint various emerging issues and futuristic perspectives connecting the phase-field method and computational microfluidics.
This paper gives unique perspectives to future directions of research on this topic.
The purpose of this study is to explore the heat transfer enhancement in copper–water nanofluid flowing in a diagonally vented rectangular enclosure with four discrete…
The purpose of this study is to explore the heat transfer enhancement in copper–water nanofluid flowing in a diagonally vented rectangular enclosure with four discrete heaters mounted centrally on the sidewalls and a square-shaped embedded heated block in the influence of a static magnetic field.
Four discrete heaters are mounted centrally on each sidewall of the rectangular enclosure that embraces a heated square block. A static transverse magnetic field is acting on the vertical walls. The Navier–Stokes equations of motion and the energy equation are modified by incorporating Lorentz force and basic physical properties of nanofluid. The derived momentum and energy equations are tackled numerically using the successive over-relaxation technique associating with the Gauss–Seidel iteration technique. The effects of physical parameters connected to dynamics of flow and heat convection are explored from streamlines and isotherms graphs and discussed numerically in terms of Nusselt number.
The effect of the embedded heated square block size and its location in the enclosure, nanoparticles volume fraction and the intensity of the magnetic field on flow and heat transfer are computed. Compared with the case when no heated block is embedded in the enclosure, in free convection at Ra = 106, the average local Nusselt number on the wall-mounted heaters is attenuated by 8.25%, 11.24% and 12.75% when the enclosure embraced a heated square block of side length 10% of H, 20% of H and 30% of H, respectively. An increase in Hartmann number suppresses the heat convection.
The enhancement in the convective heat is greater when the buoyancy effect dominates the viscous effects. Placing the embedded heated block near the inlet vent, the lower temperature zone has reduced while the embedded heated block is at the central location of the enclosure, the high-temperature zone has expanded. The external magnetic field can be used as a non-invasive controlling device.
The numerically simulated results for heat convection of water-based copper nanofluid agreed qualitatively with the existing experimental results.
The models could be used in designing a target-oriented heat exchanger.
The paper includes a comparative study for three locations of the embedded heated square. The optimal results for the centrally located heated block are also performed for three different sizes of the embedded block. The numerically simulated results are compared with the published numerical and experimental studies.