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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Mohd Fadhli Abd Rashid, Noraliani Alias, Kamarudin Ahmad, Radzuan Sa’ari, Frank Tsung-Chen Tsai, Mohd Zamri Ramli and Zulkiflee Ibrahim

The impact of climate change towards water surface resources is crucial, particularly in developing and non-developing countries. Groundwater as a main water resource is…

Abstract

The impact of climate change towards water surface resources is crucial, particularly in developing and non-developing countries. Groundwater as a main water resource is thus an essential. However, contamination due to hydrocarbon spills affects the groundwater as a water resource, especially as a main source of drinking water. This chapter investigates the light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) penetrations in double-porosity soil with different moisture contents and with or without vibration impact. It also explains the LNAPL penetration phenomena by employing image analysis. The physical laboratory experiments were implemented using an acrylic cylinder, a mirror, toluene and a Nikon D90 DSLR digital camera. Prepared soil was poured in an acrylic cylinder and compressed with compressor until it became 10 cm in height. LNAPL was then poured instantaneously onto the acrylic cylinder that was filled with soil sample. The LNAPL penetration patterns were recorded and monitored using a Nikon D90 DSLR digital camera. The processing technique was conducted at predetermined time intervals using Surfer software and Matlab routine to plot the LNAPL pattern. The results showed that a higher penetration rate of LNAPL occurred with higher moisture content and without vibration impact. The penetration time for LNAPL to reach the bottom of the soil sample was found to be longer for the soil that had low moisture content and with vibration impact.

Details

Water Management and Sustainability in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-114-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Loke Kok Foong, Ramli Nazir, Radzuan Sa’ari, Mohd Zamri Ramli, Mohd Ridza Mohd Haniffah, Erwan Hafizi Kasiman and Noraliani Alias

The evolution in developed countries has taken a role in global warming and natural disasters such as flash flood, El-Nino, earthquake and groundwater contamination. The…

Abstract

The evolution in developed countries has taken a role in global warming and natural disasters such as flash flood, El-Nino, earthquake and groundwater contamination. The underground storage tank leakage problems and spillage of hydrocarbon liquid leading to the contamination of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) into the groundwater could reduce the quality of groundwater. This chapter is intended to investigate the behaviour and the pattern of NAPL migrations in double-porosity soil under vibration and intact conditions. The experimental model is developed by using kaolin soil type S300 and toluene as NAPLs. The kaolin soil was mixed with 25% of moisture content to produce kaolin granules in the soil column and vibrate under 0.98 Hz of frequency within 60 seconds. As a result, both specimen liquids completely migrated to the bottom of soil column: sample 1 has higher permeability compared to sample 2. This is due to the fracture in double-porosity soil under vibration effect and loosened the soil structure in sample 1 compared to good intact soil sample 2 with stronger and compact soil structure. In conclusion, this study proves that the dangerous hydrocarbon NAPL migration in fractured double-porosity soil has very harmful effect on the environment and groundwater resources.

Details

Water Management and Sustainability in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-114-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2021

Abdelaziz Khennouf and Mohamed Baheddi

The estimation of bearing capacity for shallow foundations in swelling soil is an important and complex context. The complexity is due to the unsaturated swelling soil

Abstract

Purpose

The estimation of bearing capacity for shallow foundations in swelling soil is an important and complex context. The complexity is due to the unsaturated swelling soil related to the drying and humidification environment. Hence, a serious study is needed to evaluate the effect of swelling potential soil on the foundation bearing capacity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the bearing capacity of a rough square foundation founded on a homogeneous swelling soil mass, subjected to vertical loads.

Design/methodology/approach

A proposed numerical model based on the simulation of the swelling pressure in the initial state, followed by an elastoplastic behavior model may be used to calculate the foundation bearing capacity. The analyses were carried out using the finite-difference software (FLAC 3 D) with an elastic perfectly plastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model. Moreover, the numerical results obtained are compared with the analytical solutions proposed in the literature.

Findings

The numerical results were in good agreement with the analytical solutions proposed in the literature. Also, reasonable capacity and performance of the proposed numerical model.

Originality/value

The proposed numerical model is capable to predict the bearing capacity of the homogeneous swelling soil mass loaded by a shallow foundation. Also, it will be of great use for geotechnical engineers and researchers in the field.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1962

B.W. AVERY

From the first emergence of civilizations based on agriculture, variations in the nature and productive capacity of the soil were recognized by farmers, and names, usually…

Abstract

From the first emergence of civilizations based on agriculture, variations in the nature and productive capacity of the soil were recognized by farmers, and names, usually based on colour or texture, were given to distinctive varieties. In modern times the connection between soils and the rocks which provide their parent materials was generally recognized, and the earliest attempts to classify soils systematically had a geological or petrological basis. Most of these schemes, such as those proposed by Thaer and Fallou in Germany, suffered from their limited geographical scope, and little attention was paid to the effects on soil formation of climate, vegetation, and topography. Soil was conceived primarily as an inert material composed of variously constituted mineral particles mixed with varying quantities of plant residues, and the accent on soil as a material received further emphasis following the publication in 1840 of Liebig's ‘Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology’, which suggested that differences in soil fertility were largely determined by differences in chemical constitution.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 14 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Liang Liu, Yuling Zhao, Dongjuan Cheng and Baoguo Ma

Hydraulic conductivity is very low in saline-sodic soil, which decreases water infiltration. For saline-sodic soil, increasing infiltration water has a special meaning…

88

Abstract

Purpose

Hydraulic conductivity is very low in saline-sodic soil, which decreases water infiltration. For saline-sodic soil, increasing infiltration water has a special meaning. Increasing infiltration water not only increases the water in the soil profile but also decreases the salinity of the soil, thus making it suitable for growing crops. This study aims to examine the effect of sand pipes on soil water and salt distribution through laboratory tests with different depths and diameters of sand pipes.

Design/methodology/approach

The soil water and salt distribution responses to different sand pipe depths and diameters was investigated. Treatments included sand pipes with diameters of 4 cm, 5cm, 6 cm and the same depth of 4 cm; with depths of 2cm, 6 cm and the same diameter of 5 cm, and a control with no sand pipe (with the diameter of 0 cm and the depth of 0 cm).

Findings

The results suggested that the amount of cumulative infiltration water and transport distance of the wetting front could be increased by increasing the depth and diameter of sand pipes. The soil water content in the soil profile decreased under all treatments except for the control, whereas the value of EC increased with increasing distance from the film hole center. Positive relationships were also found among the sand pipe depth, diameter and the zone of low salt content. Furthermore, salt leaching depth increased with sand pipe depth and diameter. Overall, the treatments with and without sand pipes exhibited obvious differences.

Originality/value

The correlation analysis proved that increasing the infiltration area through sand pipes positively affected the amount of infiltration water, wetting scope and salt leaching depth.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Amer Al‐Rawas, Hossam F. Hassan, Ramzi Taha, Abdulwahid Hago, Bader Al‐Shandoudi and Yahia Al‐Suleimani

To investigate the effect of cement and cement by‐pass dust (CBPD) as a stabilizer on the geotechnical properties of oil‐contaminated soils resulting from leaking…

1353

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effect of cement and cement by‐pass dust (CBPD) as a stabilizer on the geotechnical properties of oil‐contaminated soils resulting from leaking underground storage tanks, or soils surrounding petroleum refineries and crude oil wells.

Design/methodology/approach

Oil‐contaminated soil (untreated soil) and a soil treated by bio‐remediation (treated soil) as well as a natural soil were obtained from Northern Oman. These soils were stabilized with cement and cement by‐pass dust at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent, by dry weight of the soil, and cured for seven, 14 and 28 days. Compaction, compressive strength, direct shear, permeability and leaching tests were carried out on the stabilized soils.

Findings

The results indicate that cement and cement by‐pass dust improve the properties of oil‐contaminated soils. Traces of arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium and lead were found in the oil soils, but none of them exceeded the EPA limits.

Practical implications

Reuse in construction applications provides a safe and useful solution for the problem of the disposal of oil‐contaminated soils.

Originality/value

The paper addresses an environmental problem facing many oil companies in disposing of or treating contaminated soil. The approach presented in the paper offers a beneficial, safe and economical solution to this problem.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Waleed Roy and Gerard Grealish

A soil information system was developed to manage soil survey data and to ensure that soil information is readily available to support land use planning and development…

1099

Abstract

A soil information system was developed to manage soil survey data and to ensure that soil information is readily available to support land use planning and development. The Soil Information System combined spatial information management of a Geographical Information System (GIS) with the textural information management of a relational database management system. The GIS is capable of manipulating and displaying area and point data with the logical framework of a database to store data for interpretation. The main objective of this paper was to demonstrate one of the approaches to utilize and interpret data from the soil information system for identifying soil suitable for irrigated agriculture. The design and implementation of the soil information system are discussed, and an example of system output, such as mapping soils suitable for irrigated agricultural, is presented in this paper. For mapping these areas, a criterion was defined to select potential areas for irrigated agriculture. The criterion was applied to each of the soil property classes and subclasses to determine the most limiting rating for each soil. The rating was applied to map units and was allocated by the geographic soil map units in the GIS to produce a suitability map for irrigated agricultural areas in Kuwait. The soil information for the State of Kuwait provided information in a digitized format that can be further extended to interpret other land uses.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

C.A. Smith

Introduction Although the soil as a corrosive environment is probably of greater complexity than any other environment, it is possible to make some generalisations…

Abstract

Introduction Although the soil as a corrosive environment is probably of greater complexity than any other environment, it is possible to make some generalisations regarding soil types and corrosion. It is necessary to emphasise that corrosion in soils is extremely variable and can range from the rapid to the negligible. This can be illustrated by the fact that buried pipes have become perforated within one year, while archaeological specimens of ancient iron have probably remained in the soil for hundreds of years without significant attack.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2022

Maria Angela Cruz Macedo dos Santos, Lucas Melo Vellame, Alisson Jadavi Pereira Silva, José Carlos de Araújo and Alisson Macendo Amaral

This paper aims to determine and evaluate the calibration curve for low-cost electronic sensors in soils from a reclaimed and degraded area in the Brazilian semiarid region.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine and evaluate the calibration curve for low-cost electronic sensors in soils from a reclaimed and degraded area in the Brazilian semiarid region.

Design/methodology/approach

The probes were made, programmed and inserted in soil previously conditioned in polyethylene cylinders. The sets “cylinder + probe + soil” were subjected to saturation for a period of 24 h and, subsequently, gravitational drainage at room temperature and daily weighings were performed. When the set reached constant weight, the samples were taken to dry in an oven at 105°C to determine the dry mass and later, determine the gravimetric moisture and convert it into volumetric. The volumetric moistures obtained were related to measured frequency variations and the adjustments were analyzed by regression, which was subjected to analysis of variance (p = 0.05), and related by a third-degree polynomial equation whose quality of the fit was verified with coefficient of determination (R2).

Findings

The obtained moistures were related to the estimated moistures and evaluated by the root-mean-square error and straight 1:1. The results demonstrate that the sensors are not accurate for moistures in saturation, but representative and statistically acceptable results for moistures up to field capacity.

Originality/value

This paper has not been published before in its current, or similar form.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Md. Nazmul Haque, Kaniz Fatema and Md. Ashikur Rahman Joy

Crop suitability analysis is vital for identifying a piece of land’s potential for sustainable crop production and aids in the formulation of an effective agricultural…

Abstract

Purpose

Crop suitability analysis is vital for identifying a piece of land’s potential for sustainable crop production and aids in the formulation of an effective agricultural management plan. This study aims to conduct crop suitability analysis of prominent Kharif (rice and maize) and Rabi (potato and wheat) crops in Sirajganj district, a flood-prone area of Bangladesh, and recommend a suitable cropping pattern to mitigate the detrimental effects of flooding.

Design/methodology/approach

Various factors such as soil drainage, soil depth, soil moisture, soil texture, soil permeability, soil pH, erosion hazard, nutrient status and flooding risk were considered for this study. For all four crops, the weights of each factor were determined using the analytical hierarchy process approach, and the scores of each subfactor were assigned on the basis of favorable circumstances of crop cultivation. Using the weighted overlay analysis in the ArcGIS 10.3 environment, the crop suitability maps were generated and were divided into four suitable classes. Geographic information system integration of crop suitability for all the crops determined the suitable cropping pattern of the study area in Kharif and Rabi seasons.

Findings

A vast portion of the study area covering 64.80% of the total land is suitable for cultivating either rice or maize in Kharif season followed by either potato or wheat in Rabi season. Other suitable cropping pattern for Kharif and Rabi seasons found in the study area are rice-wheat, rice-wheat/potato, rice/maize-wheat and rice/maize-potato, which covers a little portion of the study area.

Originality/value

This research validates the suitable location of crop cultivation on the basis of flooding occurrences in the locality.

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

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