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Book part
Publication date: 19 March 2013

David Starr-Glass

Distance learning has proliferated significantly in the last 20 years. This chapter considers some of the issues and implications when teaching and learning moves from an…

Abstract

Distance learning has proliferated significantly in the last 20 years. This chapter considers some of the issues and implications when teaching and learning moves from an in-person to a distance mode. It begins with a brief history of distance learning, considering both the technologies used and the dominant pedagogical approaches employed. This is followed by a survey of the impact of Michael Moore's theory of transactional distance, which considered the consequences of separating the learner from peers and instructor. Contemporary work on Moore's contribution includes transaction and participation, activity theory, and transactional presence. A second major aspect of distance learning has been the attempt to introduce social presence into learning environments. The history of social presence is explored, as are its levels and consequences for the learner. Contemporary aspects of social presence reviewed include communities of inquiry. While Web 2.0 has spectacularly resulted in connectivity, it remains unclear as to whether this automatically resulted in more strongly connected learners. Connectivist approaches are considered and distinctions made between technological connectivity and pedagogical engagement. It is argued that the full and exciting potential of Web 2.0 in distance learning requires a commitment to the distanced learner, balancing learner autonomy and teacher presence, promoting meaningful social engagement, and meeting the specific needs of the distance learner.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-515-9

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Qian Guo, Qingfeng Zeng and Lanlan Zhang

The perception of an inferior learning experience is the main challenge for online learning, which leads to higher dropout rates in online courses. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The perception of an inferior learning experience is the main challenge for online learning, which leads to higher dropout rates in online courses. The purpose of this paper focuses on investigating how the multi-dimensional construct of social presence would affect the behavior of online learners.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model that describes online learner behaviors is proposed by including the four social presence variables, learning satisfaction and continuance intention, which is examined via the data collected by a survey of 237 online learners from a typical online learning platform in China. The relationships between variables were tested via structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results revealed that the intimate and immersive social factors have positive impacts on learning satisfaction, which in turn results in continuous intention in online learning. Thus, online learning platform providers should seriously consider building an intimate and immersive online environment for learners. Furthermore, this research provides a more comprehensive understanding of online learning from a social presence perspective for researchers and practitioners.

Originality/value

The study contributes to a better understanding of the social presence which is conceptualized as a four-dimensional construct, and shows how social factors influence learning satisfaction and continuous intention, providing a deeper understanding of the core relationship between social aspects and learning performance in online learning.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Tiantian Yang, Feng Yang and Jinqi Men

This study investigates how Danmu (danmaku) technological features (DTFs) of recommendation vlogs (rec-vlogs) impact consumer experiences and decisions.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how Danmu (danmaku) technological features (DTFs) of recommendation vlogs (rec-vlogs) impact consumer experiences and decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique with a sample of 422 viewers of Danmu-enabled rec-vlogs to examine the proposed model.

Findings

The DTFs positively affect consumer loyalty intentions through the mediation of social presence and immersion. Also, vlogger-product congruency significantly moderates the relationship between social presence and immersion.

Originality/value

With the increasing popularity of vlogs, retailers have adopted the vlog as a new marketing channel to connect with consumers. Although a growing body of studies focuses on this phenomenon, little is known about how DTFs help to increase consumer loyalty toward using rec-vlogs as product information sources. Anchored on the stimulus–organism–response framework, this study investigates how pseudo-synchronicity, Danmu-content congruency and parallelism, three DTFs used in rec-vlogs, impact consumer experiences of social presence and immersion, eventually influence the consumers' loyalty intentions toward rec-vlogs. The authors also examine whether the effect of social presence on immersion is contingent on vlogger-product congruency. These findings have implications for both researchers and practitioners to understand the effect of DTFs in the context of rec-vlogs.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2021

Junlan Ming, Zeng Jianqiu, Muhammad Bilal, Umair Akram and Mingyue Fan

This paper aims to examine how presence (the social presence of live streaming platforms, of viewers, of live streamers and telepresence) affects consumer trust and flow…

6938

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how presence (the social presence of live streaming platforms, of viewers, of live streamers and telepresence) affects consumer trust and flow state, thus inducing impulsive buying behaviors, personal sense of power as moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework, the conceptual model covers social presence, telepresence, consumer trust, flow state, personal sense of power and impulsive buying behavior. An online survey was conducted from 405 consumers with the experience of live streaming shopping in China; structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis.

Findings

Results find that three dimensions of social presence (the social presence of live streaming platforms, of viewers, of live streamers) and telepresence have a positive and significant influence on consumer trust and flow state, thus triggering consumers’ impulsive buying behavior. Furthermore, consumers’ sense of power moderates the process from consumer trust, flow state to impulsive buying behavior.

Practical implications

This study will help live streamers and e-retailers to have a further understand on how to stimulate consumers’ buying behavior. Furthermore, it also provides reference for the development of live streaming commerce in other countries.

Originality/value

This research examines the effect of social presence and telepresence on impulsive buying behavior in live streaming commerce, which is inadequately examined in extant literature.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Wan-Hsiu Sunny Tsai, Yu Liu and Ching-Hua Chuan

This study presents one of the earliest empirical investigations on how brand chatbots' anthropomorphic design and social presence communication strategies may improve…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study presents one of the earliest empirical investigations on how brand chatbots' anthropomorphic design and social presence communication strategies may improve consumer evaluation outcomes via the mediators of parasocial interaction and perceived dialogue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a 2 (high vs. low social presence communication) by 2 (anthropomorphic vs. non-anthropomorphic bot profile) between-subject experimental design to evaluate how chatbots' high social presence communication and anthropomorphic profile design may enhance perceptions of parasocial interactions and dialogue with the chatbot, which in turn drive user engagement, interaction satisfaction and attitude toward the represented brand.

Findings

The influences of chatbots' high social presence communication on consumer engagement outcomes are mediated by perceived parasocial interaction and dialogue. Additionally, chatbots' anthropomorphic profile design can boost the positive effects of social presence communication via the psychological mediators.

Originality/value

This study advances the interactive marketing literature by focusing on an emerging interactive technology, chatbots. Additionally, distinct from prior chatbot studies that focused on the utilitarian use of chatbots for online customer support, this study not only examines which factors of chatbot communication and profile design may drive chatbot effectiveness but also examines the mechanism underlying the messaging and design effects on consumer engagement. The findings highlight the mediating role of interpersonal factors of parasocial interaction and perceived dialogue.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Fan-Chen Tseng, T.C.E. Cheng, Pei-Ling Yu, Tzu-Ling Huang and Ching-I. Teng

Mobile instant messaging (MIM) apps could provide rich and instant information in employees’ communication. However, how media richness impacts MIM user loyalty is…

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Abstract

Purpose

Mobile instant messaging (MIM) apps could provide rich and instant information in employees’ communication. However, how media richness impacts MIM user loyalty is unknown. The purpose of this paper is to adopt media richness and social presence theories as theoretical foundations to address this insufficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

Collecting 247 responses from an online survey, the authors use structural equation modelling for data analysis and hypothesis testing.

Findings

The authors found that immediate feedback and personal focus are the main aspects of media richness that are positively related to social presence, relatedness need satisfaction and user loyalty to MIM.

Originality/value

This is the first study using two pertinent theories to explain how aspects of media richness affect user loyalty to MIM. The present findings suggest that firms developing MIM apps focus on immediate feedback and personal focus as effective means to encourage user loyalty.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Yi He, Ilyoung Ju, Qimei Chen, Dana L. Alden, Hong Zhu and Kaiyuan Xi

This paper aims to describe the results of four studies that examine the interaction effects between locus of causality and social presence on consumers’ emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the results of four studies that examine the interaction effects between locus of causality and social presence on consumers’ emotional response to a service failure and how they subsequently cope with the negative emotional experiences through support-seeking or vindictive negative word-of-mouth (NWOM).

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate the research hypotheses, one online content analysis study and three experiments were conducted.

Findings

The results of the four studies show that when locus of causality information is not available (Studies 1 and 2), consumers are more likely to engage in support-seeking NWOM when there is social presence (versus no social presence). When a service failure is externally/internally attributed, social presence leads to less/more vindictive NWOM (Studies 3 and 4). The results clarify the underlying affective processes (frustration, anger and embarrassment) that account for the unique interaction effects involving locus of causality and social presence on NWOM.

Originality/value

Despite promising progress in both social presence and service failure research, scholarly attempts aiming to draw the theoretical linkages between these two streams are relatively scarce, and it remains unknown regarding whether and how social presence influences NWOM in the event of service failure. Against this backdrop, this research examines the effects of social presence on consumer NWOM in service failure. The authors further contribute to both research streams by testing the effects of an important set of emotions as mediators, as well by exploring the conditions under which a particular emotion is more predictive of its corresponding outcomes. These findings offer important insights that help service managers effectively mitigate customer NWOM at the point of service delivery.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

A.K.M. Zaidi Satter, Arif Mahmud, Ashikur Rahman, Imran Mahmud and Rozina Akter

Existing literature affirms that almost half of the young generation has remained unemployed worldwide. On the contrary civic engagement can be a powerful tool in…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing literature affirms that almost half of the young generation has remained unemployed worldwide. On the contrary civic engagement can be a powerful tool in combating this problem. However, the influencing factors that encourage the active participation of young adults yet to be identified. The purpose of this paper is to fill the research gap by creating and validating a research model by including three motives social presence commitment and online offline civic engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The study took a quantitative approach to conduct a cross-sectional study. In total, 214 data were collected from the member of a Facebook group of Bangladesh named Foodbank, a restaurant review page through the online questionnaire. After that structural equation modelling techniques have been used to analyse the data, test the model validity and hypothesis.

Findings

The result shows that both commitment and social presence influence offline and online civic engagement. Excitement motives have a higher effect than information and convenience motive. Besides, 8 out of 10 hypotheses have shown significant results, with only the convenience motive not having any positive influence and effect on social presence and commitment.

Practical implications

Almost 47.6 out of 158.5 million are young people who are incapable of contributing fully to national development due to a lack of civic engagement. The outcome of this study will be useful for the Government of Bangladesh, as well as for non-governmental organisations and decision-making authorities to form assessments and develop policy on how to engage the young generation in civic activities to achieve further socio-economic development in the country.

Originality/value

This study contributes to existing literature with newly developed relationships between social presence-civic engagement and commitment-civic engagement. These unique relationships have been empirically tested and resulted insignificant. The study also identifies that it is vital to engage young people more in social works and increase their participation in offline and online activities.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2022

Zhen Huang, Yidan Zhu, Andy Hao and Jia Deng

This paper aims to examine the relationship between social presence and consumer purchase intention in the context of livestreaming commerce and test the mediating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between social presence and consumer purchase intention in the context of livestreaming commerce and test the mediating role of immersive experience and the moderating role of positive emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a convenience sampling method to select 408 college students from a university in Ganzhou as the participants. They employed structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses, as well as Hayes' PROCESS to test the mediation and moderation effects.

Findings

The authors found that immersion experiences partially mediate the relationship between social presence and consumers' purchase intentions and positive emotions moderate the “social presence–immersion experience–consumer purchase intentions” path. Therefore, social presence constitutes a moderating mediating effect on consumer purchase intentions.

Practical implications

This study offers meaningful insights into how livestreamers and e-retailers can stimulate consumers' buying behavior in livestreaming environments. E-commerce platforms should strengthen consumer interactions and increase consumers' perceptions of social presence. In addition, companies should meet the social and psychological needs of consumers and generate positive emotional resonance.

Originality/value

This research sheds light on the effect of social presence on consumer purchase intentions in livestreaming commerce and extends the social presence literature by investigating the mediation mechanism of immersive experience.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Jamie Costley

As online learning has become more prevalent, how learners interact with each other in those learning environments has become more salient. To develop effective levels of…

Abstract

Purpose

As online learning has become more prevalent, how learners interact with each other in those learning environments has become more salient. To develop effective levels of interaction, students must feel comfortable to express their ideas and views. For this reason, this paper aims to look at how individual students’ levels of social presence affect germane cognitive load. Germane cognitive load is the amount that students are able to construct schema and can be seen as analogous to learning.

Design/methodology/approach

This study looks at the results of survey data (n = 433) that investigate the relationship between social presence and germane cognitive load. The students were surveyed from the Open Cyber University of Korea in the fall semester of 2018.

Findings

The present study found a statistically significant positive relationship between social presence and germane cognitive load. The study found a Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.595. Furthermore, the sample was divided into a high, medium and low grouping of social presence. Among these groupings, the high level social presence had the highest level of germane cognitive load, and the low level social presence had the lowest level of germane cognitive load.

Originality/value

This result shows the importance and value of developing levels of social presence in online environments. Some research has shown relationships between student interaction and learning, but the present study looks directly at social presence and germane cognitive load. From this research, the authors can see the value of encouraging higher levels of social interaction in online learning environments.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 82000