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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Sarah Hammond and Nigel Beail

There has been little empirical investigation into the theoretical relationship between moral reasoning and offending in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been little empirical investigation into the theoretical relationship between moral reasoning and offending in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this paper is to compare offending and non-offending ID groups on a new measure of social-moral awareness, and on theory of mind (ToM).

Design/methodology/approach

A between groups design was used. The scores of 21 male offenders and 21 male non-offenders, all with ID and matched for IQ, were compared on the Social-Moral Awareness Test (SMAT) and on two ToM tasks.

Findings

There was no significant difference in SMAT scores or on first- or second-order ToM tasks between offending and non-offending groups. Better ToM performance significantly predicted higher SMAT scores and non-offending groups. Better ToM performance significantly predicted higher SMAT scores.

Research limitations/implications

Results were inconsistent with previous research. Further work is required to establish the validity and theoretical underpinnings of the SMAT. Development in the measurement of ToM for people with ID is also required.

Originality/value

This is the first use of the SMAT with a population of offenders who have ID. The findings suggest caution in its use in clinical settings.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2018

Bramhani Rao and Sambashiva Rao Kunja

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between two sub-dimensions of a leader’s empathy (perspective-taking and empathic-concern) and successful…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between two sub-dimensions of a leader’s empathy (perspective-taking and empathic-concern) and successful authorization of idiosyncratic deals (developmental, location flexibility and schedule flexibility i-deals).

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling was conducted on the cross-sectional data collected from 307 managers working in software development and support companies located in major cities in India.

Findings

While empathic-concern is positively related to successful authorization of both developmental and flexibility i-deals, perspective-taking related positively to authorization of developmental i-deals and showed no significant relationship with flexibility i-deals.

Research limitations/implications

The study reiterates the importance of empathy in modern workplaces and encourages managers to be conscious of their intelligence, as well as emotions, while participating in negotiations at the workplace.

Originality/value

The paper relates i-deals to sub-dimensions of empathy which is a previously unexplored antecedent to i-deals.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2007

Armin Nassehi, Irmhild Saake and Katharina Mayr

Before starting research in the field of ethics, a few common assumptions need to be cleared up. The first is so common that it needs very little space at all: Ethics is a

Abstract

Before starting research in the field of ethics, a few common assumptions need to be cleared up. The first is so common that it needs very little space at all: Ethics is a scientific discipline. This accurately describes its location and the problems it covers in a modern, functionally differentiated society. As a branch of philosophy and a normative science, its frame of reference is initially located in a world of possible competing reasons. The basic problem is that of trying to explain good reasons – and the horizon is the sayability of ethical sentences which, even when they reflect an ethical practice, open up a scientific horizon. Ethics is therefore a science – and like every science it can only solve scientific problems (see Luhmann, 2002, pp. 79–93). Practical problems are also the scientific problems of ethics – and that is not a deficiency, but rather a consequence of the basic structures of modern society. A modern society cut loose from political, economic, legal, scientific, artistic, educational and medical problems, on the one hand, allows these disconnected spheres to relate radically to each other, while on the other hand making them logically incompatible. A modern society could not exist any other way (see Luhmann, 1998, pp. 1–21; Nassehi, 2005a). This should first be understood before venturing into research on ethics.

Details

Bioethical Issues, Sociological Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1438-6

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Aluisius Hery Pratono

This study aims to understand the complex relationship between religiosity and citizenship behaviour by examining the role of materialism attitude and empathy.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the complex relationship between religiosity and citizenship behaviour by examining the role of materialism attitude and empathy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study developed a structural equation model with some measures taken from the previous literature. This study conducted a survey of young people in Indonesia context and used partial least square to test the proposed hypothesis.

Findings

The empirical results indicate the mechanism from religiosity to citizenship behaviour involves empathy. However, under high materialism attitude, an increasing level of religiosity will have a lower impact on citizenship than the individual under low materialism attitude.

Originality/value

This study extends to the discussion on the complicated relationship between religiosity and citizenship behaviour by introducing the moderating effect of materialism attitude and the mediating effect of empathy.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Book part
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Natalia Kucirkova

Abstract

Details

The Future of the Self: Understanding Personalization in Childhood and Beyond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-945-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Suzy Jagger

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether, when teaching professional ethics, the educational interventions have any effect on improving students' moral decisions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether, when teaching professional ethics, the educational interventions have any effect on improving students' moral decisions. One method often used to measure change is the well‐established defining issues test – an American test based on Kohlberg's stage theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Using this test, two before‐and‐after studies were carried out on cross‐cultural cohorts of first year computing undergraduates which both received the same lectures, debates and moral‐decision‐making exercises.

Findings

One study showed a significant increase in moral judgment whilst the other showed a decrease (although not significant). Both studies indicated mean scores far below the American averages.

Research limitations/implications

As both studies involved relatively small sample sizes, the results are indicative rather than conclusive. However, they bring to light issues associated with the test, in both American and non‐American research, indicating that lower than average mean scores could be due to cross‐cultural and situational variations.

Practical implications

The paper questions the premise of stage theory as a method for measurement within a cross‐cultural context; and the usefulness of measuring one component of moral development (moral judgment) in isolation.

Originality/value

The paper proposes that tests based on more discipline‐specific skills, rather than stage theory, would be of greater use in evaluating student levels of moral development.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

Cedric Pugh

It was not until the late 1960s that housing attracted much attention from academic social scientists. Since that time the literature has expanded widely and diversified…

Abstract

It was not until the late 1960s that housing attracted much attention from academic social scientists. Since that time the literature has expanded widely and diversified, establishing housing with a specialised status in economics, sociology, politics, and in related subjects. As we would expect, the new literature covers a technical, statistical, theoretical, ideological, and historical range. Housing studies have not been conceived and interpreted in a monolithic way, with generally accepted concepts and principles, or with uniformly fixed and precise methodological approaches. Instead, some studies have been derived selectively from diverse bases in conventional theories in economics or sociology, or politics. Others have their origins in less conventional social theory, including neo‐Marxist theory which has had a wider intellectual following in the modern democracies since the mid‐1970s. With all this diversity, and in a context where ideological positions compete, housing studies have consequently left in their wake some significant controversies and some gaps in evaluative perspective. In short, the new housing intellectuals have written from personal commitments to particular cognitive, theoretical, ideological, and national positions and experiences. This present piece of writing takes up the two main themes which have emerged in the recent literature. These themes are first, questions relating to building and developing housing theory, and, second, the issue of how we are to conceptualise housing and relate it to policy studies. We shall be arguing that the two themes are closely related: in order to create a useful housing theory we must have awareness and understanding of housing practice and the nature of housing.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 13 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2013

Eneli Kindsiko

Purpose — (Dis)honesty as a quality of our actions can be assessed at different levels. Often these levels have not been differentiated. Semantically we cannot talk about…

Abstract

Purpose — (Dis)honesty as a quality of our actions can be assessed at different levels. Often these levels have not been differentiated. Semantically we cannot talk about a dishonest society or dishonest organizations — dishonesty can only be attributed to individual actions. We can approach a dishonest act through its essence (deontology), consequences (utilitarianism), and also through the person committing the act (virtue ethics), but most often organizational spheres are too complex objects of study to face ethical dilemmas without the influences that their context can bring. Therefore, the purpose of the chapter is to look at dishonesty as an unethical act through the lenses of behavioral ethics, since behavioral ethics is able to grasp the framing effects of ethical situations while combining the main elements of the previously mentioned traditional ethical theories.Design/methodology/approach — In the current chapter it will be differentiated between traditional ethical theories and acknowledged that depending on the level of analysis (individual, organization, or the society level) with their distinctly different ontological backgrounds, we will have different groundings for making any kind of axiological statements about the dishonesty of an action.Findings — In order to give ethical statements about (dis)honesty in organizations, we cannot neglect the influences brought by context. Organizations with endless social interactions both locally and globally usually have no universal basis for making axiological statements.Originality/value — The originality of this chapter is twofold: firstly to cover the importance of making sense of what ethical approaches we take as a grounding when we make ethical judgments in organizational context, and secondly to analyze whether and how the question of dishonesty differs when we switch between the most traditional ethical approaches. The chapter proposes a new framework how ethical decision-making should be assessed depending on the level of social interactions and how dishonesty is associated with gaining social approval.

Details

(Dis)Honesty in Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-602-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Anne Tsui

Value-free science is an ideal that is neither possible nor desirable, especially for social sciences. The subject of social sciences is individuals and groups; hence…

Abstract

Purpose

Value-free science is an ideal that is neither possible nor desirable, especially for social sciences. The subject of social sciences is individuals and groups; hence social, moral, ethical, or political values are inherent and unavoidable in all steps of the scientific process. Further, the authority of science requires the scientist to be responsible experts in ensuring the reliability of knowledge and in assessing the risks in applying the research findings in social policies and practices. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the role of values in business school research.

Design/methodology/approach

The author explains the two primary types of values relevant for science: epistemic – norms and standards to ensure good science – and social – criteria not relevant for discovering the truth of knowledge but may influence decisions related to science especially in evaluating the cost of wrongful conclusions from the research evidence. Based on an analysis of published criticisms of business school research and the author’s own analysis, the author describes how business school research is infused with social and political values, undermining the objectivity and quality of science by business scientists.

Findings

The author endorses the idea of responsible science – science that recognizes the mutual dependence between science and society, and that aims to satisfy both epistemic and social values. The author offers a modest proposal to encourage transformation of business school research to meet both rigor (valid and reliable knowledge) and relevance (useful for practice) – the hallmark of responsible science.

Research limitations/implications

The ideas in this essay have implications for further work on identifying the relevant epistemic and social values to guide business school research.

Originality/value

The idea of responsible science can potentially transform business school’s research to become both scientifically rigorous and societally relevant.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1982

Anghel N. Rugina

As in the case of Karl Marx where the scientist (thinker in equilibrium terms) must be separated from the revolutionary (man of action, thinker in disequilibrium terms)…

Abstract

As in the case of Karl Marx where the scientist (thinker in equilibrium terms) must be separated from the revolutionary (man of action, thinker in disequilibrium terms), this article, using the same equilibrium versus disequilibrium approach, advances the thesis that there are also two Walrases — the pure scientist (theoretician) and the social reformer (a man of action). There is sufficient evidence to accept the hypothesis of two Walrases and this in turn helps to explain a number of ideas which otherwise appear as contradictions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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