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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2021

María-José Foncubierta-Rodríguez

Happiness management is receiving increasing attention in business, and this is reflected in the literature. But any business management option has to be grounded in a true

Abstract

Purpose

Happiness management is receiving increasing attention in business, and this is reflected in the literature. But any business management option has to be grounded in a true awareness or belief that it will be a suitable and appropriate choice. In this belief the personal values of those who have the power to lead the way to weigh heavily. In this sense, there are personal values that, when used as guidelines in the management of a company, seem to promote the happiness of employees in the work environment. The purpose of this paper is to find the personal values of the entrepreneur. As a secondary objective, the authors also study whether these values are associated with certain entrepreneurs’ socio-demographic factors (gender and age).

Design/methodology/approach

The group to be studied is the Spanish business community. An exploratory study is carried out, first, with the definition of value constructs according to Schwartz’s personal values model and, second, with a relational analysis, measuring association effects through logistic regression.

Findings

Two higher-order personal values of the entrepreneur are found that seem to contain all the elements that would lead to management styles that would facilitate happiness at work. These values emerge from a dimension model of Schwartz’s theory of basic human values. MVP which, however, does not follow its four adjacent/antagonistic dimensions, but is composed of three dimensions adjacent to each other and, therefore, complementary. Moreover, some stereotypes in the literature on the relationships between personal values and certain socio-demographic factors are broken down and their effects on happiness at work are revealed.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations of this work is the relatively small sample size. In this sense, it would be useful to check whether the overall results are repeated in larger samples. Another limitation is that this is a portrait of the group at a given time. Given the experimental nature of this type of work, especially in the case of socio-demographic factors, it would be advisable to carry out a follow-up longitudinal analysis with a time horizon. This would allow a more precise investigation of the effects of the variables mentioned above. In addition, a third limitation is that the authors are studying the collective of Spanish entrepreneurs, and in the study of personal values, culture has a determining influence (Schenck, 2016; Boer and Boehnke, 2016; Perozo and Paz, 2016). It would also be worthwhile considering this study by sector: are the values the same for entrepreneurs in different sectors?; or in some specific sectors, for example, are there differences between entrepreneurs with tech businesses versus non-tech businesses or those who make the circular economy or the green economy a guideline for their organizations? Thus, technology companies must be open to change. Openness and innovation are for their entrepreneurs’ key values to ensure their performance (Tseng, 2010; Van Auken et al., 2008). However, in these organizations, there is a framework of conflicting values between the required flexibility and the values of power and control that the entrepreneur needs, and wants, to have (Albarracín et al., 2014). On the other hand, personal values determine green self-identity and moderate its relationships with ecological care and the moral obligation of the entrepreneur (Blankenberg and Alhusen, 2019; Barbarossa et al., 2017). Therefore, it could be analysed whether these values are maintained in entrepreneurs in these sectors, influencing, as discussed in this paper, greater happiness in the work context; and whether they are conditioned by gender or age (Fotieva, 2021; Li et al., 2020). It would also be helpful to study the socio-demographic influence further, to analyse the possibility of interaction or confounding effects between socio-demographic variables and some other variables not addressed in this paper. For example, does purchasing power or income level, affect personal values? And do the values that give content to F2, power and control, lead the entrepreneur to a higher level of income level or vice versa? Do other factors play a role? In fact, for Hirigoyen (2008), values such as altruism, benevolence and universalism are considered as obstacles to the development of the company. Subsequently, authors such as Salas-Vallina (2018) and Boubakary (2015) conclude that far from that idea, these axiological elements would lead to more significant business development through the satisfaction and happiness they generate in employees and stimulate their productivity, matching with the conclusions. It would be interesting, as a complement to the approach of this work, to carry out a study on the happiness at work of the entrepreneur’s employees, being the group of employees surveyed. Knowing the profile of values of an entrepreneur through the scale proposed in this work, it would be possible to analyse whether this is associated with greater or lesser perceived happiness among his/her employees. As mentioned above, from the methodological point of view, a risk of using the multidimensional scaling modelling for the analysis of personal values is that the respondent reflects more what he/she considers socially desirable than his/her true perception. This bias is one of the main limitations of psychological research. However, the fact that European Statistical Office surveys are guided by experts, both in processing -knowing how to deal with social desirability in personal values research (Danioni and Barni, 2020) – and in data collection, eliminates this limitation.

Practical implications

However, despite the above limitations, this paper makes important contributions. On the one hand, at a theoretical and instrumental level, it shows that the higher-order values graph of Spanish entrepreneurs follows the circumplex essence of the Schwartz value model but does not obey its number of higher-order dimensions. In the case of entrepreneurs, it consists of three elements, three dimensions, adjacent and complementary. None of them contradicts any other. A methodology is created to portray the Spanish entrepreneur in an axiological way and, from this portrait, to reveal his/her tendency towards a leadership style that promotes the happiness of his/her employees, through the importance given to these three factors or dimensions. These dimensions are weighted, in turn, by issues such as gender or age group. For added practical purposes, this information would be beneficial, in the first place, for all those who want to work in and with a particular entrepreneur. The type of leadership or management expected is a factor or reason why a person decides where he/she would like to work (Qing et al., 2020; Lee, 2016). This is not only for the potential employees of that business but also for all those groups or stakeholders, who engage with the company to perform their functions. Individuals make important decisions and choices about their relationships in the work environment based on the alignment of their values with those of the party they want to engage with (Sagiv et al., 2015). On the other hand, it can serve entrepreneurship educators. By knowing the value factors of entrepreneurs, adjusted to the culture of the particular territory, they will be able to pass on this information to their entrepreneurship students (Karimi and Makreet, 2020; Arieli and Tenne-Gazit, 2017) and teach them how they could increase the happiness at work. It also serves to better understand the constructs of management values-employee engagement-workplace happiness in the current environment (Ravina-Ripoll et al., 2020; Salas-Vallina et al., 2017; Wang and Yang, 2016), by introducing the role of personal values on the entrepreneur’s governance style into this construct (Figure 1).

Social implications

Finally, this study can also have social implications, making its tiny contribution to the SDGs through the study of personal values that guide the behaviour of the entrepreneur. The decision by international institutions for countries to implement the sustainable development goals (SDGs) (UNSDG 2030 Agenda) as cross-cutting strands of their policies has boosted the idea of addressing happiness at work. Thus, SDG 8 talks about Decent Work. In addition to the priority of improving the conditions of groups living in discriminatory working environments (child labour, poverty, precariousness, etc.), taken to its maximum expression, this objective encompasses much more. Workers spend a large part of their lives at work. At the same time, a business needs its employees to be productive. SDG 8 aims to ensure that people have quality employment, increasing their productivity and consumption potential. On the other hand, SDG 3 is about “Health and Well-being”, i.e. ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all ages. It is also about health and well-being in the work environment. Issues such as interpersonal relationships at work, environment and teams, organizational culture, role in the organization, autonomy at work and fostering innovative spirit, can be factors that, if poorly managed, reduce the feeling or perception of happiness at work, especially in today’s digital world (Foncubierta-Rodríguez and Montero-Sánchez, 2019; Leka and Houdmont, 2010; Näswall et al., 2008).

Originality/value

The role of certain higher-order personal values of the entrepreneur is highlighted, which could make him/her tend towards the realization of happiness management practices. Furthermore, through the methodology used, a model of the entrepreneur’s higher-order values has been established, which can be used as a tool to generate reasonable expectations about his/her way of governance and to what extent it is close to a framework conducive to happiness management. This information can be beneficial to all those people and groups that establish relationships with the company, from managers and employees to external stakeholders. In this way, it also helps to anticipate the companýs response to corporate social responsibility.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Margit Paustian, Franziska-Elisabeth Reinecke and Ludwig Theuvsen

Consumers are increasingly interested in the origin of their food, especially in the case of meat products where food safety issues are relevant. The purpose of this paper…

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Abstract

Purpose

Consumers are increasingly interested in the origin of their food, especially in the case of meat products where food safety issues are relevant. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the trend of regional food consumption and the influencing factors for consumer preferences of regional meat products. For the first time cognitive, normative and affective attributes, as well as point of purchase and socio-demographic characteristics, were put together in a conceptual framework to investigate which factors are influencing consumer preferences for regional meat products.

Design/methodology/approach

A representative sample of German consumers was surveyed in 2014. After measuring the determinants of perceived quality of regional meat products, an attribute-level factor analysis were used to test inter-dependence between the variables. All five factors, accounting for 77 percent of the sample, were examined by a binary logistic regression model.

Findings

Logit regression analysis found that three factors, including normative and affective attributes, significantly affect and influence consumer preferences for regional meat products, whereas cognitive attributes have no significant influence on consumer preferences.

Originality/value

The findings have interesting implications for retailers with respect to meat marketing activities, as well as for researchers with respect to further research on regional meat products. Though, it comes out that it is promising to concentrate on normative and affective attributes regarding product presentation and meat marketing of regional meat products.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Hai Minh Ngo, Ran Liu, Masahiro Moritaka and Susumu Fukuda

Research on the determinants of consumer behavior toward food with safety certifications in Vietnam remains little. The primary objective of this study is to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on the determinants of consumer behavior toward food with safety certifications in Vietnam remains little. The primary objective of this study is to identify the factors affecting Vietnamese consumer intention to purchase safely certified vegetables (safe vegetables) based on an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB).

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 361 urban consumers in Hanoi city based on a stratified sampling technique, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the model.

Findings

The results revealed that the extended TPB succeeded to predict 62% of the variance of intention to purchase safe vegetables. Attitude played the most important role in consumer intention. Notably, the attitude of consumers was the most largely influenced by subjective norms (social effects). Also, subjective norms had a direct effect on intention. Furthermore, consumer trust motivated a favorable attitude to increase purchase intention. The effects of past behavior on intention were verified as direct and indirect through subjective norm and trust combined with attitude. Few socio-demographic variables (e.g. age and education) were found to affect intention indirectly through attitude and subjective norm.

Research limitations/implications

Further research on the relationship between intention and the actual purchase of safe food is needed.

Originality/value

This extends the application of the TPB to predict consumer intention to purchase safely certified food in a developing country like Vietnam by examining both direct and indirect effects of socio-demographic variables, trust and past behavior on intention.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2020

Divyang Purohit, Mitesh Jayswal and Ashutosh Muduli

The purpose of this paper, systematic literature review, is twofold: to identify the factors influencing graduate job choice and to propose a theoretical model that can be…

1308

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper, systematic literature review, is twofold: to identify the factors influencing graduate job choice and to propose a theoretical model that can be useful for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Thematic analysis of the literature available till June 2020 has been reviewed using electronic databases such as ABI/INFORM Complete, EBSCO, Emerald Insight, ProQuest, SAGE Journals, Science Direct (Elsevier), Scopus, Springer Link, Taylor and Francis Online, Wiley Online Library.

Findings

Out of more than 5,000 studies, 14 studies were found addressing the issue of career choice among graduating students. The thematic analysis result explored five themes such as internal factors, external factors, interpersonal factors, institutional factors and socio-demographic factors that can be considered critical for graduates’ career choice decision. Details of the subthemes are also identified.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for practitioners have been suggested from the internal factors, external factors, interpersonal factors, institutional factors and socio-demographic factors’ perspectives. The study result can be useful for conducting future research using quantitative data on graduate job choice.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to present a comprehensive picture of past studies on graduate job choice and exploring the factors influencing graduate job choice.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 45 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Kenneth David Strang

The literature was reviewed to locate the most relevant social-psychology theories, factors, and instruments in order to measure New York State resident attitudes and…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature was reviewed to locate the most relevant social-psychology theories, factors, and instruments in order to measure New York State resident attitudes and social norms (SNs) concerning their intent to evacuate Hurricane Irene in the summer of 2011. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model which could be generalized to improve social policy determination for natural disaster preparation.

Design/methodology/approach

A post-positivist ideology was employed, quantitative data were collected from an online survey (nominal, binary, interval, and ratio), and inferential statistical techniques were applied to test theory-deductive hypotheses (Strang, 2013b). Since the questions for each hypothesized factor were customized using a pilot for this study, exploratory factor analysis were conducted to ensure the item validity and reliabilities were compared to a priori benchmarks (Gill et al., 2010). Correlation analysis along with logistic and multiple regression were applied to test the hypothesis at the 95 percent confidence level.

Findings

A statistically significant model was developed using correlation, stepwise regression, ordinary least squares regression, and logistic regression. Only two composite factors were needed to capture 55.4 percent of the variance for behavioral intent (BI) to evacuate. The model predicted 43.9 percent of the evacuation decisions, with 13.3 percent undecided, leaving 42.8 incorrectly classified), using logistic regression (n=401 surveyed participants).

Research limitations/implications

Municipal planners can use this information by creating surveys and collecting BI indicators from citizens, during risk planning, in advance of a natural disaster. The concepts could also apply to man-made disasters. Planners can use the results from these surveys to predict the overall likelihood that residents with home equity (e.g. home owners) intend to leave when given a public evacuation order.

Practical implications

Once municipal planners know the indicators for personal attitudes (PAs) (in particular) and SNs, they could sort these by region, to identify areas where the PAs were too low. Then additional evacuation preparation efforts can be focussed on those regions. According to these findings, the emphasis must be focussed on a PA basis, describing the extreme negative impacts of previous disasters, rather than using credible spokespersons, to persuade individuals to leave.

Originality/value

A new model was created with a “near miss disaster” severity factor as an extension to the theory of reasoned action.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Miomir M. Jovanović, Ljiljana Kašćelan, Miljan Joksimović and Vladimir Kašćelan

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the interactive and individual influences of socio-demographic and behavioural-cognitive factors on the frequency and quality of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the interactive and individual influences of socio-demographic and behavioural-cognitive factors on the frequency and quality of wine consumption, as well as importance of the brand and advertising on selection.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey was prepared on the basis of the selected factors. The research was carried out on a sample of 207 randomly selected respondents. The analysis was done using the classification decision tree.

Findings

The results show the dominant influence of socio-demographic factors, such as region, place of living (urban-rural areas), family size, age, income and education of consumers as well as behavioural-cognitive factors, such as the price importance, place of purchase and product characteristics, in all analysed target variables. Apart from the similarities with traditional wine markets, the specificities related to an emerging market have also been determined.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this research concern sample size as well as the research conducted over the period of one year.

Practical implications

The practical objective of this paper is to help wine marketers to develop more effective positioning strategies for a specific emerging market.

Originality/value

This research combines critical factors based on related studies, including the antecedents and outcome variables, to develop more comprehensive models for better understanding of the wine consumers’ behaviour. In major and traditional wine-making countries, the consumption of wine is fairly predictable. In emerging markets, the commercial strategies are, for the most part, based on certain specificities and are quite interesting for the surveys.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Angel F. González, Catherine Curtis, Isaac J. Washburn and Abhijeet R. Shirsat

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test an existing conceptual model from Mak et al. (2012a, 2012b) to discern which factors have the most influence on food…

4191

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test an existing conceptual model from Mak et al. (2012a, 2012b) to discern which factors have the most influence on food choices when travelers visit destinations with different options, i.e. local foods, other than those available in their home environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative study surveyed 330 travelers and used descriptive analyses of all the variables involved. A hierarchical linear regression was calculated to predict for the dependent variable of local cuisine consumption, based on the independent variables of culture and religion, socio-demographic factors, motivational factors, food trait personality and exposure effect/past experience.

Findings

Culture, motivational factors and food-related personality traits were consistently significant predictors of local food consumption.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include using an English-only online questionnaire and self-reported bias. The impacting delimitation relates to data collection from US travelers and thus limiting generalizability findings.

Practical implications

The study explained factors involved in travelers’ decision to consume local foods at a destination. Government, tourism-related organizations, producers and service providers gain information to improve products, increase interest, create additional employment opportunities, increase tax revenues that assist local communities and increase consumption of local foods, products and services.

Originality/value

The limited availability of research on this topic prompted the interest of the researchers. Mak et al. (2012b) provide a conceptual model that was first tested empirically in this study. It presents a five factors impacting tourist food consumption at a destination. Local food consumption of tourists was tested using the aforementioned conceptual model.

Details

Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista de Análisis Turístico, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2254-0644

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2020

Neeraj Dangi, Sandeep Kumar Gupta and Sapna A. Narula

The paper aims to investigate existing research in factors impacting organic food purchase with special reference to eco-labels and identify the relative influence of…

9193

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate existing research in factors impacting organic food purchase with special reference to eco-labels and identify the relative influence of various determinants.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework is proposed of organic food buying behaviour after analysing a sample of 154,072 consumers reported in 91 research studies from 2001–2020. The factors are categorised into four categories on the basis of relatedness. In addition, the factors were analysed based on time, region and national economic status.

Findings

The impact of consumer psychographics, socio-demographic and product-related factor categories were found to be more pronounced compared to supply-related factor category. The results show that among individual factors like health concern, environment concern, knowledge and awareness, eco-labels and price followed by trust in organic food are the most important factors in organic food purchase. The findings suggest that eco-labels increase trust in organic food by reducing information asymmetry in consumers. However, there were differences in perception and factors importance between high-income economies and emerging economies.

Originality/value

The study is unique, as it analyses secondary research based on criteria of high-income economies and emerging economies. The conceptual framework can also be incorporated further into different cognitive models like the theory of planned behaviour.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2022

Wiebke Eberhardt, Thomas Post, Chantal Hoet and Elisabeth Brüggen

The authors develop and validate a conceptual model, the retirement engagement model (REM), to understand the relationships between behavioral engagement (retirement…

1097

Abstract

Purpose

The authors develop and validate a conceptual model, the retirement engagement model (REM), to understand the relationships between behavioral engagement (retirement information search), cognitive factors and engagement (e.g. beliefs and financial knowledge), emotional engagement (e.g. anxiety), and socio-demographic factors. Approach: The authors derive the REM through a three-step procedure: (1) an extensive literature review, (2) interactive feedback sessions with experts to confirm the model's academic and managerial relevance, and (3) an empirical test of the REM with field data (N = 583). The authors use a partial least squares (PLS) structural equation model and examine heterogeneity through a finite mixture model.

Design/methodology/approach

Around the globe, people are insufficiently engaged with retirement planning. The customer engagement literature offers rich insights into antecedents, outcomes, and barriers to engagement. However, customer engagement literature lacks insights into cognitive, emotional and behavioral factors that drive engagement in retirement planning, a utilitarian service context, which is important for financial well-being.

Findings

Beliefs such as perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, together with trust and retirement anxiety, explain people's search for pension information. These factors can be used to define three clear, actionable segments of consumers.

Originality/value

The findings advance the customer engagement and transformative service research literature by generating insights on engagement with retirement planning, a utilitarian rather than hedonic service context that is especially relevant for financial well-being. The findings inform managerial practice and emphasize the relevance of including cognitive and emotional engagement factors that trigger behavioral engagement. The REM can help to improve pension communication. For example, the results indicate that marketers should stress the benefits of, rather than the barriers to, acquiring information.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Leslie B. Buckley and Michael G. Petrunik

Takes a random sample of 156 respondents from municipal and rural police forces in Canada to examine the relationship between various factors concerning their careers…

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Abstract

Takes a random sample of 156 respondents from municipal and rural police forces in Canada to examine the relationship between various factors concerning their careers. Finds that a significant number of officers perceive their career orientation to have changed over time. Presents findings on social activists, enforcers, careerists, specialists and self investors. Differs from previous research linking career orientation to personality type by seeing career orientation as changing with time, stages of career and circumstances. Remarks that policing needs to be technically sophisticated, cost‐effective, community‐based and sensitive to the realities of a multicultural society. Recommends that police departments consider the career orientation of recruits and establish a reward structure suited to the varied career types

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

Keywords

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