Search results

1 – 10 of over 57000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2005

Michael A. Hogg

A social identity analysis, based on Hogg's (2000) uncertainty reduction theory, of the emergence and maintenance of ideological belief systems is presented. Uncertainty

Abstract

A social identity analysis, based on Hogg's (2000) uncertainty reduction theory, of the emergence and maintenance of ideological belief systems is presented. Uncertainty, particularly self-uncertainty, motivates identification with high-entitativity groups and behaviors that promote entitativity. Under more extreme uncertainty, identification is more pronounced and entitativity can be associated with orthodoxy, hierarchy and extremism, and with ideological belief systems. I develop and describe a social identity and uncertainty reduction analysis of ideology, and contextualize this in a brief discussion of the concept of ideology and in coverage of other contemporary social psychological treatments of ideology, such as social dominance theory, system justification theory, right-wing authoritarianism, belief in a just world, and the protestant work ethic.

Details

Social Identification in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-223-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Muhammad Naeem

The use of social media and information exchange increased during Covid-19 pandemic because people are isolated and working from home. The use of social media enhances…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of social media and information exchange increased during Covid-19 pandemic because people are isolated and working from home. The use of social media enhances information exchange in a global society, therefore customers are uncertain and not in a better position to take decisions before the situation goes worst everywhere in the world. The current study helps to understand how social media facilitate social and global engagement and information exchange which ultimately leads to the development of the customer psychology of stockpiling. This study aims to develop a research framework which helps to understand the customer psychology of stockpiling during a global pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

This study opted for a social constructionist approach because it can help to understand both individual and social subjective realities with respect to stockpiling behaviour due to the fear and risk of Covid-19 pandemic. For this purpose, the researcher collected data from 40 customers of UK retail stores who actively use social media. The data were collected during telephonic interviews and thematic analysis was used for data analysis.

Findings

Results highlighted that institutional communication and social public interpretation of uncertainties and risk enhanced misinformation and sensationalism through social media platforms; therefore, stockpiling behaviour increased during Covid-19 pandemic. The fear of items being out of stock, illness, misinformation, family fear and going out were some of the possible causes that led to the development of panic stockpiling behaviour. The global uncertainty proof, as well as a public social consensus for staying at home and protecting the future also increased customers’ intention to buy in bulk for their future. Although social media played an important role in transferring relevant and timely information, it also increased uncertainty and social proof which may have led to stockpiling of retail products.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study are beneficial for understanding how Covid-19 creates and enhances uncertainties and risks at both global and national level which developed into customer panic stockpiling behaviour, even when there is no promotional scheme or decrease in prices. This study helps marketers understand the psychology of customer stockpiling during a global pandemic. This study also helps to understand the role of social media, which promotes social interpretations of uncertainties and risk which ultimately enhance panic stockpiling among customers.

Originality/value

Limited research is available which provides an understanding of how social media can play a role in socially generated uncertainties and risks, which enhance misinformation and sensationalism, as well as the development of stockpiling behaviour. This study provided a stockpiling behaviour model based on the theory of uncertainty and social proof. The results of this study are unique as there is limited literature available which connects social media, uncertainties and risk, Covid-19 pandemic and stockpiling behaviour among educated people.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Prithviraj Chattopadhyay, Elizabeth George and Carmen Kaman Ng

In this chapter, we review relational demography literature underpinned by the similarity–attraction paradigm and status characteristics and social identity theories. We…

Abstract

In this chapter, we review relational demography literature underpinned by the similarity–attraction paradigm and status characteristics and social identity theories. We then develop an uncertainty reduction model of relational demography, which describes a two-stage process of uncertainty emergence and reduction in a workgroup setting. The first stage depicts how structural features of the workgroup (workgroup composition) and occupation (the legitimacy of its status hierarchy) induce two forms of uncertainty: uncertainty about group norms and uncertainty about instrumental outcomes. The second part of the model illustrates employees' choice of uncertainty reduction strategies, depending on the type of uncertainty they experience, and the status of their demographic categories. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-554-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Scott V. Savage, David Melamed and Aaron Vincent

This study examines how the distribution of opinions and social status combine in a collectively oriented task group to affect perceptions about the correctness of a final…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how the distribution of opinions and social status combine in a collectively oriented task group to affect perceptions about the correctness of a final decision.

Design/methodology/approach

We relied on data from a controlled laboratory experiment to test a series of theoretically derived hypotheses.

Findings

The study shows that both the distribution of opinions and status affect perceptions of correctness. It also establishes that the effects of status on uncertainty are strongest when the group is initially evenly split about the correctness of an opinion, and that like the distribution of opinions, the effects of status on uncertainty are curvilinear.

Research limitations/implications

Previous research shows that by integrating research on faction sizes with status characteristics theory (SCT), more accurate predictions of social influence are possible. Assumed therein is that people use information about the distribution of opinions and status to reduce uncertainty about correctness of a choice. The current study establishes this point empirically by examining the effects of the distribution of opinions and status in a four-person, collectively oriented task group. Future research should consider groups of different sizes and other moderating factors.

Originality/value

This study advances and elaborates upon previous research on social influence that integrates research on faction sizes with SCT.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-976-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 26 April 2017

Prince Boateng, Zhen Chen and Stephen O. Ogunlana

Abstract

Details

Megaproject Risk Analysis and Simulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-830-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

Theodore T. Koutsobinas

This paper aims to reply to Dequech's comment in the International Journal of Social Economics on the analysis of the formation of conventional expectations under strong…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reply to Dequech's comment in the International Journal of Social Economics on the analysis of the formation of conventional expectations under strong uncertainty, which was proposed in the present author's 2004 article in the International Journal of Social Economics.

Design/methodology/approach

The scope of this reply is to evaluate through a theoretical examination the validity of Dequech's claim contained in his comment that his initial analytical scheme of the state of expectations presented in his 1999 article was general enough to accommodate the psychological considerations, which were raised in the present author's 2004 article and which were associated with Keynes's analysis as well as with developments in the field of social psychology.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that both Dequech's initial article of the state of expectations and his subsequent comment on the present author's contribution on the conventional formation of expectations under strong uncertainty in the International Journal of Social Economics overlooked the psychological nature of the process of inferences, a fundamental factor in Keynes's discussion of the formation of conventional expectations. However, when social psychology considerations are introduced in the analysis (as it was the case with the present author's approach) and when the remarkable theoretical and empirical progress in the field of social psychology is taken into account, Dequech's claim of the generality of his framework is not justifiable because both the specific nature and the substantive impact of the social psychology issues associated with the role of inferences are overlooked across his analysis. It is proposed that a theoretical scheme that uses the wealth of evidence of contemporary social psychology is more promising for a rigorous development of a theory of expectations under strong uncertainty.

Originality/value

The paper sheds further light on expectancy theory.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 35 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Laura Kainiemi, Sanni Eloneva and Mika Järvinen

The purpose of this paper is to identify the most significant uncertainties for bioenergy applications, in order to identify factors determining the success of introducing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the most significant uncertainties for bioenergy applications, in order to identify factors determining the success of introducing bioenergy into the current energy system.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework is built for identifying the most significant uncertainties based on studies exploring the positive potentials as well as possible negative effects of bioenergy. The framework is applied to explore uncertainties of bioenergy-based transport fuels and heat and power generation through two real life case studies.

Findings

The results indicate that the most significant uncertainties are environmental and economic. Bioenergy applications have potential to mitigate climate change, but also come with negative environmental effects. Case studies show that operations in developing nations contain higher political/institutional and social uncertainty than those in developed countries, due to weaker regulations and enforcement.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is part of an on-going research project. Results will be verified with stakeholder interviews and analysis. Further institutional analysis of the country settings is necessary.

Practical implications

The use of a feedstock with high environmental, social and institutional uncertainties will lower public acceptance. Acting in accordance to the law is not sufficient to ensure sustainability and additional, voluntary measures should be undertaken.

Originality/value

The paper identifies the most significant uncertainties for bioenergy. Uncertainties from social acceptance and institutional settings are higher in developing countries and acceptability requires more than following regulations.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Henry Adobor

This study seeks to investigate a nonlinear relationship between the uncertainty associated with an economic exchange and trust.

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate a nonlinear relationship between the uncertainty associated with an economic exchange and trust.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from 191 respondents representing middle and senior management in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry in the USA and Canada to achieve the research purpose. Respondents completed a questionnaire designed to assess their firm's attitude towards their counterpart. A select number of executives were also interviewed. Measures were developed to assess inter‐firm trust, relational intensity and uncertainty.

Findings

The study showed that a certain amount of uncertainty is necessary for trust to emerge. Beyond some threshold, however, increases in uncertainty led to a reduction in trust. This midrange proposition suggests that there may be an optimal level of trust.

Research limitations/implications

First, the findings show that a focus on the structural aspects of exchange can yield additional understandings of trust. Current research has tended to focus overwhelmingly on relational determinants of trust. Second, the nonlinear relationship between uncertainty and trust should spur additional research on the conditions that lead to trust failure. Finally, the findings may provide a starting point for reconciling two opposing explanations of the governance of economic exchange, namely social exchange and transaction cost theory. The study had some limitations. First, the research used cross‐sectional data and took a snapshot measure of trust. Second, single informants were relied on as the main data source. However, steps were taken to reduce the harmful effects of relying on single informants to collect the data.

Practical implications

The study demonstrated that the structure of an exchange could be a limit to the creation of trust. This implies that actors should focus on both behaviors and the nature of the exchange itself to understand when trust is likely to emerge, and the conditions under which trust may fail. The study also suggests that actors should approach trust as one of strategic thinking. There are costs to creating trust and, unless it is determined that trust is important (reasonable levels of uncertainty), actors should not invest in trust creation. At the same time, beyond a certain level of uncertainty, it will be prudent to think of other control measures to reduce opportunism in an exchange relationship.

Originality/value

This study has shown that the structure of an exchange, specifically uncertainty, provides a useful conceptual link to trust. The present research bridged some of the gaps in the understanding of inter‐organizational trust by proposing and empirically testing a midrange hypothesis linking uncertainty and trust. The study also increases understanding of the structural limits to trust. This study may be one of the first to test this midrange hypothesis. The study may also provide groundwork for linking two opposing theories on the governance of exchange. Findings from this research should prove useful to management researchers and practitioners.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Sophie Boutillier

The purpose of this paper is to study the nature of the relationship between the entrepreneur and the banker, which is central to any analysis of business creation and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the nature of the relationship between the entrepreneur and the banker, which is central to any analysis of business creation and innovation management. The author’s main purpose is to understand how this relationship has been studied by the pioneer economists of the entrepreneur and to highlight their contribution to the understanding of today’s reality.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, the author proposes a sketch of an entrepreneur and banker economics based on the study of six economists (Cantillon, Smith, Bentham, Say, Schumpeter and Baumol) known for their works on entrepreneur theory. In their works, they explained how the (often difficult) relationship between the entrepreneur and the banker is built in a context of multi-uncertainty. They define the entrepreneur in different ways (a risk-taker, a prudent man, a projector, etc.), and put forward different behaviors facing uncertainty through social relations. The relationship between the entrepreneur and the banker can be read according to the grid of analysis of strong or weak ties (Granovetter, 1973).

Findings

This analysis demonstrates the importance of trust between the two protagonists. This contribution remains fundamental to study the behavior of financers and entrepreneurs today in the context of business eco-systems, clusters, science parks ‒ in other words, the main places of emergence of innovation.

Research limitations/implications

This research leads to the proposal of the main basis of an economics of the entrepreneur and the banker; it can be further developed with the addition of other contributions of historical economists.

Practical implications

This research shows the importance of thinking about the ways to build trust within the relation between entrepreneurs and their funders (bankers, venture capital, crowdfunding).

Social implications

The analysis of social ties (weak or strong) plays a major role in this relation.

Originality/value

The originality of the article is to come back to the works of pioneer economists and to show their contributions to the understanding of today’s reality.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Kathleen Otto and Claudia Dalbert

Previous research has demonstrated the positive impact of relocation mobility on career success. Based on conservation‐of‐resources theory and knowledge about resistance…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has demonstrated the positive impact of relocation mobility on career success. Based on conservation‐of‐resources theory and knowledge about resistance to change, this study aims to explore the role of personality dispositions and social orientations in explaining job‐related relocation readiness.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 380 German employees (study 1), unemployed individuals (study 2), and apprentices (study 3) were surveyed on their relocation readiness, personality dispositions (neuroticism, openness to experience, uncertainty tolerance), and social orientations (individualism, collectivism, social norms –i.e. the perceived social endorsement of relocation mobility) in three cross‐sectional studies and one longitudinal study (study 4).

Findings

Findings show that high levels of neuroticism (study 1) and collectivism (studies 1‐3) made individuals less ready to relocate, whereas high levels of openness to experience (study 2), uncertainty tolerance (studies 1‐2), and individualism (study 3) were positively associated with relocation readiness, as was the perceived social endorsement of relocation mobility (studies 1‐4).

Research limitations/implications

Personality dispositions and social orientations should be considered when relocation decisions are at stake. The research focused on relocation readiness and did not investigate actual relocation mobility.

Practical implications

Human resources management and career counseling aiming to foster relocation readiness should take account of the social environment. Moreover, uncertainty‐intolerant individuals should be offered systematic, step‐by‐step guidance on how best to deal with relocation.

Originality/value

The study is the first to show that personality dispositions and social orientations by far outweigh socio‐demographic factors in explaining relocation readiness.

1 – 10 of over 57000