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Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2016

Andrea Glauser

The landscape of European cities is by no means homogeneous. Nonetheless, the same type of conflict has repeatedly occurred in different places in the last few years: From…

Abstract

The landscape of European cities is by no means homogeneous. Nonetheless, the same type of conflict has repeatedly occurred in different places in the last few years: From Seville to Vienna, from Cologne to St. Petersburg, planned high-rise buildings for inner city districts have provoked fervent arguments and debates. Whether and how European cities should integrate more high-rise buildings is a highly controversial question. This chapter focuses on strategies of vertical construction and related debates about the cityscape in both Paris and Vienna. By studying the urban constellations of Paris and Vienna, it can be shown that what may look comparable at first glance is the outcome of highly different strategies and histories.

Although both cities define themselves to a wide degree with reference to historic structures, the image of tall buildings varies drastically in these cities, which correlates with these cities’ diverse histories and hence experiences with high-rise buildings. Path dependencies and the ways individual cities receive international trends are crucial to understanding processes of urbanization. Based on in-depth interviews with various urban actors and other relevant qualitative data, this chapter aims to demonstrate that a city’s high-rise strategy cannot be attributed to any single factor; rather, it is the result of a complex interplay between various aspects and actors, which crucially includes present and past struggles over cityscapes and therefore over urban spaces.

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Public Spaces: Times of Crisis and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-463-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Michael Warren Murphy

What insights might attending to the cyclical history of colonially imposed environmental change experienced by Indigenous peoples offer to critical intellectual projects…

Abstract

What insights might attending to the cyclical history of colonially imposed environmental change experienced by Indigenous peoples offer to critical intellectual projects concerned with race? How might our understanding of race shift if we took Indigenous peoples' concerns with the usurpation and transformation of land seriously? Motivated by these broader questions, in this chapter, I deploy an approach to the critical inquiry of race that I have tentatively been calling anticolonial environmental sociology. As a single iteration of the anticolonial environmental sociology of race, this chapter focuses on Native (American) perspectives on land and experiences with colonialism. I argue that thinking with Native conceptualizations of land forces us to confront the ecomateriality of race that so often escapes sight in conventional analyses. The chapter proceeds by first theorizing the ecomateriality of race by thinking with recent critical theorizing on colonial racialization, alongside Native conceptualizations of land. To further explicate this theoretical argument, I then turn to an historical excavation of the relations between settlers, Natives, and the land in Rhode Island that is organized according to spatiotemporal distinctions that punctuate Native land relations in this particular global region: the Reservation, the Plantation, and the Narragansett.

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Global Historical Sociology of Race and Racism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-219-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1986

A growing maturity Facilities subscribers continue to be drawn from the senior ranks of the profession — from those who have been around long enough to separate the new…

Abstract

A growing maturity Facilities subscribers continue to be drawn from the senior ranks of the profession — from those who have been around long enough to separate the new from the novel. And although it was not entirely composed of our subscribers, that maturity of outlook was everywhere apparent in the Café Royal audience on 30 October, when a selection of thoroughly professional delegates resisted a series of interpretations of facilities management — as a branch of sociology, architecture, building economics, business systematising and even design — and insisted on its right to a unique, independent existence of its own. The information provided by the speakers — the expertise laid before the delegates by architects Frank Duffy and John Worthington, building economist Bernard Williams, journalist Martin Pawley, computer systematiser Tina Rich Walden and design consultant Peter Gorb — was eagerly snapped up: the comprehensive documentation gathered up and taken away for reference. But this was as predicted: the quality of information should have been no surprise to anyone. What was heartening — and needed a forum such as this to find expression — was the quality and assurance of the prominent facilities managers present, and in particular the members of the panel and the facilities manager speaker. To a large extent the sensitive and enquiring chairmanship of John Nicholas was responsible for an atmosphere of generosity and exchange. Each member of the panel accepted with both hands the distilled wisdom of those other professions — but held firm for the autonomy of their own. And it was our strong impression that their demeanour proved their point: a body of people that can produce such stars — articulate, informed, visible and accountable — and from such a wide variety of backgrounds, from local authorities to multinationals, can no longer sensibly be regarded as an offshoot of some other body.

Details

Facilities, vol. 4 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Seyed Amirhossein Garakani, Azadeh Lak and Masoomeh Niyasati

Man has always faced natural hazards and thus attempted to reduce their financial and loss-of-life damages. Assuring sustainable development in the post-disaster…

Abstract

Purpose

Man has always faced natural hazards and thus attempted to reduce their financial and loss-of-life damages. Assuring sustainable development in the post-disaster reconstruction of areas requires predictive measurements (i.e. vulnerability assessment). This study aims to assess the outcomes of relocating villages after the 2005 flood in the east of Golestan Province in Iran through sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is an applied research combining qualitative content analysis and quantitative cross-sectional surveys. The statistical population comprises the inhabitants of Faraghi New Town (formed by aggregating 11 villages) and the villagers returning to their former rural settlement. The independent samples t-test was used to compare the outcomes of reconstruction for the samples. Data were collected using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews with the residents. The gathered data were analyzed by content analysis.

Findings

The results indicate that building new settlements – while reducing physical vulnerability – cannot be classified as a step toward sustainable development in economic and social aspects because the increasing trend of migration to urban areas, return to former villages, tribal disparities, reduced production, increased bank debts and increased urban insecurity are among the primary adverse social and economic consequences of rural relocations. This finding helps to assist planners and post-disaster designers to reconstruct more sustainable societies.

Originality/value

This study tries to investigate the effects of post-disaster reconstruction in rural settlement in Iran through sustainable development aspects for the first time. It would benefit for policymaking and urban planners and designers to make more resilient societies after disasters.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1980

STEVEN SHARPLES

One of the consequences of being a philosopher who insists on removing philosophy from the realm of abstract speculation and installing it as a practical tool for the…

Abstract

One of the consequences of being a philosopher who insists on removing philosophy from the realm of abstract speculation and installing it as a practical tool for the posing and solving of everyday problems is that you are liable to be taken at your word. Others take that philosophy and “apply” it to practical problems. When this happens the philosopher loses control over his or her ideas, whose coherence and utility are then dependent on the skill and understanding of the disciple. Given Karl Popper's project for just such a practical philosophy it is perhaps not surprising that sooner or later someone should write a book which attempts to use Popper's thought to clarify a whole range of questions about public life, from the “logic” of centralised social, physical or economic planning to the desirability of comprehensive schools and metrication. What must dismay Popperians is that in Dr. Roger James' hands what emerges is a theoretically incoherent book which avoids being petulant only when it is banal.

Details

Library Review, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Iryna Prus, Raoul C.D. Nacamulli and Alessandra Lazazzara

The purpose of this paper is to consolidate the state of extant academic research on workplace innovation (WI) by proposing a comprehensive conceptual framework and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consolidate the state of extant academic research on workplace innovation (WI) by proposing a comprehensive conceptual framework and outlining research traditions on the phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper systematically reviewed the literature published over the past 20 years, basing on a predefined research protocol. The dimensions of WI were explored with the help of thematic synthesis, while the research perspectives were studied by means of textual narrative synthesis.

Findings

The analysis suggests that there exist four research traditions on WI – built container, humanized landscape, socio-material macro-actor, and polyadic network – and each of them comprises its own set of assumptions, foci of study, and ontological bases. The findings suggest that WI is a heterogeneous process of renovation occurring in eight different dimensions, namely work system, workplace democracy, high-tech application, workplace boundaries, workspaces, people practices, workplace experience, and workplace culture. The analysis showed that over years the meaning of innovation within these dimensions changed, therefore it is argued that research should account for the variability of these categories.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for developing and implementing WI programs. Moreover, it discusses the role of HR in the WI process.

Originality/value

This paper for the first time systematically reviews literature on the topic of WI, clarifies the concept and discusses directions and implications for the future research.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Ashraf M. Salama

The purpose of this paper is to contribute an inclusive insight into methodological research in architecture and allied disciplines and unravel aspects that include…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute an inclusive insight into methodological research in architecture and allied disciplines and unravel aspects that include philosophical positions, frames of reference and spheres of inquiry.

Design/methodology/approach

Following ontological and epistemological interpretations, the adopted methodology involves conceptual and critical analysis which is based on reviewing and categorising classical literature and more than hundred contributions in architectural and design research developed over the past five decades which were classified under the perspectives of inquiry and frames of reference.

Findings

Postulated through three philosophical positions – positivism, anti-positivism and emancipationist – six frames of reference were identified: systematic, computational, managerial, psychological, person–environment type-A and person–environment type-B. Technically oriented research and conceptually driven research were categorised as the perspectives of inquiry and were scrutinised together with their developmental aspects. By mapping the philosophical positions to the frames of reference, various characteristics and spheres of inquiry within each frame of reference were revealed.

Research limitations/implications

Further detailed examples can be developed to offer discerning elucidations relevant to each frame of reference.

Practical implications

The study is viewed as an enabling mechanism for researchers to identify the unique particularities of their research and the way in which it is pursued.

Originality/value

The study is a response to a glaring dearth of cognisance and a reaction to a growing but confusing body of knowledge that does not offer a clear picture of what research in architecture is. By identifying key characteristics, philosophical positions and frames of reference that pertain to the research in architecture and associated disciplines, the findings represent a scholastic endeavour in its field.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2018

Ben Sweeting

The purpose of this paper is to put forward a way that ethics may be applied recursively to itself, in the sense that how we speak and reason about ethics is an activity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to put forward a way that ethics may be applied recursively to itself, in the sense that how we speak and reason about ethics is an activity to which ethical considerations and questions apply.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is built on parallels between design and cybernetics, integrating elements of ethical discourse in each field. The way that cybernetics and design can each act as their own meta-disciplines, in the design of design and the cybernetics of cybernetics, is used as a pattern for a similarly recursive approach to ethics. This is explored further by drawing parallels between Heinz von Foersters’ criticism of moral codes and concerns about paternalism in designing architecture.

Findings

Designers incorporate implicit ethical questioning as part of the recursive process through which they design their design activity, moving between conversations that pursue the goals of a project and meta-conversations in which they question which goals to pursue and the methods they employ in doing so. Given parallels between designing architecture and setting out an ethics (both of which put forward ways in which others are to live), a similar approach may be taken within ethical discourse, folding ethics within itself as its own meta-discipline.

Originality/value

The paper provides a framework in which to address ethical considerations within ethical discourse itself. Recursive ethical questioning of this sort offers a way of coping with the incommensurability of values and goals that is commonplace given the fragmented state of contemporary ethics.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Alexander Styhre

The concept of sociomaterial practice has been proposed as a term including materiality as constitutive elements in any social practice. The concept also suggests that

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of sociomaterial practice has been proposed as a term including materiality as constitutive elements in any social practice. The concept also suggests that while social relations are constituted by and mediated by materiality, materiality per se is enacted in a social context. Practice is thus unfolding as a form of constitutive entanglement of social and material resources at hand. The paper aims at discussing the concept of practice as what is mobilizing both material and intangible resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on interviews with construction workers, foremen, and site managers in three projects in a medium sized construction company.

Findings

The study suggests that while construction work is both regulated by piece‐rate wage systems and being largely composed of standard operation procedures, there is still a strong reliance on collectively accomplished routines for communicating and interacting in the workplace. Rather than being determined by and reducible to material conditions, social relations and mutual trust play a key role in construction projects.

Originality/value

The concept of sociomaterial practice is opening up for a more articulated recognition of the entanglement of social and material resources in organizing work. The study presents first‐hand data on how construction work rests on the collective capacity to combine both material and social elements.

Details

VINE, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2019

Brett Lashua

Abstract

Details

Popular Music, Popular Myth and Cultural Heritage in Cleveland: The Moondog, The Buzzard, and the Battle for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-156-8

1 – 10 of over 5000