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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Raed Elaydi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the social bottom line in subsistence markets or base of the pyramid. This examination aims to suggest that social strategies for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the social bottom line in subsistence markets or base of the pyramid. This examination aims to suggest that social strategies for the second bottom line should be focused at the community level in measurement, assessment and impact.

Design/methodology/approach

A discussion of the double bottom line is presented. Social strategies are then discussed in terms of impact assessment at the community level and an impact assessment framework is developed reflective of the subsistence marketplace perspective. Implications are discussed in terms of poverty alleviation in subsistence markets and business

Findings

This examination suggests social strategies for the second bottom line should be focused at the community level in measurement, assessment and impact. Focusing social strategies at the community level reframes the role of firms and promotes a business in service of the community approach. Assessing impact at the community level creates a long‐term sustainable focus to business in subsistence markets. This perspective is a more holistic view that incorporates the social, economic and environmental ecology of the community from a multi‐generational perspective that requires entrepreneurs to commit their life's work to developing and servicing the community they live in. Using “And beyond Africa” as a case example of the community‐level social strategy the theory and practice are integrated and the conceptual ideas can be understood as a holistic reflection of the community. Further, examining how social strategies at the community level are understood in terms of the individual and humanity level creates greater awareness of the importance of a social strategy at the community‐level. Suggesting that a social strategy focused on the community level can make the largest impact on all three levels (individual, community and humanity). By considering more than customer impact, a social strategy can look at a business's impact on the community and better understand its impact on humanity. This conclusion changes the role of the entrepreneur and business to be in the service of the community.

Originality/value

This paper develops a community‐level social strategy view to the double‐bottom line in subsistence markets or base of the pyramid.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Book part
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Mette Ranta, Raija-Leena Punamäki, Asko Tolvanen and Katariina Salmela-Aro

Purpose – Our study focuses on the impacts of young adults’ financial situation and agency on success and satisfaction regarding developmental tasks (attainments in…

Abstract

Purpose – Our study focuses on the impacts of young adults’ financial situation and agency on success and satisfaction regarding developmental tasks (attainments in educational, work and social domains) in the context of economic upheavals.

Methodology/approach – The study is part of the longitudinal Finnish Educational Transitions Studies (FinEdu), in which high school students (N=614 at baseline) participated once before and three times after graduation (ages 19–25) while progressing to tertiary education and employment.

Findings – Agency (indicated by achievement and social approach strategies) increased, whereas achievement and social avoidance decreased from ages 19 to 25. Financial situation improved from an objective but not subjective perspective. Both high and increasing levels of agency were related to high levels of success and satisfaction regarding developmental tasks at age 25. In particular, social approach was related to educational attainment, sense of belonging, and romantic relationship satisfaction. High initial levels of agency and an improved financial situation predicted low economic pressure at age 25.

Research implications – Both sociopolitical structures and individual agency are important in shaping life course transitions in early adulthood. The apparent discrepancy between the macro-level national economic recession and young adults’ relatively high economic satisfaction could be explained by high agency in a welfare state context.

Social implications – The study shows important links between individuals’ life course and the societal context of Finland, a secure Nordic welfare state in the midst of global economic upheavals.

Originality/value of paper – Our longitudinal study makes a significant contribution to life course research by comprehensively conceptualizing the developmental tasks and considering their individual and social determinants.

Details

Economic Stress and the Family
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-978-3

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Susana Costa e Silva and Maria Elo

Contemporary businesses face rapidly evolving changes and complexities that challenge their respective managerial responses and capabilities. The natures of information…

Abstract

Contemporary businesses face rapidly evolving changes and complexities that challenge their respective managerial responses and capabilities. The natures of information and communication systems, ways of doing business, knowledge-transfer methods, diffusion channels of innovation, and industrial habitus are shifting. Additionally, methods, concepts, and frameworks to study these challenges need to be in accordance.

Many of these features characterizing the new business environment influence not only the consumer business, but also the business-to-business (B2B) sectors and their ways of functioning. Interestingly, the influence also connects domestic with international business through the global connectedness. This is particularly visible in marketing communication, as the difference between domestic and international business communication has further diminished due to digital and virtual dimensions and applications. In this new age, it is assumed that new ventures and small- and medium-sized enterprises can turn their vulnerabilities and size constraints into competitive advantages by addressing these challenges with efficient social media usage. To address this technology-enabled dimension of B2B relations, the authors present a case study illustrating how a firm advances its relationship management and communication by introducing social media instruments. The study contributes to relationship management and international marketing communication and provides new insights into the workings of social media within the B2B context.

Details

International Business in the Information and Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-326-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Raghda El Ebrashi

Building on the resource-based view of the firm the purpose of this paper is to study the intangible resources available for social ventures, and presents a typology of…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the resource-based view of the firm the purpose of this paper is to study the intangible resources available for social ventures, and presents a typology of growth strategies based on the intangible resources possessed by those enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

This research applies a multiple case study technique for ten social enterprises in Egypt listed on Ashoka and Schwab Foundation websites. The research employs a purposive sampling technique. Data triangulation is used based on reports, websites, and interviews with social entrepreneurs and employees.

Findings

The study has three main findings: describing the intangible resources needed by social ventures to grow; detailing the growth strategies adopted by social ventures and corresponding funding mechanisms; explaining how intangible resources affect the selection of growth strategies, and how these interact with the context to produce expected outcomes. Overall, a typology for growth strategies of social ventures is presented.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is an original attempt to advance research on social enterprises in relation to the RBV and the domain of venture growth and impact scale-up.

Practical implications

This research is beneficial for social ventures and venture philanthropists who wish to learn about the specific resources important for venture growth, and understand the suitable strategies and context for organizational growth and impact scale-up.

Originality/value

This research is one of the few attempts to study and explain the types of intangible resources in social ventures and the role of different resource bundles in deciding social venture growth strategy.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Filippo Vitolla, Michele Rubino and Antonello Garzoni

This paper aims to fill the existing gaps in literature which deal with both the application of a socially oriented philosophy to the theme of strategic corporate social

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to fill the existing gaps in literature which deal with both the application of a socially oriented philosophy to the theme of strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR) integration and to the systematic analysis of the processes of strategic CSR management, and to create a connection between social management philosophy and the dynamic approach to CSR integration based on the strategic management processes. In particular, this study aims at creating a conceptual model to highlight, in a structured and organic way, the dynamic relationships, based on a social management philosophy, characterizing the integration of CSR in the different strategic management processes: formulation and implementation of both intended and emergent strategies. In relation to these goals, the following research questions are formulated: What are the most important strategic management processes in which to integrate CSR following a social management philosophy? How does integration (strategic CSR) based on social management philosophy impact these processes? How do strategic CSR processes based on social management philosophy determine strategic change? Which are the management tools which support integration based on social management philosophy?

Design/methodology/approach

The work is a conceptual paper. The paper has been developed as follows: the identification of the theoretical gaps; the definition of the research objectives; the literature review about both CSR integration and strategic management in a dynamic perspective; the formulation of the research questions; the conceptual analysis, based on social management philosophy, of the relevant propositions related to the dynamic approach to CSR integration; the building of the conceptual model based on the propositions; and the description and the analysis of the model.

Findings

In this model, three circles of change that are able to describe the integration of CSR into strategic management have been identified: A, the circle for achieving the strategic intent; B, the circle for formulating the strategic intent; and C, the circle of bottom-up innovations.

Practical implications

From a managerial perspective, it is possible to point out the following implications related to the integration of CSR into strategic management and the achievement of a strategic CSR: as for change dynamics which are linked to the formulations of the intended strategy, it is fundamental to develop a social management philosophy; to achieve the strategic intent, it is necessary to incorporate CSR actions into core activity of value chain; to favour the socially oriented bottom-up innovations, it is necessary to define a favourable organizational context; the strategic CSR must be supported by integrated tools and methodologies that make the rationalization of processes of change possible; and the application of tools and processes, even sophisticated ones, which are not based on social management philosophy may lead, in the long run, to negative tensions among stakeholders, as well as to serious repercussions on the firm’s management and its performance.

Social implications

It is possible to pinpoint other implications for the society: the circle for achieving the strategic intents, with the aim of improving the execution phase, increases the positive externalities and reduces the negative externalities of the economic activities; the circle for formulating strategic intents allows to identify a win–win solution for CSR issues; and the bottom-up entrepreneurship increases the chances to find innovative solutions which combine social aspects and competitive aspects.

Originality/value

The analyses provide an integrated approach, connecting strategic management and CSR in a dynamic perspective.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Vincent Dutot, Eva Lacalle Galvez and David W. Versailles

Publics are becoming responsible customers that urge firms to improve society. By using social media, corporate social responsibility (CSR) actions could influence…

Abstract

Purpose

Publics are becoming responsible customers that urge firms to improve society. By using social media, corporate social responsibility (CSR) actions could influence organization’s commitment and e-reputation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the influence on e-reputation of communication strategies (i.e. corporate ability and CSR) on social media.

Design/methodology/approach

Four international companies (Danone, Renault, Orange and BNP Paribas) were studied and a content analysis was performed: Leximancer for the social media content (between 25 and 50 pages for each company) on a six-month period; and Social Mention for the measurement of e-reputation.

Findings

Results show that there is a link between CSR communication strategies and e-reputation. More precisely, by using a corporate ability strategy (focus on product quality or innovation R & D), a company can increase its e-reputation better than on a common CSR communication strategy.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on only four companies (from four different industries) and would profit from a larger base for analysis. Second, the content the authors analyzed was generated by the company on their own social media.

Originality/value

This exploratory study is one of the first to look at the influence of CSR communication strategies on e-reputation and tries to see how companies’ action on social media can change the way they are perceived by their customers. It completes the current literature by defining how CSR communications strategies should be declined for in order to influence customers.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Ratna Wardhani and Yan Rahadian

Global palm oil production is growing rapidly, especially in Southeast Asia, with Indonesia and Malaysia as the biggest producers. Despite significant contributions to…

Abstract

Purpose

Global palm oil production is growing rapidly, especially in Southeast Asia, with Indonesia and Malaysia as the biggest producers. Despite significant contributions to these countries’ economies, environmental and social aspects continue to be debated within this industry. The sustainability strategy is very important for the palm oil industry. This study aims to explore the sustainability strategy using six elements, namely, stakeholder engagement, governance and leadership, sustainability view and the economic, environmental and social strategies of Indonesian and Malaysian palm oil companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study observes 21 Indonesian palm oil companies and 44 Malaysian palm oil companies from 2014 to 2018 with a total observation of 280 firm years. The methodology used in this study is a qualitative content analysis of six themes based on the sustainability strategy elements, which was further developed into 40 indicators. Content analysis is carried out on information published in annual reports and sustainability reports.

Findings

The study results indicate that stakeholder engagement, governance and leadership and strategic view of the palm oil companies in Indonesia and Malaysia are still likely to be weak. Palm oil companies have not demonstrated their focus on implementing economic, environmental and social strategies. Although the results indicate that there is a greater emphasis on environmental and social strategies than on economic issues, attention to both issues is still very low.

Practical implications

Palm oil companies need to integrate sustainability strategies in their business models and communicate them well to stakeholders to increase their competitive advantage in the palm oil industry. The government also needs to issue stricter rules and incentives to encourage companies to implement sustainability strategies.

Social implications

The study results provide implications for the communities around palm oil plantations to provide better social control so that companies can implement sustainability strategies in their business processes.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of sustainability practices integrated into palm oil companies’ business models, which have not been well implemented in the palm oil industry in the world’s largest producing countries.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2020

Tali Gazit and Jenny Bronstein

Understanding leadership in newly created online social spaces, such Facebook communities, is an important new area of study within leadership research. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding leadership in newly created online social spaces, such Facebook communities, is an important new area of study within leadership research. This study explores an existing leadership model in offline environments by analyzing leadership strategies used by Facebook community leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

By using both quantitative and qualitative methods, data were collected through a survey from 94 Facebook community leaders about their leadership strategies.

Findings

Findings show that the framework of leadership behavior in offline groups can also be observed in Facebook communities. The content analysis of the open-ended questions reveals new categories reflecting unique leadership strategies in online environments. Leaders that participated in the study focused on strategies of content and team management, provided their groups with relevant content and personal stories to engage their members and strived to lead both offline and online-related social spaces to build a sense of community.

Originality/value

The growing number of Facebook community leaders and their key role in social media communities raise new questions about their position in light of what is already known about traditional leadership. Since social media occupies a central place in almost every aspect in everyday life, understanding the way that leaders manage these online communities is ever more important, and it can lead to an advancement in online communications.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-01-2020-0034.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Gökcay Balci, Aylin Caliskan and Kum Fai Yuen

In recent years, the business of container lines has faced severe challenges such as overcapacity and low profitability. To survive in such a competitive market, container…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, the business of container lines has faced severe challenges such as overcapacity and low profitability. To survive in such a competitive market, container lines need to maintain long-term customer relationships by enhancing the satisfaction and loyalty of customers. The purpose of this paper is to adopt a social exchange theory (SET) approach and investigate the impact of relational bonding strategies on the satisfaction and loyalty of customers in container shipping.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on SET, a theoretical model that specifies the relationships between relational bonding strategies, customer satisfaction and loyalty was proposed. Survey data were collected from 175 freight forwarders. The obtained data were analyzed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results indicate that financial bonding strategies have the most significant direct effects on customer satisfaction, while social bonding strategies have the strongest direct impact on customer loyalty. Financial bonding strategies, on the other hand, have the strongest total effects on customer loyalty. Intermodal and basic operations are found to have the equal total effects on customer loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

By identifying the most effective relational bonding strategies for enhancing customer satisfaction and loyalty, this study’s findings allow container lines to better allocate their resources and implement effective relational marketing policies to satisfy and retain their customers.

Originality/value

This research analyses and validates the determinants of customer satisfaction and loyalty from a relational lens and empirically contributes to the field of relational marketing in the container shipping industry.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 49 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Jing Zhang and Mingfei Du

This study aims to investigate how business-to-business (B2B) companies use message strategies on social media platform and how these strategies are effective in improving…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how business-to-business (B2B) companies use message strategies on social media platform and how these strategies are effective in improving customer perceived value and encouraging customer engagement, as well as how B2B companies differ from business-to-customer (B2C) counterparts in terms of utilization and effectiveness of social media message strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on content analysis of Sina Weibo brand pages and survey of website visitors, this paper examines the differences of social media message strategies and their impacts upon customer perceived value and customer engagement between B2B and B2C companies.

Findings

B2B companies use more rational appeals and less emotional appeals, have lower degree of informativeness and perform better in interactivity and variety than B2C companies. These five dimensions of message strategy have different roles in engaging customers via perceived value across B2B and B2C settings.

Originality/value

The research makes significant contributions to B2B social media marketing literature by answering two interrelated questions, namely, “What companies are doing?” and “What companies should do?” on social media websites. Besides, it provides insightful implications for B2B companies on how to implement appropriate message strategies in their social media marketing efforts by conducting Importance-Performance Analysis.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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