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Michelle L. Frisco, Molly A. Martin and Jennifer Van Hook

Social scientists often speculate that both acculturation and socioeconomic status are factors that may explain differences in the body weight between Mexican Americans…

Abstract

Social scientists often speculate that both acculturation and socioeconomic status are factors that may explain differences in the body weight between Mexican Americans and whites and between Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants, yet prior research has not explicitly theorized and tested the pathways that lead both of these upstream factors to contribute to ethnic/nativity disparities in weight. We make this contribution to the literature by developing a conceptual model drawing from Glass and McAtee’s (2006) risk regulation framework. We test this model by analyzing data from the 1999–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Our conceptual model treats acculturation and socioeconomic status as risk regulators, or social factors that place individuals in positions where they are at risk for health risk behaviors that negatively influence health outcomes. We specifically argue that acculturation and low socioeconomic status contribute to less healthy diets, lower physical activity, and chronic stress, which then increases the risk of weight gain. We further contend that pathways from ethnicity/nativity and through acculturation and socioeconomic status likely explain disparities in weight gain between Mexican Americans and whites and between Mexican immigrants and whites. Study results largely support our conceptual model and have implications for thinking about solutions for reducing ethnic/nativity disparities in weight.

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Article

Prem Ramburuth and Charmine E.J. Härtel

The purpose of this paper is to highlight factors that facilitate or hinder the entry and academic achievement of students from low socioeconomic status into higher…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight factors that facilitate or hinder the entry and academic achievement of students from low socioeconomic status into higher education, and facilitate understanding about how such students can be supported in their learning at university.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on the literature on social inclusion, social exclusion, social identity and education, and link key aspects to the access, participation and learning success of students from low socioeconomic status backgrounds in higher education.

Findings

The paper identifies socioeconomic factors that impact on student learning and provides a comprehensive framework for understanding, supporting and addressing the needs of students from the target group.

Practical implications

The findings and discussion will contribute to the knowledge and teaching resource base required for institutions, academic and support staff to formulate and implement effective strategies for increased participation in higher education by students from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.

Originality/value

Most discussion and research on social inclusion and exclusion tends to relate to factors that lead to social disadvantage in general, but there is a growing need to consider the disadvantage in terms of access to higher education and the creation of learning opportunities that lead to success and educational advancement.

Details

Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-497X

Keywords

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Article

Nyoman Trisna Herawati, I. Made Candiasa, I. Ketut Yadnyana and Naswan Suharsono

This paper aims to analyse the effect of financial learning quality (FLQ) and parental socioeconomic status (SES) on the financial self-efficacy (FSE) of undergraduate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the effect of financial learning quality (FLQ) and parental socioeconomic status (SES) on the financial self-efficacy (FSE) of undergraduate Accounting students in Bali with students’ financial literacy (FL) serving a mediator.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used a quantitative design with ex post facto approach and path analysis technique. Research data were collected by administering a financial literacy test on, and questionnaires distributed to, the sample selected using a purposive random sampling technique. The research sample consisted of undergraduate Accounting students in Bali who were in their fourth or sixth semesters, numbering 518.

Findings

The research results show that financial learning quality and parental socioeconomic status directly influenced financial literacy. Financial learning quality and socioeconomic status did not have any direct influence on financial self-efficacy, but financial literacy directly affected financial self-efficacy. Additionally, the results also show that financial literacy was able to mediate learning quality’s and socioeconomic status’ relationships with financial self-efficacy.

Practical implications

The research results indicate that financial learning quality had a significant effect on financial literacy but lacked any direct influence on financial self-efficacy. This suggests that it is important to improve financial learning quality in not only cognitive aspect (knowledge) but also practical aspect, which will contribute to the improvement in students’ financial self-efficacy. In the future, research can be continued by finding other variables that are more dominant in influencing financial self efficacy. In addition, research and development approach can be done to find a learning model that can improve financial self-efficacy among accounting students.

Originality/value

Previous studies predominantly investigated the factors that affect financial literacy in students. There has been a small body of research that addresses financial self-efficacy, especially in Accounting students. Therefore, this research makes a contribution to the knowledge on factors that influence, either directly or indirectly, FSE in students with financial literacy serving as a mediator.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

Keywords

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Article

Srinivas Goli, Nagendra Kumar Maurya and Manoj Kumar Sharma

A continuous mixed opinion on the relevance of caste-based reservations and caste as a factor of socioeconomic disparity in the recent period demands update of evidence on…

Abstract

Purpose

A continuous mixed opinion on the relevance of caste-based reservations and caste as a factor of socioeconomic disparity in the recent period demands update of evidence on socioeconomic inequalities among caste groups for effective policy making. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the caste inequalities in terms of socioeconomic opportunities and poverty are still persisting in rural Uttar Pradesh based on village census surveys?

Design/methodology/approach

This study used data primarily collected from four village census surveys under the project rural transformation in Uttar Pradesh, 2013. Bivariate analyses, human opportunity index (HOI), multidimensional poverty index (MPI) and inequality decomposition analyses used as methods of analyses.

Findings

The authors findings suggest that in spite of more than six decades of welfare policies and major political mobilization movements among lower castes in the state, the huge inequalities in terms of critical socioeconomic indicators such as landholding, higher education and wealth distribution and multi-dimensional poverty across the castes are still persisting in the state. Decomposition results suggest that between group inequalities contribute more to the total inequality in landholding whereas within group inequalities contribute maximum to total inequality in education and wealth status of different castes in rural Uttar Pradesh. However, within inequalities much less in general castes compared to SCs/OBCs.

Originality/value

Based on its latest empirical evidence, this study strengthens the argument that caste still matters in socioeconomic achievements of the population in India even after decades of planning and financing of social welfare schemes to uplift the lower castes in India. Thus, provides critical inputs to current debates on the relevance of caste as a determinant of socioeconomic status in India.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Ana Maria Hermeto and André Junqueira Caetano

The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the large differences between poor and rich Brazilian households regarding children's outcomes; that is, understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the large differences between poor and rich Brazilian households regarding children's outcomes; that is, understanding inequality in health outcomes in the childhood in Brazil, examining the link between the health of Brazilian children and a variety of socioeconomic factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Logit models for some measures of child health (poor health, chronic diseases, hospitalization and visits to doctors and dentists). Individuals are grouped according to their income decile. Independent variables comprise indicators of socioeconomic status and demographic variables, primarily related to the family structure.

Findings

Results suggest that the true effect of family structure is more complex than the biological relationship of parents to children. There are large effects of family income distribution on child health indicators. When control variables are included, the magnitude of these effects changes. The addition of mothers' educational attainment to the set of controls reduces the estimated income effects. Also, the gradient in the health‐income relationship is a little steeper for older children.

Originality/value

Although there are numerous studies investigating the impact of family resources on health outcomes, whether income and family structure truly matters is still a debated issue. Brazil presents a huge level of income and until recently there has been little data with which to assess the nature and magnitude of the role, which socioeconomic factors play in the incidence and severity of health problems. The authors originally attempt to understand what it means to talk about inequality in health, and whether health inequality in Brazil is linked to income inequality.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article

Ama Pokuaa Fenny, Derek Asuman, Aba Obrumah Crentsil and Doreen Nyarko Anyamesem Odame

The purpose of this paper is to assess the trends of socioeconomic-related inequalities in maternal healthcare utilization in Ghana between 2003 and 2014 and examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the trends of socioeconomic-related inequalities in maternal healthcare utilization in Ghana between 2003 and 2014 and examine the causes of inequalities in maternal healthcare utilization in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are drawn from three rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey collected in 2003, 2008 and 2014, respectively. The authors employ two alternative measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health – the Wagstaff and Erreygers indices – to examine the trends of socioeconomic inequalities in maternal healthcare utilization. The authors proceed to decompose the causes of inequalities in maternal healthcare by applying a recently developed generalized decomposition technique based on recentered influence function regressions.

Findings

The study finds substantial pro-rich inequalities in maternal healthcare utilization in Ghana. The degree of inequalities has been decreasing since 2003. The elimination of user fees for maternal healthcare has contributed to achieving equity and inclusion in utilization. The decomposition analysis reveals significant contributions of individual, household and locational characteristics to inequalities in maternal healthcare. The authors find that educational attainment, urban residence and challenges with physical access to healthcare facilities increase the socioeconomic gap in maternal healthcare utilization.

Originality/value

There is a need to target vulnerable women who are unlikely to utilize maternal healthcare services. In addition to the elimination of user fees, there is a need to reduce inequalities in the distribution and quality of maternal health services to achieve universal coverage in Ghana.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Mahsa Mohajeri, Shiva Hoojeghani, Azimeh Izadi, Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh, Farhad Pourfarzi, Ali Nemati and Ali Barzegar

This study aims to investigate the food choice motivations and some healthy food intake among Ardabil adults with different socioeconomic status.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the food choice motivations and some healthy food intake among Ardabil adults with different socioeconomic status.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a focus group study conducted in September 2018. Self-assessed other food choice motivations, healthy food intake and socioeconomic status were reported in questionnaires. The study data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test and χ2 test in groups of study.

Findings

Price was a primary motivation of food choice for low-level socioeconomic status persons. The wealthiest people total vegetable consumption was 3.59Â ± 0.004 serving/day, whereas the total vegetable consumption of poorest participants was significantly less than them (p = 0.012). Of the socioeconomics category 1 (SEC1) group participants, 82 per cent said that they consider food price when they were purchasing for their households, while only 28 per cent of SEC4 group said that they consider food prices when food choosing. Only 1 per cent of this group participants pay attention to food label when they choose foods.

Originality/value

This is the first study that investigated the food choice motivations in Ardabil adults. The results indicated that food price is the most critical food choice motivation. Based on this study results, the food policymaker can change people food security and food choices with some programs like as healthy food subsidies and unhealthy food taxes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Elisa Rose Birch and Paul W. Miller

This paper aims to investigate the determinants of taking out government‐funded student loans for university study in Australia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the determinants of taking out government‐funded student loans for university study in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an ordered probit model to quantify the influence of the various factors which affect students' decisions on funding their tertiary study using student loans or through other means.

Findings

The study finds that the probability of taking out student loans for the full cost of university is largely influenced by students' socioeconomic status. Other major influences on this decision include students' demographic and university enrolment characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the work is that only a neighbourhood (rather than an individual‐level) measure of socioeconomic status was available, and future research should seek to address this.

Practical implications

The research shows that the parameters of loan schemes do not seem to be able to over‐ride the influence that family background has on loan taking behaviour. That is, poor students use loans regardless of the parameters of the loans scheme in order to overcome short‐term credit constraints. In other words, these student loan schemes channel funds to those without other means of funding their higher education.

Originality/value

By showing the impact that income contingent provisions have on loan taking behaviour, the paper informs policy makers of potential impacts from modifying loans schemes to reflect this characteristic.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article

Natsuho Yoshida

This study investigated the trends of repetition and dropout rates in Myanmar's lower secondary education before and after the introduction of the “Continuous Assessment…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the trends of repetition and dropout rates in Myanmar's lower secondary education before and after the introduction of the “Continuous Assessment and Progression System (CAPS)” and probed the dependence of these tendencies on high-, middle- and low- socioeconomic status (SES). The obtained results were then examined to extract effective policy implications for the achievement of universal secondary education as specified in the Sustainable Development Goals.

Design/methodology/approach

Before and after the CAPS introduction at four government secondary schools, grade repetition and dropout rate trends were examined with respect to differences in students' SES. The analysis utilised a sample of 7,272 students from target secondary schools in urban Yangon Region, Myanmar.

Findings

It was found that since the introduction of CAPS, the grade repetition rates had fallen significantly in all SES groups, so was effective regardless of students' SES. The results also demonstrated the influence of unequal CAPS on dropout rates: in the middle-SES group, significant falls to nearly zero post-CAPS implementation. The high-SES group was at ceiling pre- and post-CAPS, so was unaffected. However, in the low-SES group, high dropout rates persisted, indicating that the poor socioeconomic backgrounds of these students significantly reduced the benefits of CAPS.

Originality/value

Rather than using cross-sectional data such as education statistics, this study used longitudinal data based on academic enrollment registries that included information on individual enrollment statuses, which allowed for the relationships between grade repetition, school dropout, education policies and socioeconomic circumstances to be elucidated.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

Keywords

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Article

Mohammed Abdullahi Umar, Chek Derashid, Idawati Ibrahim and Zainol Bidin

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between public governance quality and tax compliance behavior in developing countries in terms of what transpires…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between public governance quality and tax compliance behavior in developing countries in terms of what transpires between governments and citizens, leading the later to pay or to abstain from paying tax. The study argues that socioeconomic condition is a mediator in the relationship and explains how and why it is so.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts the conceptual approach and connects the concepts through synthesis of literature and previous research findings.

Findings

The study concludes that socioeconomic condition mediates the relationship between public governance quality and tax compliance behavior in developing countries. Socioeconomic conditions appear to be a broader, clearer and more practical concept for measurement purpose than public goods/spending as currently understood in the literature.

Research limitations/implications

The study is a conceptual effort, and there may a be need to undertake further empirical investigations. Developing countries vary in their socioeconomic conditions, and there is a need to acknowledge country-specific circumstances.

Practical implications

The implication of the finding includes the need for further research on the concept of socioeconomic condition, and how and why it influences tax compliance behavior in developing countries. Stakeholders and governments should monitor the impact of policies and actions on the socioeconomic condition of citizens to ensure they are satisfied. Their dissatisfaction leads to the boycott of the tax system which adversely affects economic development.

Originality/value

This study makes an original contribution by exploring socioeconomic conditions as a mediator between public governance quality and tax compliance behavior in developing countries. It is a significant contribution that is capable of shifting the direction of tax compliance research in developing countries due to its practical realities.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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