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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Mohd Fadhli Abd Rashid, Noraliani Alias, Kamarudin Ahmad, Radzuan Sa’ari, Frank Tsung-Chen Tsai, Mohd Zamri Ramli and Zulkiflee Ibrahim

The impact of climate change towards water surface resources is crucial, particularly in developing and non-developing countries. Groundwater as a main water resource is…

Abstract

The impact of climate change towards water surface resources is crucial, particularly in developing and non-developing countries. Groundwater as a main water resource is thus an essential. However, contamination due to hydrocarbon spills affects the groundwater as a water resource, especially as a main source of drinking water. This chapter investigates the light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) penetrations in double-porosity soil with different moisture contents and with or without vibration impact. It also explains the LNAPL penetration phenomena by employing image analysis. The physical laboratory experiments were implemented using an acrylic cylinder, a mirror, toluene and a Nikon D90 DSLR digital camera. Prepared soil was poured in an acrylic cylinder and compressed with compressor until it became 10 cm in height. LNAPL was then poured instantaneously onto the acrylic cylinder that was filled with soil sample. The LNAPL penetration patterns were recorded and monitored using a Nikon D90 DSLR digital camera. The processing technique was conducted at predetermined time intervals using Surfer software and Matlab routine to plot the LNAPL pattern. The results showed that a higher penetration rate of LNAPL occurred with higher moisture content and without vibration impact. The penetration time for LNAPL to reach the bottom of the soil sample was found to be longer for the soil that had low moisture content and with vibration impact.

Details

Water Management and Sustainability in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-114-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Loke Kok Foong, Ramli Nazir, Radzuan Sa’ari, Mohd Zamri Ramli, Mohd Ridza Mohd Haniffah, Erwan Hafizi Kasiman and Noraliani Alias

The evolution in developed countries has taken a role in global warming and natural disasters such as flash flood, El-Nino, earthquake and groundwater contamination. The…

Abstract

The evolution in developed countries has taken a role in global warming and natural disasters such as flash flood, El-Nino, earthquake and groundwater contamination. The underground storage tank leakage problems and spillage of hydrocarbon liquid leading to the contamination of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) into the groundwater could reduce the quality of groundwater. This chapter is intended to investigate the behaviour and the pattern of NAPL migrations in double-porosity soil under vibration and intact conditions. The experimental model is developed by using kaolin soil type S300 and toluene as NAPLs. The kaolin soil was mixed with 25% of moisture content to produce kaolin granules in the soil column and vibrate under 0.98 Hz of frequency within 60 seconds. As a result, both specimen liquids completely migrated to the bottom of soil column: sample 1 has higher permeability compared to sample 2. This is due to the fracture in double-porosity soil under vibration effect and loosened the soil structure in sample 1 compared to good intact soil sample 2 with stronger and compact soil structure. In conclusion, this study proves that the dangerous hydrocarbon NAPL migration in fractured double-porosity soil has very harmful effect on the environment and groundwater resources.

Details

Water Management and Sustainability in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-114-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2021

Abdelaziz Khennouf and Mohamed Baheddi

The estimation of bearing capacity for shallow foundations in swelling soil is an important and complex context. The complexity is due to the unsaturated swelling soil

Abstract

Purpose

The estimation of bearing capacity for shallow foundations in swelling soil is an important and complex context. The complexity is due to the unsaturated swelling soil related to the drying and humidification environment. Hence, a serious study is needed to evaluate the effect of swelling potential soil on the foundation bearing capacity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the bearing capacity of a rough square foundation founded on a homogeneous swelling soil mass, subjected to vertical loads.

Design/methodology/approach

A proposed numerical model based on the simulation of the swelling pressure in the initial state, followed by an elastoplastic behavior model may be used to calculate the foundation bearing capacity. The analyses were carried out using the finite-difference software (FLAC 3 D) with an elastic perfectly plastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model. Moreover, the numerical results obtained are compared with the analytical solutions proposed in the literature.

Findings

The numerical results were in good agreement with the analytical solutions proposed in the literature. Also, reasonable capacity and performance of the proposed numerical model.

Originality/value

The proposed numerical model is capable to predict the bearing capacity of the homogeneous swelling soil mass loaded by a shallow foundation. Also, it will be of great use for geotechnical engineers and researchers in the field.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1962

B.W. AVERY

From the first emergence of civilizations based on agriculture, variations in the nature and productive capacity of the soil were recognized by farmers, and names, usually…

Abstract

From the first emergence of civilizations based on agriculture, variations in the nature and productive capacity of the soil were recognized by farmers, and names, usually based on colour or texture, were given to distinctive varieties. In modern times the connection between soils and the rocks which provide their parent materials was generally recognized, and the earliest attempts to classify soils systematically had a geological or petrological basis. Most of these schemes, such as those proposed by Thaer and Fallou in Germany, suffered from their limited geographical scope, and little attention was paid to the effects on soil formation of climate, vegetation, and topography. Soil was conceived primarily as an inert material composed of variously constituted mineral particles mixed with varying quantities of plant residues, and the accent on soil as a material received further emphasis following the publication in 1840 of Liebig's ‘Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology’, which suggested that differences in soil fertility were largely determined by differences in chemical constitution.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 14 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Liang Liu, Yuling Zhao, Dongjuan Cheng and Baoguo Ma

Hydraulic conductivity is very low in saline-sodic soil, which decreases water infiltration. For saline-sodic soil, increasing infiltration water has a special meaning…

85

Abstract

Purpose

Hydraulic conductivity is very low in saline-sodic soil, which decreases water infiltration. For saline-sodic soil, increasing infiltration water has a special meaning. Increasing infiltration water not only increases the water in the soil profile but also decreases the salinity of the soil, thus making it suitable for growing crops. This study aims to examine the effect of sand pipes on soil water and salt distribution through laboratory tests with different depths and diameters of sand pipes.

Design/methodology/approach

The soil water and salt distribution responses to different sand pipe depths and diameters was investigated. Treatments included sand pipes with diameters of 4 cm, 5cm, 6 cm and the same depth of 4 cm; with depths of 2cm, 6 cm and the same diameter of 5 cm, and a control with no sand pipe (with the diameter of 0 cm and the depth of 0 cm).

Findings

The results suggested that the amount of cumulative infiltration water and transport distance of the wetting front could be increased by increasing the depth and diameter of sand pipes. The soil water content in the soil profile decreased under all treatments except for the control, whereas the value of EC increased with increasing distance from the film hole center. Positive relationships were also found among the sand pipe depth, diameter and the zone of low salt content. Furthermore, salt leaching depth increased with sand pipe depth and diameter. Overall, the treatments with and without sand pipes exhibited obvious differences.

Originality/value

The correlation analysis proved that increasing the infiltration area through sand pipes positively affected the amount of infiltration water, wetting scope and salt leaching depth.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Amer Al‐Rawas, Hossam F. Hassan, Ramzi Taha, Abdulwahid Hago, Bader Al‐Shandoudi and Yahia Al‐Suleimani

To investigate the effect of cement and cement by‐pass dust (CBPD) as a stabilizer on the geotechnical properties of oil‐contaminated soils resulting from leaking…

1339

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effect of cement and cement by‐pass dust (CBPD) as a stabilizer on the geotechnical properties of oil‐contaminated soils resulting from leaking underground storage tanks, or soils surrounding petroleum refineries and crude oil wells.

Design/methodology/approach

Oil‐contaminated soil (untreated soil) and a soil treated by bio‐remediation (treated soil) as well as a natural soil were obtained from Northern Oman. These soils were stabilized with cement and cement by‐pass dust at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent, by dry weight of the soil, and cured for seven, 14 and 28 days. Compaction, compressive strength, direct shear, permeability and leaching tests were carried out on the stabilized soils.

Findings

The results indicate that cement and cement by‐pass dust improve the properties of oil‐contaminated soils. Traces of arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium and lead were found in the oil soils, but none of them exceeded the EPA limits.

Practical implications

Reuse in construction applications provides a safe and useful solution for the problem of the disposal of oil‐contaminated soils.

Originality/value

The paper addresses an environmental problem facing many oil companies in disposing of or treating contaminated soil. The approach presented in the paper offers a beneficial, safe and economical solution to this problem.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Waleed Roy and Gerard Grealish

A soil information system was developed to manage soil survey data and to ensure that soil information is readily available to support land use planning and development…

1096

Abstract

A soil information system was developed to manage soil survey data and to ensure that soil information is readily available to support land use planning and development. The Soil Information System combined spatial information management of a Geographical Information System (GIS) with the textural information management of a relational database management system. The GIS is capable of manipulating and displaying area and point data with the logical framework of a database to store data for interpretation. The main objective of this paper was to demonstrate one of the approaches to utilize and interpret data from the soil information system for identifying soil suitable for irrigated agriculture. The design and implementation of the soil information system are discussed, and an example of system output, such as mapping soils suitable for irrigated agricultural, is presented in this paper. For mapping these areas, a criterion was defined to select potential areas for irrigated agriculture. The criterion was applied to each of the soil property classes and subclasses to determine the most limiting rating for each soil. The rating was applied to map units and was allocated by the geographic soil map units in the GIS to produce a suitability map for irrigated agricultural areas in Kuwait. The soil information for the State of Kuwait provided information in a digitized format that can be further extended to interpret other land uses.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

C.A. Smith

Introduction Although the soil as a corrosive environment is probably of greater complexity than any other environment, it is possible to make some generalisations…

Abstract

Introduction Although the soil as a corrosive environment is probably of greater complexity than any other environment, it is possible to make some generalisations regarding soil types and corrosion. It is necessary to emphasise that corrosion in soils is extremely variable and can range from the rapid to the negligible. This can be illustrated by the fact that buried pipes have become perforated within one year, while archaeological specimens of ancient iron have probably remained in the soil for hundreds of years without significant attack.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 May 2022

Yangsheng Ye, Degou Cai, Lin Geng, Hongye Yan, Junkai Yao and Feng Chen

This study aims to propose a semiempirical and semitheoretical cyclic compaction constitutive model of coarse-grained soil filler for the high-speed railway (HSR) subgrade…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a semiempirical and semitheoretical cyclic compaction constitutive model of coarse-grained soil filler for the high-speed railway (HSR) subgrade under cyclic load.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the basic framework of critical state soil mechanics and in view of the characteristics of the coarse-grained soil filler for the HSR subgrade to bear the train vibration load repeatedly for a long time, the hyperbolic empirical relationship between particle breakage and plastic work was derived. Considering the influence of cyclic vibration time and stress ratio, the particle breakage correction function of coarse-grained soil filler for the HSR subgrade under cyclic load was proposed. According to the classical theory of plastic mechanics, the shearing dilatation equation of the coarse-grained soil filler for the HSR subgrade considering particle breakage was modified and obtained. A semiempirical and semitheoretical cyclic compaction constitutive model of coarse-grained soil filler for the HSR subgrade under cyclic load was further established. The backward Euler method was used to discretize the constitutive equation, build a numerical algorithm of “elastic prediction and plastic modification” and make a secondary development of the program to solve the cyclic compaction model.

Findings

Through the comparison with the result of laboratory triaxial test under the cyclic loading of coarse-grained soil filler for the HSR subgrade, the accuracy and applicability of the cyclic compaction model were verified. Results show that the model can accurately predict the cumulative deformation characteristics of coarse-grained soil filler for the HSR subgrade under the train vibration loading repeatedly for a long time. It considers the effects of particle breakage and stress ratio, which can be used to calculate and analyze the stress and deformation evolution law of the subgrade structure for HSR.

Originality/value

The research can provide a simple and practical method for calculating deformation of railway under cyclic loading.

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Eldana Ayka Anka, Defaru Katise Dasho, Democracy Dilla Dirate and Tarun Kumar Lohani

This paper aims to present physical and geotechnical study in terms of experimental field and laboratory investigations of the subgrade soils in severely damaged and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present physical and geotechnical study in terms of experimental field and laboratory investigations of the subgrade soils in severely damaged and highly degraded road section with numerous potholes between Chencha to Ezo towns of Ethiopia needs to be addressed for a robust pavement.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighteen soil samples were collected from 18 km road stretch at a kilometer interval by considering variation and composition of soils along the road alignment. The field density with dry density, natural moisture content, consistency limit, compaction and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) were determined.

Findings

Soils were classified predominantly as silty-clay that replicates its expansive nature, characterized as bad to medium subgrade. The average optimum moisture content and maximum dry density are 17.18% and 1.83 g/cc, whereas the average CBR and swell as 8.40% and 1.49%, respectively. The investigated results indicated that the indispensable way for a stable and durable road subgrade in the existing silty clayey soil requires a capping layer. The results were uploaded into ArcGIS platform to create interactive maps for spatial distribution, composition and strength of the subgrade properties.

Originality/value

Experimental investigation of subgrade soils by scientific procedures and presenting important properties through integrated approach using ArcGIS Mapping for the road pavement design and construction purpose of under developed areas like Chencha-Ezo. ArcGIS-based mapping of all required and numerical subgrade properties with a single click using ArcGIS tool is the main significance and contribution of this study. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is original, and all the references are properly cited.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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