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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Marianne Stowell Bracke, C.C. Miller and Jae Kim

The purpose of this paper is to present a project that digitized the 1906 Soil Survey of Tippecanoe County, Indiana, extracted its contents into full‐text and geospatial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a project that digitized the 1906 Soil Survey of Tippecanoe County, Indiana, extracted its contents into full‐text and geospatial datasets, and then built them into a web application designed to approximate but improve upon the way soil surveys are typically used by soil scientists in their research and field work.

Design/methodology/approach

The components of a 1906 soil survey document were scanned and their contents were extracted using several different methods, chief among them imagery segmentation and classification. The resulting datasets included a full‐text version of the original narrative and two georeferenced versions of the soil survey map.

Findings

Going several steps beyond just scanning, including the application of geographic information system (GIS) capabilities, adds significant value to geospatial materials whose contents are still relevant but whose formats are cumbersome. In addition, this allows for a GIS platform to which other maps and content can be added.

Originality/value

This is a unique approach to enhancing content through GIS.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Waleed Roy and Gerard Grealish

A soil information system was developed to manage soil survey data and to ensure that soil information is readily available to support land use planning and development…

Abstract

A soil information system was developed to manage soil survey data and to ensure that soil information is readily available to support land use planning and development. The Soil Information System combined spatial information management of a Geographical Information System (GIS) with the textural information management of a relational database management system. The GIS is capable of manipulating and displaying area and point data with the logical framework of a database to store data for interpretation. The main objective of this paper was to demonstrate one of the approaches to utilize and interpret data from the soil information system for identifying soil suitable for irrigated agriculture. The design and implementation of the soil information system are discussed, and an example of system output, such as mapping soils suitable for irrigated agricultural, is presented in this paper. For mapping these areas, a criterion was defined to select potential areas for irrigated agriculture. The criterion was applied to each of the soil property classes and subclasses to determine the most limiting rating for each soil. The rating was applied to map units and was allocated by the geographic soil map units in the GIS to produce a suitability map for irrigated agricultural areas in Kuwait. The soil information for the State of Kuwait provided information in a digitized format that can be further extended to interpret other land uses.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Richard Driscoll

Introduction As long ago as 18411 it was known that trees can cause movements of adjacent ground if the soil contains appreciable quantities of clay. However, it is in…

Abstract

Introduction As long ago as 18411 it was known that trees can cause movements of adjacent ground if the soil contains appreciable quantities of clay. However, it is in comparatively recent times that researchers in the UK have attempted to understand how the process of tree‐induced ground volume change comes about. In the first instance, studies were inspired at the Building Research Station, immediately following the Second World War, by investigations of claims for compensation for bomb damage that revealed the close proximity of trees to buildings that were remote from locations where bombs had fallen. These studies concentrated on establishing the ability of vegetation to dry the ground, and on determining the depth at which building foundations should be placed to prevent damaging movements occurring through the action of light vegetation. This early work also pointed out the risks of subsidence from tree root activity and the need for deeper, piled foundations when building close to trees. Though several BRS publications were issued, the problem was not widely appreciated.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Ashutosh Mohanty, Manoranjan Mishra, Devesh Sharma and Mohammad Waheed Ibrahimzada

It is now established by the global scientific community that climate change is a hard reality but the changes are complex in nature and to a great extent uncertain…

Abstract

It is now established by the global scientific community that climate change is a hard reality but the changes are complex in nature and to a great extent uncertain. Global circulation models (GCMs) have made significant contributions to the theoretical understanding of potential climate impacts, but their shortcomings in terms of assessing climate impacts soon became apparent. GCMs demonstrate significant skill at the continental and hemispheric scales and incorporate a large proportion of the complexity of the global system. However, they are inherently unable to represent local subgrid-scale features and dynamics. The first generation approaches of climate change impact and vulnerability assessments are derived from GCMs downscaled to produce scenarios at regional and local scales, but since the downscaled models inherit the biases of their parent GCM, they produce a simplified version of local climate. Furthermore, their output is limited to changes in mean temperature, rainfall, and sea level. For this reason, hydrological modeling with GCM output is useful for assessing impacts. The hydrological response due to change in climate variables in the Amu Darya River Basin was investigated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The modeling results show that there is an increase in precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration, surface runoff, percolation, and water yields. The above methodology can be practiced in this region for conducting adaptation and mitigation assessments. This initial assessment will facilitate future simulation modeling applications using SWAT for the Amu Darya River Basin by including variables of local changes (e.g., population growth, deforestation) that directly affect the hydrology of the region.

Details

Climate Change Modeling For Local Adaptation In The Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-487-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

The more recent history of the National Health Service, especially the Hospital Service, has been in the nature of a lumbering from one crisis to another. From the moment…

Abstract

The more recent history of the National Health Service, especially the Hospital Service, has been in the nature of a lumbering from one crisis to another. From the moment of its inception it has proved far more costly than estimated and over‐administered, but in the early years, it had great promise and was efficient at ward level, which continued until more recent times. As costs increased and administration grew and grew, much of it serving no useful purpose, there appeared to be a need for reorganisation. In 1974, a three‐tier structure was introduced by the establishment of new area health authorities, the primary object of which was to facilitate — and cheapen — decision making; to give the district bodies and personnel easier access to “management”. It coincided with reorganisation of Local Government, which included the transfer of all the personal health services and abolition of the office of medical officer of health. At the time and in looking back, there was very little need for this and reviewing the progress and advances made in local government, medical officers of health who had advocated the transfer, mainly for reasons of their own status, would have achieved this and more by remainining in the local government service; the majority of health visitors appear to have reached the same conclusion. They constitute a profession within themselves and in truth do not have all that much in common with day‐to‐day nursing. The basic training and nursing qualification is most essential, however. It has been said that a person is only as good a health visitor as she is a nurse.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 85 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Aberdeen Corrosion Engineers Ltd (ACEL) was established in 1980 as a specialist cathodic protection company and presently employ 34 staff organised under two divisions …

Abstract

Aberdeen Corrosion Engineers Ltd (ACEL) was established in 1980 as a specialist cathodic protection company and presently employ 34 staff organised under two divisions — Corrosion Engineering and Pipeline Emergency Response and Maintenance.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

D.N. Mortimore and K.A. Wingfield

This article is presented as a summary of the authors' experience, over the last decade, of the use of cold applied self‐adhesive pipewraps for the refurbishment, in situ…

Abstract

This article is presented as a summary of the authors' experience, over the last decade, of the use of cold applied self‐adhesive pipewraps for the refurbishment, in situ, of operational pipelines where coating failures had occurred and other similar occasions when the coating application had to be carried out on an excavated but operational pipeline.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Maged Kamal Mohammad Attia

The purpose of this paper is to enhance sustainability in affordable housing in Saudi Arabia within an effective locally adopted sustainability assessment tool by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance sustainability in affordable housing in Saudi Arabia within an effective locally adopted sustainability assessment tool by discussing the multi interdisciplinary concept of sustainability in the built environment and introducing environmental indicators which are recently developed to foster environmentally responsible practices. The study aim expands beyond proposing sustainable feasible alternatives for existing affordable housing project in Saudi Arabia, namely, Al-Ghala project, to appropriating the measuring tool itself to make the review process easier, faster and more effective.

Design/methodology/approach

Al-Ghala project, a typical affordable housing project is selected to act as a case study for this research. The housing units are assessed according to LEED to obtain the overall evaluation which obviously reflects the quality of the project sustainability. Elements that negatively affect the score and suggested feasible remedies are then identified, as well as inapplicable and inappropriate LEED components. The data were complemented by observation, interviews with occupants and project management team, monthly consumption rates of water and electricity, in addition to computer modelling and analysis by Ecotect and Green Building Studio.

Findings

Sustainability in affordable housing requires a holistic framework that promotes environmentally responsible practices including design, construction and management phases. LEED provides evidence that it can considerably contribute in enhancing sustainability of post-occupied affordable housing units by identifying points of weakness that lead to inefficient use of energy, water and materials; paving the way for a wide range of sustainable modifications. In addition, for LEED to be competent in Saudi Arabia a native version needs to be developed in which local circumstances are taken into consideration.

Research limitations/implications

According to the wide range of subjects covered by LEED, some elements could not be measured in depth. Impact of modifications proposed for LEED needs to be tested further.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the development of feasible environmentally sensitive affordable housing in Saudi Arabia.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study how affordable housing can be made sustainable.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1962

B.W. AVERY

From the first emergence of civilizations based on agriculture, variations in the nature and productive capacity of the soil were recognized by farmers, and names, usually…

Abstract

From the first emergence of civilizations based on agriculture, variations in the nature and productive capacity of the soil were recognized by farmers, and names, usually based on colour or texture, were given to distinctive varieties. In modern times the connection between soils and the rocks which provide their parent materials was generally recognized, and the earliest attempts to classify soils systematically had a geological or petrological basis. Most of these schemes, such as those proposed by Thaer and Fallou in Germany, suffered from their limited geographical scope, and little attention was paid to the effects on soil formation of climate, vegetation, and topography. Soil was conceived primarily as an inert material composed of variously constituted mineral particles mixed with varying quantities of plant residues, and the accent on soil as a material received further emphasis following the publication in 1840 of Liebig's ‘Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology’, which suggested that differences in soil fertility were largely determined by differences in chemical constitution.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 14 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1961

B.O. Skipp

The economic significance of corrosion is now being increasingly appreciated throughout a wide range of industry. In some industries corrosion must be controlled if the…

Abstract

The economic significance of corrosion is now being increasingly appreciated throughout a wide range of industry. In some industries corrosion must be controlled if the industry is to function. This is so particularly of the chemical process industries, but is not wholly true of civil engineering. Exposed steel structures such as bridges must be protected, but generally the possibility of structural weakness arising from corrosion has been allowed for in design by generous safety factors. This attitude has generally prevailed in that part of civil engineering known as foundation engineering.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 8 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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