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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Riikka Aro and Terhi-Anna Wilska

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the material conditions of peoples’ daily lives by investigating changes in the self-perceived necessities of ten technology- and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the material conditions of peoples’ daily lives by investigating changes in the self-perceived necessities of ten technology- and leisure-related consumer goods and services between 1999 and 2009. The authors also look at the socio-demographic predictors of the perceptions and the development of the ownership of the goods under investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are derived from surveys “Finland – Consumption and way of life” 1999 (N=2,417), 2004 (N=3,574), and 2009 (N=1,202). The statistical analysis methods include ANOVA and descriptive statistics. Also official statistics are used.

Findings

Many technological goods, in particular, have become necessities for most people, and the ownership rates have increased notably. Age, type of household, place of residence and gender affected the necessity of most items. Income affected the necessity of expensive goods and services.

Practical implications

The ways goods become social decencies does not always follow economic rationalities or are explained by conventional socio-economic determinants. The meaning of life course stage and related daily practices are probably more important than is usually recognized in social studies. Particularly many ICT goods become socially perceived necessities soon after their emergence, which changes the perceptions of adequate living standards, affecting thus the definition of “basic needs” and related social policy.

Originality/value

The perceptions of necessities and other measures of living standards have been mainly looked at from the viewpoint of poverty and income. This study explains the perceived necessity of goods and services by several socio-demographic variables.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Jennifer Anna Stark and Erich Kirchler

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of inheritance tax behavior with normative value principles and factors found relevant for income tax…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of inheritance tax behavior with normative value principles and factors found relevant for income tax compliance. Also, it examines the influence of affectedness and earmarking on inheritance tax compliance. Furthermore, it compares two countries similar in tax morale, tax culture as well as dominant normative value principles, Austria and Germany, of which one – Germany – levies inheritance taxes and the other – Austria – is debating its reintroduction.

Design/methodology/approach

A two (affected vs nonaffected) by two (Austria vs Germany) by two (inheritance tax vs stock profit tax) by three (no earmarking vs social justice earmarking vs equality of opportunity earmarking) experimental online questionnaire was conducted with 296 Austrians and 230 Germans.

Findings

Normative value principles and other socio-psychological variables play an important role concerning inheritance tax behavior. Affectedness does not influence inheritance tax compliance. Earmarking inheritance tax to projects corresponding to these value principles increases inheritance tax compliance in the Austrian sample and could represent a measure to increase inheritance tax compliance in countries implementing inheritance tax or increasing inheritance tax.

Originality/value

This study draws a comprehensive picture of the socio-psychological variables relevant to inheritance tax behavior and tests the effect of earmarking as a policy measure to increase inheritance tax compliance.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2007

Steven Van de Walle

We use data from the World Values Survey to describe and compare levels of confidence in the civil service in a series of countries, and study determinants of this…

Abstract

We use data from the World Values Survey to describe and compare levels of confidence in the civil service in a series of countries, and study determinants of this confidence. Instead of focusing on citizen satisfaction with specific public services in a specific country, we analyze citizens’ general attitudes toward the public administration or civil service, and compare these attitudes internationally. We fit 60 identical regression models, to test for the impact of a series of socio-demographic and socio-economic variables in each of the countries. We finish by comparing the determinants in each of the countries, and test whether cultural or regional patterns emerge.

Details

Cultural Aspects of Public Management Reform
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1400-3

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2019

Joshua Wesana, Joachim J. Schouteten, Evi Van Acker, Xavier Gellynck and Hans De Steur

While trends of health and well-being have boosted the development of sports nutrition products, consumer research is limited. The purpose of this paper is to profile…

Abstract

Purpose

While trends of health and well-being have boosted the development of sports nutrition products, consumer research is limited. The purpose of this paper is to profile sports nutrition users and non-users, and to explain users’ preference and equity of sports nutrition brands.

Design/methodology/approach

A large online survey (n=3,165) was conducted with users and non-users of sports nutrition drinks in Belgium. Profiling was based on socio-demographic and sport related variables. For users, brand preference and equity of three key sports nutrition brands (n=1,075) were measured. Thereby, a three-dimensional consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) model was applied.

Findings

Both the socio-demographic (gender, age, education and employment status) and sport profile (frequency, context, reasons and sports nutrition advice) had a significant influence on respondents’ likelihood to use sports nutrition products. For brand preference, the effect of sport and socio-demographic profile was only partially confirmed, with advice and frequency of sport participation being most influential. Furthermore, users’ brand equity was shown to be positively affected by brand quality and brand loyalty, while the impact of brand awareness/associations was not significant for all brands.

Research limitations/implications

Insights in the role of the sport and socio-demographic profiles contribute to the understanding of general and brand-specific sports nutrition use. The insignificance of brand awareness/associations for Brand A points to the notion of other implicit factors that possibly mask or transform the effect of brand awareness, yet do not influence brand quality and loyalty. Future theory development could integrate the CBBE model with other explanatory determinants related to consumer (health) behavior theories, or consumer perceptions on marketing efforts, while brand equity measurement could be extended with financial measures.

Practical implications

Variations in the impact of brand equity dimensions further lend support for the diversification of marketing strategies in the sports nutrition sector.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the customer market of sports nutrition products and brands.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Sven Gross and Bente Grimm

The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the determinants that influence the tourists’ choice of mode of transport at the destination, and it is intended to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the determinants that influence the tourists’ choice of mode of transport at the destination, and it is intended to contribute to the sustainable mobility of tourists. In line with this approach, the main emphasis is placed on public transport (PT) within the destination.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to illustrating frequency, users and non-users of public transport were analysed. Differences in the selected influencing factors on the choice of the modes of transport are determined using the chi-square test for nominal variables, and statistical significance was determined using Kruskal–Wallis H-test for the ordinal variables.

Findings

The analysis illustrates that the most important socio-demographic determinants in public transport use are: age, household size, net household income, car availability and current professional activity. In terms of travel-orientated variables, the arrival transport means, as well as the travel duration, travel expenses and travel organisation stand out.

Research limitations/implications

Although the Reiseanalyse (RA) has been established in German tourism research for many years, the present study is not without limitations. First, the questionnaire of the RA is made up of standard questions that are (nearly) identical year after year and topic-specific questions from one or more customers. The questions used in the present analysis were, therefore, not developed specifically for this contribution. Second, the authors cannot evaluate the existing data in more detail because the data structure does not provide this. Only two variables can be related at a time. Due to financial limitations, the authors could not use the raw data. For this reason, it is not possible to perform mediator analyses or multiple predictions to check relationships between independent variables (such as income, number of cars, profession or age). In this context, it should be noted that the observed differences to the other studies cited can also be because of different methodological approaches of the individual studies. While most of the studies used for comparison include tourists from one overnight stay, this paper focuses on main holiday trips with a duration of five days and more. There are also differences in the survey itself. Most of the face-to-face surveys were conducted on site. The RA, on the other hand, takes place at home with respondents with a time delay after the holiday trip. In this context, it is particularly important to note that these results are representative for the whole of the Federal Republic of Germany, i.e. the domestic holidays of the German-speaking population living in Germany, and that they are not representative for any single city or a similar spatial unit.

Originality/value

Tourism-related mobility negatively effects all (German) destinations. Greater focus on sustainable mobility of tourists, specifically sustainable transportation, is playing an increasingly important role in science and practice. To ensure a successful reorientation, it is crucial to know which factors influence the choice of modes of transport for local tourists. Therefore, this paper analyses selected determinants influencing the choice of modes of transport for tourists. This research is based upon representative data for holiday mobility at destinations during Germans’ domestic holidays. The objective was to learn more about the determinants that influence the tourists’ choice of mode of transport at the destination, and it is intended to contribute to the sustainable mobility of tourists. In line with this approach, the main emphasis is placed on public transport (PT) within the destination.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2020

Jindrich Spicka

Risk attitude is an elementary attribute of entrepreneurial behaviour. Determinants of risk-taking propensity have been widely investigated in the group of entrepreneurs…

Abstract

Purpose

Risk attitude is an elementary attribute of entrepreneurial behaviour. Determinants of risk-taking propensity have been widely investigated in the group of entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs so far. There is a lack of evidence on determinants of risk-taking propensity in the farming business, which is considered as risky business because of the ongoing climate change and epidemic outbreaks. Alternatively, the risk of lower European Union budget raised the question, how to implement publicly supported financial instruments for micro and small farmers which have lower credit rating. The purpose of this study is to find socio-demographic determinants of the risk-taking propensity of the Czech micro farms, controlling for the type of farming.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey of 747 micro farmers was processed through ordinal logistic regression. The study is based on the subjective self-assessment of the risk-taking behaviour which is frequently used to measure risk-taking attitude. The results are representative from the type of farming point of view.

Findings

The model provided clear evidence that age, household size, living with the partner/wife/husband and level of education have a significant relationship with risk-taking propensity. The most risk-tolerant farmers are young with less formal education and living in small households. The risk-taking propensity varies by the type of farming. Specialized crop farms have significantly higher risk-taking propensity than farms with a substantial share of livestock production. Alternatively, gender, feeling about household income and religion are not significantly related to the risk-taking propensity of the Czech micro farms.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the study is the number of explanatory variables and the use of self-assessment of risk-taking attitude. The risk attitude can be explained by other variables which require in-depth qualitative research, such as past risk experience, the structure of decision problems, market orientation and operation under subsistence conditions.

Practical implications

The significant determinants of risk-taking attitude of micro farmers are important for banks, the Czech Support and Guarantee Fund for Farmers and Forestry and for policymakers who design the rules for post-2020 common agricultural policy. The study is original and valuable for the Central and Eastern European countries’ implementation of financial instruments as new rules for investment support are being prepared and research on the risk-taking attitude of the most vulnerable segment of farmers has not been conducted.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is from the perspective of agricultural sector as well as from the micro farms point of view. The results have commercial and political implications. Younger farmers, singles and lower-educated farmers have significantly higher risk-taking propensity and can be potentially risky clients for banks. Such farmers represent the financial gap in the credit market, and their viable development projects could be subject for implementation of financial instruments co-financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in the forthcoming programming period past 2020.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2019

Simona Cosma, Stefano Cosma and Alessandro M. Peluso

The purpose of this paper is to highlight opportunities for the banking sector arising from the population’s aging and the expected reduction in pension incomes. Home…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight opportunities for the banking sector arising from the population’s aging and the expected reduction in pension incomes. Home equity conversion (HEC) instruments are a potentially useful way of restoring households’ finances and satisfying their needs, with implications for the demand for financial services.

Design/methodology/approach

By using an ordered probit regression model, the paper analyzes data obtained from a survey of 2,000 Italian households.

Findings

The main finding of this paper is that individuals with greater familiarity with consumer credit, a cognitive and decision-making approach favorable to use of credit, and an internal locus of control show greater interest in various forms of equity conversion.

Originality/value

This paper extends the analysis of the determinants of individuals’ interest in HEC products. It focuses more closely than the existing literature on households’ credit behaviors, attitudes toward credit and locus of control. The paper helps identify the potential targets of marketing campaigns and commercial proposals, and highlights the levers that the banks can focus on in communicating with customers and future prospects. Moreover, this paper suggests that there is a need to develop greater awareness on the part of people who could be interested in these products. Therefore, appropriate financial education projects should be implemented to develop a better “credit” culture, with due appreciation of the usefulness of credit as a means of supporting household budgets.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Pasi Pohjolainen, Markus Vinnari and Pekka Jokinen

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the barriers perceived by consumers to lowering their meat consumption levels and adopting a plant-based diet, which means a diet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the barriers perceived by consumers to lowering their meat consumption levels and adopting a plant-based diet, which means a diet that includes mainly non-meat foods, yet it can contain both vegetarian and meat meals.

Design/methodology/approach

The prevalence of different barriers for following a plant-based diet is addressed, as well as consumer profiles considering socio-demographics, values and meat consumption frequencies. The data were collected in 2010 by a survey questionnaire, sent to 4,000 randomly selected Finns (response rate=47.3, n=1,890).

Findings

Different types of barriers are perceived to hinder the adoption of a plant-based diet, including meat enjoyment, eating routines, health conceptions and difficulties in preparing vegetarian foods. These barriers are strongly correlated, indicating that consumers may not make qualitative difference between different barriers. Furthermore, there are distinct socio-demographic, value and especially meat consumption frequency elements that strengthen the barrier perception, these being male gender, young age, rural residence, household type of families with children, low education, absence of a vegetarian family member or friend, valuation of traditions and wealth and high meat consumption frequency.

Social implications

High meat consumption is related to many environmental and public health problems. The results call for multifaceted policy implications that should concentrate on different barriers and certain socio-demographic, value and meat eating groups. Importantly, focus should be not only on the group with the strongest barrier perception but also on those particularly willing to make changes in their meat consumption patterns. One practical implication could be to increase the availability of vegetarian foods in public cafeterias or school canteens, as a decrease in meat consumption frequency is strongly correlated with the alleviation of the barrier perception.

Originality/value

Information about differences in socio-demographics, values and meat consumption frequencies between consumers provide opportunities for focussing policy actions to aid the adoption of a plant-based diet.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Wim Verbeke and Gisela Poquiviqui López

Awareness and testing of ethnic cuisine have increased in the past decades as a consequence of the growing international trade, migration, tourism and globalisation. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Awareness and testing of ethnic cuisine have increased in the past decades as a consequence of the growing international trade, migration, tourism and globalisation. This article aims to focus on the attitude and behaviour of Belgians towards Latin‐American ethnic foods, and of Hispanics living in Belgium towards mainstream Belgian food.

Design/methodology/approach

The role of socio‐demographic characteristics, food neophobia, and degree of acculturation or openness on food preference and choice among these two population groups is analysed. A survey with 119 Belgian and 127 Hispanic participants was performed. Data analysis deals with descriptive analyses and statistical validation of the perceived associations by means of chi‐square, t‐test, ANOVA, correlations, and stepwise multiple regression.

Findings

The overall opinion and degree of satisfaction of the Belgian sample towards ethnic food were favourable. Latin‐American food consumption and attitude of Belgians are negatively correlated with food neophobia, which is significantly higher among urban and 55+ aged consumers, and positively correlated with openness to new cultures. Taste and appearance were key attributes that determined Belgians' preference for ethnic foods. Hispanics' general perception towards Belgian mainstream food was favourable as well, although they considered their own food as being better in taste. Barriers to maintain Latin‐American food habits are availability and time constraints. Hispanics' adoption of traditional Belgian cuisine is positively correlated with time of residence in Belgium and negatively correlated with maintenance of native social interaction and language use. Food neophobia does not emerge as a determinant of Hispanics' dietary acculturation to mainstream Belgian food.

Research limitations/implications

Data are collected from a relatively small convenience sample, which limits generalisation of the findings beyond the sample characteristics, which renders the findings exploratory rather than conclusive.

Originality/value

This paper covers important, not well‐explored and previously neglected research subjects, namely attitude, perceptions and behaviour towards ethnic food and food consumption among ethnic minorities in the increasingly globalised food market. The main contribution pertains to simultaneously investigating the role of socio‐demographic, acculturation and food neophobia on food consumption decisions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Suzanah Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak and Najibatul Rusyda Mansor

This study was conducted to explore the underlying reasons of food choice and the association with risk perception in an urban community. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to explore the underlying reasons of food choice and the association with risk perception in an urban community. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross‐sectional design, adults between 20 and 60 years old, selected by convenience sampling from three different races; Malay, Chinese and Indian, in Sungai Petani, Kedah were surveyed. A self‐administered food choice questionnaire was used and data collected were analysed using SPSS Statistic 17.0.

Findings

Religion, risk perception and sensory appeal were the most prominent factors affecting food choice of respondents. Age showed significant correlation with mood and sensory appeal. Monthly income was significantly correlated with convenience, weight control and familiarity. Risk perception was found to be correlated with all motives except familiarity and religion.

Research limitations/implications

A larger sample with approximately equal number of respondents from the various races would provide a more substantial overview of the trend of food choice in a multicultural population.

Practical implications

This study provides an insight on factors determining the food‐buying power of the community which may directly impact the commercial success of food products including modifying provisions and actions of the food industry.

Originality/value

This research investigated the set priorities of an urban community in deciding the type of food for consumption which may be influenced by multicultural interactions and reported risks.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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