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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Bing Shi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the household registration and of employment contract on employee job insecurity in the Chinese state-owned…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the household registration and of employment contract on employee job insecurity in the Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The relationships between job satisfaction and the two components of job insecurity are also analysed.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses original data collected through a questionnaire survey in six Chinese SOEs. In all, 309 samples are analysed mainly using hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The research finds household registration is a predictor of job insecurity while employment contract is not. Job satisfaction is found to be positively related to one of the components of job insecurity: the perceived severity of job loss.

Social implications

To improve job security of the employees who are in vulnerable positions, improving the equality of social safety net is significant. In China, household registration causes unequal access to social welfare and employment opportunities; improving the equality may be more significant than seeking for permanent employment.

Originality/value

The research suggests two levels of factors influencing job insecurity: the macro-level factors that include the institutional configurations of social safety net; and the micro-level factors that include employment contract. The macro-level factors have fundamental influence while the micro-level factors are more apparent. The micro-level factors may manifest their influence only when the macro-level factors equally cover all the employees. The macro-level factors may also intermediate the relationship between job insecurity and satisfaction.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Arghya Kusum Mukherjee

The purpose of this paper is to find the determinants of participation and targeting efficiency of the following safety net programs in West Bengal: Mahatma Gandhi…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the determinants of participation and targeting efficiency of the following safety net programs in West Bengal: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), self-targeted program; National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM), subsidy based livelihood program; Indira Awaas Yojona (IAY), targeted cash transfer program and Public Distribution System (PDS), targeted in kind transfer program.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a household survey comprising 900 households across three Districts: Murshidabad, Nadia and Burdwan.

Findings

Benefits from MNREGA and PDS are not substantial, whereas financial benefits are substantial from NRLM and IAY. This paper shows that poor people have higher likelihood of participation in MNREGA and PDS. But, non poor get disproportionate benefits from IAY and NRLM both have been designed for the poor. Therefore, targeting cannot remove elite capture altogether. Socially down trodden section have higher participation in MNREGA and PDS, whereas people who are at upper tier of social hierarchy enjoy the benefits of IAY and NRLM. However, it cannot be said that these programs miss their target completely.

Practical implications

The study suffers from the usual limitations of sampling.

Social implications

Programs targeted for the poor are being appropriated by the non poor. If there is better targeting money will be channelized to the desired beneficiaries and welfare will be enhanced.

Originality/value

The study has unearthed the underlying reasons behind why some safety net programs have better targeting and some safety net programs have poor targeting.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2018

D. Kirk Davidson, Kanji Tanimoto, Laura Gyung Jun, Shallini Taneja, Pawan K. Taneja and Juelin Yin

The origins of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been widely attributed to the work of scholars, and business managers as well, in North America and Western…

Abstract

The origins of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been widely attributed to the work of scholars, and business managers as well, in North America and Western Europe. Inevitably, however, as the economic interaction of individual firms and entire nations has grown over the past several decades — call it globalization — so too has the concept and the practice of CSR spread throughout the world. It is certainly time to explore how CSR is being incorporated into the practice of business management in other regions and other countries. Therefore, in this chapter we will focus on Asia: specifically on Japan, South Korea, India, and China. It is interesting for academicians to understand how CSR is being absorbed and adapted into the business cultures of these four countries. Perhaps of even greater importance, it is vital that business managers know what to expect about the interaction between business and society as well as the government as their commercial activities grow in this burgeoning part of the world.

For each of these four countries, we will provide an overview of the extent to which CSR has become a part of the academic community and also how it is being practiced and incorporated in everyday management affairs. We will see that there are very significant differences among these countries which lead to the natural question: why? To answer this question, we will use an eight-part analytical framework developed specifically for this purpose. We will look at the history, the dominant religious beliefs, the relevant social customs, the geography, the political structures, the level of economic development, civil society institutions, and the “safety net” of each country. As a result of this analysis, we believe, academicians can learn how CSR is absorbed and spread into commercial affairs, and managers can profit from learning more about what to expect when doing business in this increasingly important region.

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Book part
Publication date: 31 March 2010

Bruce Weber and Mindy Crandall

It has been over a decade since the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was passed in 1996 with the intention of “ending welfare as we…

Abstract

It has been over a decade since the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was passed in 1996 with the intention of “ending welfare as we know it.” The main cash assistance entitlement program that had been in place since the 1930s, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), was eliminated in favor of the non-entitlement Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. This drastic change occurred at a time of economic growth, where employment and wages rose across the United States. Initially, caseloads fell dramatically.

Details

Welfare Reform in Rural Places: Comparative Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-919-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

K.C. Roy and J.C.H. Chai

Increased economic insecurity helps to spur individuals to work harder and be more efficient according to the theory of work incentive. However, in a civilised society…

Abstract

Increased economic insecurity helps to spur individuals to work harder and be more efficient according to the theory of work incentive. However, in a civilised society, the society has a moral obligation to provide basic needs and social safety nets for its poor and unfortunate members who, due to factors beyond their own control, have not been able to earn a living. This paper analyses the trade‐off between economic reforms and economic and social security in India and China. The findings show that both countries’ attempts to minimise the social costs of economic reforms have not been successful. The policy implications are also discussed.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2008

James P. Ziliak

The extent to which means-tested transfers, social insurance, and tax credits fill the gap between a family's private resources and the poverty threshold is a periodic…

Abstract

The extent to which means-tested transfers, social insurance, and tax credits fill the gap between a family's private resources and the poverty threshold is a periodic barometer of the social safety net. Using data on families from the Current Population Survey I examine how the level and composition of before- and after-tax and after-transfer poverty gaps changed in response to changes in the policy and economic landscapes over the past two decades. The estimates presented here indicate not only dramatic changes in the level and sources of income maintenance programs filling the poverty gap, but also dramatic changes in which demographic groups successfully fill the gap. From the peak-to-peak business-cycle years of 1979 to 1999, the fraction of the gap left unfilled among non-elderly families in poverty has expanded by 25 percent, while the unfilled gap has increased by 50 percent among single female-headed families, families headed by non-whites, and families residing in the Northeast. In a given year the poor in the South fill considerably less of the poverty gap with cash welfare, but make up for much of the shortfall with higher payments of food stamps, SSI, and SSDI. Over time the poor in all regions of the country have substituted SSI, SSDI, and the EITC for cash welfare. Indeed, by 1999 the unfilled gap for families with related children present would be one-fifth larger without the EITC. With the exception of married-couple families, this apparent rate of replacement of disability payments and tax credits for cash welfare is less than one for one, leaving most poor families, especially non-white families and single female-headed families, financially more vulnerable today than in previous decades.

Details

Frontiers of Family Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-542-0

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Daria Salnikova

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between social capital and subjective ranking of household economic well-being in transition countries. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between social capital and subjective ranking of household economic well-being in transition countries. The current study tests whether the performance of formal institutions moderates this link.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyses are based on the data from the second wave of the Life in Transition Survey. The measures “generosity of welfare policy (social safety nets)” and “ability of formal institutions to control inflation” were provided by the Bertelsmann Transformation Index Project. The study uses four measures of social capital: trust in family, trust in friends and acquaintances, trust in most people and the number of support sources. To test the hypotheses, the study employs mixed-effects regression models.

Findings

The study indicates a significant positive effect of social capital on subjective household well-being. Formal institutions do not have a significant effect on subjective ranking of household well-being. The evidence on institutions as moderators rejects the substitution effect between formal institutions and social capital. Higher generosity of welfare policy institutions and higher ability of formal institutions to control inflation strengthen the positive effect of particular trust (trust in family and trust in friends and acquaintances) on subjective ranking on the ladder of social standing (subjective ranking of household well-being), which is in line with the “crowding in” theory.

Originality/value

The paper adds on the limited research on transition countries. The paper contributes to the discussion on “crowding in” and “crowding out” effects of formal institutions on social capital.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 39 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Marco Brydolf-Horwitz and Katherine Beckett

A growing body of work suggests that welfare and punishment should be understood as alternative, yet interconnected ways of governing poor and marginalized populations…

Abstract

A growing body of work suggests that welfare and punishment should be understood as alternative, yet interconnected ways of governing poor and marginalized populations. While there is considerable evidence of a punitive turn in welfare and penal institutions over the past half century, recent studies show that welfare and carceral institutions increasingly comanage millions of people caught at the intersection of the welfare and penal sectors. The growth of “mass supervision” and the expansion of the social services sector help explain the blurring of welfare and punishment in the United States in daily practice. We suggest that these developments complicate the idea of an institutional trade-off and contend that welfare and punishment are best understood along a continuum of state management in which poor and socially marginalized populations are subjected to varying degrees of support, surveillance, and sanction. In presenting the punishment–welfare continuum, we pay particular attention to the “murky middle” between the two spheres: an interinstitutional space that has emerged in the context of mass supervision and a social services–centric safety net. We show that people caught in the “murky middle” receive some social supports and services, but also face pervasive surveillance and control and must adapt to the tangle of obligations and requirements in ways that both extend punishment and limit their ability to successfully participate in mainstream institutions.

Details

The Politics of Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-363-0

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

George Okello Candiya Bongomin, Atsede Woldie and Aziz Wakibi

Globally, women have been recognized as key contributors toward livelihood and poverty eradication, especially in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This is due…

Abstract

Purpose

Globally, women have been recognized as key contributors toward livelihood and poverty eradication, especially in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This is due to their great involvement and participation in micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) that create employment and ultimately economic growth and development. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to establish the mediating role of social cohesion in the relationship between microfinance accessibility and survival of women MSMEs in post-war communities in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Northern Uganda where physical collateral were destroyed by war.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire from 395 women MSMEs who are clients of microfinance institutions in post-war communities in Northern Uganda, which suffered from the 20 years' Lord Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency. The Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) software was used to analyze the data and the measurement and structural equation models were constructed to test for the mediating role of social cohesion in the relationship between microfinance accessibility and survival of women MSMEs in post-war communities.

Findings

The results revealed that social cohesion significantly and positively mediate the relationship between microfinance accessibility and survival of women MSMEs in post-war communities in Northern Uganda. The results suggest that the presence of social cohesion as a social collateral promotes microfinance accessibility by 14.6% to boost survival of women MSMEs in post-war communities where physical collateral were destroyed by war amidst lack of property rights among women. Similarly, the results indicated that social cohesion has a significant influence on survival of women MSMEs in post-war communities in Northern Uganda. Moreover, when combined together, the effect of microfinance accessibility and social cohesion exhibit greater contribution towards survival of women MSMEs in post-war communities in Northern Uganda. Indeed, social cohesion provides the social safety net (social protection) through which women can access business loans from microfinance institutions for survival and growth of their businesses.

Research limitations/implications

This study concentrated mainly on women MSMEs located in post-war communities in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a specific focus on Northern Uganda. Women MSMEs located in other regions in Uganda were not sampled in this study. Besides, the study focused only on the microfinance industry as a major source of business finance. It ignored the other financial institutions like commercial banks that equally provide access to financial services to micro-entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

The governments in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where there have been wars should waive-off the registration and licensing fees for grass-root associations because such social associations may act as social protection tools through which women can borrow from financial institutions like the microfinance institutions. The social groups can provide social collateral to women to replace physical collateral required by microfinance institutions in lending. Similarly, the governments, development agencies, and advocates of post-war reconstruction programs in developing countries where there have been wars, especially in sub-Saharan Africa should initiate the provision of group business loans through the existing social women associations. This may offer social protection in terms of social collateral in the absence of physical collateral required by the microfinance institutions in lending. This may be achieved through partnership with the existing microfinance institutions operating in rural areas in post-war communities in developing countries. Additionally, advocates of post-war recovery programs should work with the existing microfinance institutions to design financial products that suit the economic conditions and situations of the women MSMEs in post-war communities. The financial products should meet the business needs of the women MSMEs taking into consideration their ability to fulfil the terms and conditions of use.

Originality/value

This study revisits the role of microfinance accessibility in stimulating survival of women MSMEs as an engine for economic growth in the presence of social cohesion, especially in post-war communities in sub-Saharan Africa where physical collateral were destroyed by war. It reveals the significant role of social cohesion as a social protection tool and safety net, which contributes to economic outcomes in the absence of physical collateral and property rights among women MSMEs borrowers, especially in post-war communities.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Krishna S. Vatsa

Households are exposed to a wide array of risks, characterized by a known or unknown probability distribution of events. Disasters are one of these risks at the extreme…

Abstract

Households are exposed to a wide array of risks, characterized by a known or unknown probability distribution of events. Disasters are one of these risks at the extreme end. Understanding the nature of these risks is critical to recommending appropriate mitigation measures. A household’s resilience in resisting the negative outcomes of these risky events is indicative of its level of vulnerability. Vulnerability has emerged as the most critical concept in disaster studies, with several attempts at defining, measuring, indexing and modeling it. The paper presents the concept and meanings of risk and vulnerability as they have evolved in different disciplines. Building on these basic concepts, the paper suggests that assets are the key to reducing risk and vulnerability. Households resist and cope with adverse consequences of disasters and other risks through the assets that they can mobilize in face of shocks. Asustainable strategy for disaster reduction must therefore focus on asset‐building. There could be different types of assets, and their selection and application for disaster risk management is necessarily a contextual exercise. The mix of asset‐building strategies could vary from one community to another, depending upon households’ asset profile. The paper addresses the dynamics of assets‐risk interaction, thus focusing on the role of assets in risk management.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 24 no. 10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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