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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Guang Zeng, Songbai Xue, Liang Zhang, Zhong Sheng and Lili Gao

The purpose of this paper is to numerically evaluate the reliability of SnAgCuCe solder joints compared with that of SnAgCu. A trace amount of the rare earth (RE) element…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to numerically evaluate the reliability of SnAgCuCe solder joints compared with that of SnAgCu. A trace amount of the rare earth (RE) element Ce was added into SnAgCu solder in order to improve the reliability of lead‐free solder joints, which was evaluated based on finite element simulation and experiments.

Design/methodology/approach

A finite element method and an Anand constitutive model were employed to analyze the reliability of SnAgCuCe and SnAgCu solder joints in fine pitch quad flat packages under thermal cycling. The mechanical properties and reliability of solder joints were characterized by using thermal fatigue and creep tests, while the microstructure of the solder alloy and SnAgCu/SnAgCuCe solder joints were also investigated in the experimental procedure.

Findings

The simulation results indicated that SnAgCuCe solder joints had better reliability than SnAgCu. In addition, the experimental results accorded well with those of simulation, the thermal fatigue property and creep resistance of solder joints was increased by adding cerium. SnAgCuCe alloy can get its microstructure refinement improved and the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer at the solder/Cu interface decreased significantly compared to that of SnAgCu.

Originality/value

The findings provide certain guidelines to the reliability evaluation of solder joints when applying novel RE containing solder alloys in practical electronics industry applications. In the meantime, the reason for the superior reliability of SnAgCuCe solder joints can be explained from the property and microstructural point‐of‐view.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Janusz Sitek, Aneta Araźna, Kamil Janeczek, Wojciech Stęplewski, Krzysztof Lipiec, Konrad Futera and Piotr Ciszewski

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of solder joints made on long FR-4 and metal core printed circuit boards using the accelerated thermal cycling.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of solder joints made on long FR-4 and metal core printed circuit boards using the accelerated thermal cycling.

Design/methodology/approach

Solder joints of diodes and resistors samples made on long FR-4 and aluminum (Al) core printed circuit boards were examined. Two kinds of solder pastes were used for the samples preparation. All samples were subjected to temperature aging cycles (−40°C – 3 hours/+85°C – 3 hours). Solder joints resistance, X-Ray inspection and metallographic cross-sections for samples as received and after 100, 500 and 1,000 hours of thermal cycles were utilized for solder joints assessment.

Findings

It was stated that 1,000 hours of thermal cycles were enough to show reliability problems in solder joints on long and/or AL core printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). The solder joints of R1206 components were the most sensitive reliability elements. The solder joints of LED diodes are more reliable than solder joints of R1206 resistors. Solder joints made on FR-4 substrate were about two times more reliable than ones on AL core substrate. Cracks in solder joints were the visible reason of solder joints failures.

Originality/value

The influence of thermal cycles on the reliability of solder joints on long, FR-4 and metal core printed circuit boards were presented. Findings from this paper can be used for planning of reliability trials during validation of reflow processes of products containing long or long metal core printed circuit boards (PCBs).

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Meng‐Kuang Huang and Chiapyng Lee

The purpose of this paper is to describe the board level reliability test results of four IC packages with lead‐free balls/platings, soldered with lead‐free solder paste…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the board level reliability test results of four IC packages with lead‐free balls/platings, soldered with lead‐free solder paste, during thermal cycling. The board level reliability test results of tin‐lead balled/plated packages soldered with lead‐free solder paste have also been included for comparison.

Design/methodology/approach

Four different packages, i.e. ball grid array (BGA), chip scale package (CSP), quad flat package (QFP) and thin small outline package (TSOP), were assembled on a test printed circuit board (PCB) as the test vehicle. Lead‐free and tin‐lead BGA/CSP packages were equipped with Sn‐3.0Ag‐0.5Cu and Sn‐37Pb solder balls, respectively. The lead‐frames of lead‐free QFP/TSOP leaded‐packages were plated with Sn‐58Bi and those of tin‐lead QFP/TSOP leaded‐packages, Sn‐37Pb. The lead‐free solder paste used in this study was Sn‐3.0Ag‐0.5Cu. Two kinds of surface finishes, immersion gold over electroless nickel (Au/Ni) and organic solderability preservative, were used on the PCBs. The test PCBs were thermal cycled 5,000 times within the temperature range of −40 to 125°C and electrically monitored during the thermal cycling.

Findings

It was found that the tin‐lead balled/plated BGAs, CSPs, QFPs and TSOPs soldered with lead‐free solder paste showed serious board level reliability risks as their abilities to withstand thermal cycling stresses are much weaker than those of entirely lead‐free assemblies. Neither package nor surface finish was found to have any effects on the board level reliability of test vehicles with lead‐free balled/plated BGAs, CSPs, QFPs and TSOPs. Metallographic examinations were conducted to investigate the effect of thermal cycling on the failure modes of solder joints.

Originality/value

The paper is of value by contributing to research in the use of lead‐free solder paste with lead‐containing packages in the industry. Currently, there is a deficiency of knowledge in this area.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

John Lau, Jerry Gleason, Valeska Schroeder, Gregory Henshall, Walter Dauksher and Bob Sullivan

The High Density Packaging Users Group Consortium has conducted a study of process development and solderjoint reliability of high‐density packages on printed circuit…

Abstract

Purpose

The High Density Packaging Users Group Consortium has conducted a study of process development and solderjoint reliability of high‐density packages on printed circuit boards (PCB) using a low‐melting temperature lead‐free solder. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reliability tests (e.g. temperature cycling and shock and vibration) and failure analysis (FA) of high‐density packages on PCB with the low‐melting temperature lead‐free solder (Sn‐57 wt%Bi‐1 wt%Ag).

Design/methodology/approach

The design for reliability, materials, and assembly process aspects of the project have been discussed in “Design, materials, and assembly process of high‐density packages with a low‐temperature lead‐free solder (SnBiAg)” also published in this journal issue. In this study, reliability tests (e.g. temperature cycling and shock and vibration) and FA of high‐density packages on PCB with the low‐melting temperature lead‐free solder (Sn‐57 wt%Bi‐1 wt%Ag) are investigated.

Findings

Lead‐free solderjoint reliability of high‐density packages, such as the PBGA388, PBGA256, PBGA208, PBGA196, PBGA172, PQFP80, and TSSOP56 were determined by temperature cycling, shock, and vibration tests. Temperature cycling test data for over 8,100 cycles between 0 and 100°C in a 44 min. cycle were statistically analyzed. Shock and vibration test data based on the HP Standard Class Bi‐II Products SPEC have also been reported.

Originality/value

Currently there is a lack of experimental and simulation data and field experience in respect of one of the critical issues for industry – that of solder joint reliability in lead‐free soldering. The paper contains some important research results and recommendations.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Janusz Sitek, Marek Koscielski, Janusz Borecki and Tomasz Serzysko

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of solder powders sizes applied in soldering materials used for Package-on-Package (PoP) system manufacture as well…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of solder powders sizes applied in soldering materials used for Package-on-Package (PoP) system manufacture as well as other factors on reliability and mechanical strength of created solder joints in three-dimensional (3D) PoP structures.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of experiments based on the Genichi Taguchi method were used in the investigation. The main factors covered different printed circuit board (PCB) coatings, soldering materials with solder powders sizes from Types 3 to 7 and soldering profiles. The reliability of 3D PoP structures was determined by measurements of resistance of daisy-chain solder joints systems during thermal shocks (TS) cycles. The mechanical strength of solder joints in 3D PoP structures was determined by measurements of a shear force of “Top” layer of 3D structures at T0 and after 1,500 TS. The ANOVA was used for results assessment.

Findings

The size of solder powders applied in soldering materials had small (10 per cent) influence on mechanical strength of solder joints in 3D PoP structures. Small size of solder powder had positive effect on solder joints reliability in 3D PoP structures. Especially important was the selection of solder paste for “Bottom” layer of 3D PoP system (influence 17 per cent). Incorrect soldering profile (influence 46 per cent) or wrong selected PCB coating (influence 35 per cent) can very easily reduce the positive impact of soldering materials on solder joints reliability. It was stated that as low as possible soldering profile and organic solderability preservative (OSP) coating in the case of single-sided PCB are the best for 3D PoP structures due to their reliability.

Originality/value

This paper explains how different sizes of solder powders used nowadays in solder pastes influence on reliability and mechanical strength of the solder joints in 3D PoP structures. The contribution, in numerical values, of soldering materials, soldering profile and PCB coating on 3D PoP structures solder joints reliability as well as recommendations improving reliability of 3D PoP structures solder joints were presented.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

J. Seyyedi and J. Padgett

As part of a programme of characterisation of interconnection technologies for computer server products the present investigation was conducted to determine the attachment…

Abstract

As part of a programme of characterisation of interconnection technologies for computer server products the present investigation was conducted to determine the attachment integrity and long‐term reliability of resistor network ceramic Chip Scale Package (CSP) solder joints. Accelerated thermal cycling with electrical continuity monitoring of the solder joints was used to determine reliability. The thermal cycling was combined with metallographic examination of appropriate solder joints to evaluate the failure modes and to corroborate the failure thresholds. The measured reliability for the CSP solder joints was 1,027 thermal cycles. This implied an estimated minimum lifetime of 7.8 years for the product in a worst‐case field use. The reliability was virtually unaffected by the solder joint pad size and geometry on the board. All fatigue failed solder joints exhibited similar failure modes.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

J. Seyyedi

The reliability of solder joints and plated‐through‐hole (PTH) copper structure was investigated for 503 I/O interstitial pin grid array packages with two different pin…

Abstract

The reliability of solder joints and plated‐through‐hole (PTH) copper structure was investigated for 503 I/O interstitial pin grid array packages with two different pin diameters. Each package type was wave soldered to printed wiring boards having two different surface finishes and PTH sizes, by using the 63Sn–37Pb alloy. Accelerated thermal cycling with continuous monitoring was used in conjunction with metallographic analysis to determine reliability and to elucidate the failure threshold. The microstructural features and failure modes were found to be similar among the solder joints despite the physical differences. The measured solder joint fatigue lifetimes varied from 2450 to 3700 thermal cycles, depending on pin and PTH combinations. The reliability of PTH copper exceeded 4000 thermal cycles regardless of the PTH size. The solder joint fatigue results were used to predict the reliability under operating conditions.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Jeffrey C. Suhling, H.S. Gale, R. Wayne Johnson, M. Nokibul Islam, Tushar Shete, Pradeep Lall, Michael J. Bozack, John L. Evans, Ping Seto, Tarun Gupta and James R. Thompson

The solder joint reliability of ceramic chip resistors assembled to laminate substrates has been a long time concern for systems exposed to harsh environments. In this…

Abstract

The solder joint reliability of ceramic chip resistors assembled to laminate substrates has been a long time concern for systems exposed to harsh environments. In this work, the thermal cycling reliability of several 2512 chip resistor lead‐free solder joint configurations has been investigated. In an initial study, a comparison has been made between the solder joint reliabilities obtained with components fabricated with both tin‐lead and pure tin solder terminations. In the main portion of the reliability testing, two temperature ranges (−40‐125°C and −40‐150°C) and five different solder alloys have been examined. The investigated solders include the normal eutectic Sn‐Ag‐Cu (SAC) alloy recommended by earlier studies (95.5Sn‐3.8Ag‐0.7Cu), and three variations of the lead‐free ternary SAC alloy that include small quaternary additions of bismuth and indium to enhance fatigue resistance.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Sung Yi and Robert Jones

This paper aims to present a machine learning framework for using big data analytics to predict the reliability of solder joints. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a machine learning framework for using big data analytics to predict the reliability of solder joints. The purpose of this study is to accurately predict the reliability of solder joints by using big data analytics.

Design/methodology/approach

A machine learning framework for using big data analytics is proposed to predict the reliability of solder joints accurately.

Findings

A machine learning framework for predicting the life of solder joints accurately has been developed in this study. To validate its accuracy and efficiency, it is applied to predict the long-term reliability of lead-free Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu0.5 (SAC305) for three commonly used surface finishes such OSP, ENIG and IAg. The obtained results show that the predicted failure based on the machine learning method is much more accurate than the Weibull method. In addition, solder ball/bump joint failure modes are identified based on various solder joint failures reported in the literature.

Originality/value

The ability to predict thermal fatigue life accurately is extremely valuable to the industry because it saves time and cost for product development and optimization.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Tao Bo, Yin Zhouping, Ding Han and Wu Yiping

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel reflow profile optimization method using mechanical reliability estimation of micro‐ball grid array (μBGA) solder joints

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel reflow profile optimization method using mechanical reliability estimation of micro‐ball grid array (μBGA) solder joints, based on the heating factor, Qη is introduced, where the coupling effect of reflow temperature and time on the mechanical reliability of μBGA joints is considered.

Design/methodology/approach

The method presented is actualized through vibration fatigue tests. First, a two‐parameter Weibull distribution is used to model the collected data of vibration fatigue lifetime for different Qη. After that, two explicit functions are deduced in a unified mathematic expression form, which give an intuitionistic description of the mean time to failure and reliability of solder joints against induced variable Qη, thus revealing definitely the effect of Qη on the mechanical fatigue lifetime of solder joints suffering from cyclic vibration loading. Finally, for a specified reliability goal, how to choose proper Qη values, based an improved Golden Section Search arithmetic, is discussed.

Findings

Numerical analysis and calculation are performed. The results show that the solder joints made at Qη near 510 have higher mechanical reliability, and those reflowed farther away this optimal value have less reliability.

Originality/value

This paper presents a useful and applicable solution to achieve reflow profile optimization and process control for a quantitative mechanical reliability estimation of μBGA solder joints.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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