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Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

Monica Diochon, Gabrielle Durepos and Alistair R. Anderson

The chapter aims to enhance our understanding of “opportunity” in the context of social entrepreneurship through a paradigm interplay juxtaposing a functionalist thematic…

Abstract

The chapter aims to enhance our understanding of “opportunity” in the context of social entrepreneurship through a paradigm interplay juxtaposing a functionalist thematic analysis and interpretivist sensemaking. This paradigmatic contrasting identifies differences and connections in the tensions of: linearity and simplicity/dynamism and complexity; forward/backward, generalizability/situated relationality, and value-laden/value-neutral. These contrasts deepen our understanding of “opportunity” so that the theoretical and practical implications can be seen.

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2019

Boris Urban and Jabulile Galawe

Scholars researching entrepreneurship argue that the distinct characteristics of social entrepreneurs, together with the particular category of opportunities they pursue…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholars researching entrepreneurship argue that the distinct characteristics of social entrepreneurs, together with the particular category of opportunities they pursue, invite us to further understand social entrepreneurship (SE) as a distinct field of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate opportunity recognition behaviour of social entrepreneurs and closely related unique attributes of empathy, moral judgement (MRJ) and self-efficacy, in an emerging market African context.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was administered to social entrepreneurs across two of the largest provinces in South Africa, namely Cape Town and Gauteng. Hypotheses were statistically tested using correlational analysis and hierarchical regression with mediation effects.

Findings

Results reveal that social entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) plays a significant mediating effect in the relationship between MRJ and social opportunity recognition. Moreover, perceived MRJ and social ESE act as important determinants of increased social opportunity recognition.

Originality/value

This study has brought to attention the relevance of opportunity recognition to social entrepreneurs, while recognising their distinctive features in terms of empathy and MRJ. While self-efficacy and opportunity recognition are relatively well established in the traditional entrepreneurship literature, this study extends the reach of these variables into the SE domain.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Steffen Korsgaard

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of opportunity and its role in social entrepreneurship processes.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of opportunity and its role in social entrepreneurship processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a single‐case study of a sustainable community in Denmark. The data include interviews, documents and television programmes.

Findings

The case study finds that the opportunity takes a number of different forms in the process. These different forms are the result of a continuous mobilisation of actors. On the basis of these findings a model of social entrepreneurship processes is proposed, where the process is driven by mobilisation and transformation.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the case provide support for a creation view of opportunities and the view that opportunity discovery does not necessarily precede resource mobilisation. The proposed model contributes to the development of the creation view of opportunities as an alternative to the discovery view and to understanding of the role of opportunities in the social entrepreneurship process.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the social entrepreneur is one who actively creates external circumstances rather than responds to opportunities already present therein. This implies a focus on different skills and ways of thinking.

Originality/value

The paper presents a model of social entrepreneurship processes grounded in a deep understanding of an empirical setting. The findings and model question the value of the discovery view of opportunities in the field of social entrepreneurship, while contributing to the development of the creation view of opportunities.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Bryan B. Darden

The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the author sought to more fully understand the role of socio-political activity on opportunity recognition among experienced…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the author sought to more fully understand the role of socio-political activity on opportunity recognition among experienced entrepreneurs. Second, the author sought to better understand how socio-political activism, experience, entrepreneurial passion and social entrepreneurial intention are antecedents. Given the importance of entrepreneurship in the developing nations, there must be an understanding of how entrepreneurs recognize opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes how socio-political activism acts as a foundation on which entrepreneurs can recognize opportunity through entrepreneurial passion, experience and intention. The author utilized a survey constructed of a unique combination of existing and well-researched instruments. Entrepreneurs living in Latin America were surveyed through the web-based survey company Prolific(R). Based on an a priori power calculation, the survey was fielded to 305 respondents with a 100% response rate.

Findings

The model suggests that socio-political activism increases experience, entrepreneurial passion and social entrepreneurial intention among entrepreneurs in Latin America. Further, the model indicates that entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial experience have partial mediation effects on social entrepreneurial opportunity recognition, while social entrepreneurial intention has full mediation effects on social entrepreneurial opportunity recognition.

Practical implications

The findings of this model suggest that socio-political activism in the developing context provides a model that shows how political activism plays a crucial role in numerous entrepreneurial aspects. Being active politically, gives entrepreneurs greater passion, experience and intention which in turn leads to greater opportunity recognition and mediates the relationship between socio-political activism and opportunity recognition.

Originality/value

The model presented in this research is original and helps shape the paradigm within social entrepreneurship in the developing context. The model also provides additional antecedents of opportunity recognition which may assist with shaping future research in the developing context and how the role of political activism assists the field's understanding of how entrepreneurs recognize opportunities.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 11 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Monica Diochon and Yogesh Ghore

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how a social enterprise opportunity is brought to fruition in an emerging market.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how a social enterprise opportunity is brought to fruition in an emerging market.

Design/methodology/approach

This real-time longitudinal case study tracks the emergence of a micro-franchise start-up from conception to inception. Using a narrative perspective as a conceptual lens focuses attention on the relational, temporal and performative elements of the interactive process that occurs between social entrepreneur(s) and the environment(s). While interviewing provides the primary source of evidence, multiple data collection methods were utilized.

Findings

The analysis of the process elements centres on the narratives of the micro-franchise co-founders and other key informants that prompt action aimed at bringing the opportunity to fruition, showing how the social entrepreneurs bring the inside out and the outside in.

Research limitations/implications

Despite challenges to the appropriateness of Western management theory within emerging markets, this study has shown that theory at a sufficiently high level of abstraction can be useful. It also demonstrates the need to study process over time and be inclusive of the range of stakeholders and contexts that influence it.

Social implications

The findings indicate that social enterprise start-up is a co-creative process that evolves in unpredictable ways over time. Beyond start-up, only time and further study will determine whether social enterprise will prove to be the panacea for poverty and marginalization that governments expect.

Originality/value

This research gains real-time insight into social enterprise emergence. It underscores the multi-dimensional nature of context and provides evidence indicating that the relationship and influence between social entrepreneur(s) and their environment is not one way.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Leandro da Silva Nascimento and Viviane Santos Salazar

Nowadays, creation and discovery theories are the two main theoretical approaches supporting the studies on the emergence of enterprises and some scholars analyze these…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, creation and discovery theories are the two main theoretical approaches supporting the studies on the emergence of enterprises and some scholars analyze these theories in isolation. In addition, studies that investigate the emergence of social enterprises based on these theories together are scarce. This paper aims to analyze if and how discovery and creation theories can coexist in the formation process of social enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-case study based on semi-structured interviews with the founders of eight Brazilian social enterprises was conducted.

Findings

From the results, it is identified that there is a continuous process between discoveries and creations that lead to the maturation of the initial idea and, consequently, to the formation of a social enterprise. Therefore, a continuous process model between discovery and creation of opportunities in the formation of a social enterprise (i.e. a mixed theoretical approach) is proposed, going beyond a theoretical duality between creation or discovery.

Originality/value

This study helps to overcome limitations inherent in both discovery and creation theories, proposing a mixed theoretical approach. This new theoretical approach praises the existence of new paths to understand the emergence of social enterprises, by overcoming the theoretical duality between creation or discovery of opportunities, i.e. a new understanding of an integrating process rather than a dichotomous one.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

Norris Krueger, David J. Hansen, Theresa Michl and Dianne H.B. Welsh

If we are to better understand what it means to think “sustainably,” the entrepreneurship literature suggests that entrepreneurial cognition offers us two powerful tools…

Abstract

If we are to better understand what it means to think “sustainably,” the entrepreneurship literature suggests that entrepreneurial cognition offers us two powerful tools. Human cognition operates with two nearly parallel systems for information processing, intentional and automatic. Entrepreneurial cognition has long focused on how entrepreneurial thinking and action are inherently intentional. Thus, intentions-based approaches are needed to understand how to encourage the identification of actionable sustainable opportunities. But first, however, we need to address key elements of our automatic processing, anchored on deep assumptions and beliefs. In short, if sustainable entrepreneurship is about addressing sustainable opportunities, then before we can take advantage of research into entrepreneurial intentions, we need a better understanding of how we enact our deep mental models of constructs such as “sustainable.”

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2019

S. M. Misbauddin and Md. Noor Un Nabi

This chapter is aimed at developing a conceptual framework for the internationalization process of social business (SB). The study has been conducted by reviewing the…

Abstract

This chapter is aimed at developing a conceptual framework for the internationalization process of social business (SB). The study has been conducted by reviewing the literature on social entrepreneurship, SB, and internationalization of small business. The study indicated that the internationalization decision for SB is taken by the motivation to create a social impact in the target foreign location. Based on the analyses and related literature, the entrepreneur-specific, firm-specific, and context-specific factors affecting the internationalization decision of social entrepreneurs are presented. As part of the framework, the chapter explains opportunity identification and the internationalization implementation phases for SBs. One of the key contributions of the chapter is the depiction of an internationalization framework for SB, which is an innovative addition to social entrepreneurship literature. The framework developed here could help social entrepreneurs to take decisions for scaling their businesses internationally.

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Manfred Auer and Heike Welte

The purpose of this paper is to explore the capacities of different groups of actors, who initiate, support, and control (known as equal opportunity actors) equal…

1163

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the capacities of different groups of actors, who initiate, support, and control (known as equal opportunity actors) equal opportunities and equal treatment in organizations in Austria.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the concept of social positioning and a qualitative empirical approach, the paper provides an analysis of data deriving from 32 interviews with equal opportunity actors.

Findings

The main findings show that, depending on individual commitment, knowledge and abilities, equal opportunity actors have the capacity to influence official equal opportunity policies and to prohibit individual cases of discrimination. However, there are strong restrictions concerning a limited understanding of gender, an ignorance of more subtle forms of the practising of gender and acceptance of the gendered understructure of organizations.

Research limitations/implications

The study relates to the Austrian labour relations system which is rather similar to the German system, but can hardly be transferred to other countries.

Practical implications

The analysis of capacities and restrictions of single actors within organizations may be of general interest.

Originality/value

The paper explores a nearly fully ignored aspect of equal opportunity policies which is crucial for their success or failure.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Marianna Sigala

Although the generation of social value is the focus of social entrepreneurship, little research attention is paid on how social value and transformation can be created…

7400

Abstract

Purpose

Although the generation of social value is the focus of social entrepreneurship, little research attention is paid on how social value and transformation can be created. By adopting a market approach, this study aims to develop a framework showing how social enterprises in tourism/hospitality can generate social value and transformation.

Design/methodology/approach

A thorough literature review revealed that a market approach is an appropriate lens for understanding social entrepreneurship. Consequently, a framework based on “learning with the market” is proposed as a useful tool for identifying, managing and also creating (new) opportunities for social ventures. The justification and the theoretical underpinnings of the market-based framework are further supported by discussing various other theories and concepts.

Findings

The framework identifies three capabilities that social entrepreneurs need to develop for generating social value and transformation: network structure, market practices and market pictures. Several examples from tourism and hospitality social enterprises are analyzed for showing the applicability and usefulness of the framework.

Research limitations/implications

The paper proposes a conceptual framework as well as several research directions for further testing, refining and expanding it.

Practical implications

By applying the framework on several tourism and hospitality social enterprises, the paper provides practical implications about the capabilities that social enterprises should develop for engaging with other market actors to identify and exploit (new) market opportunities for social value co-creation, and influence market plasticity for forming new markets and driving social change.

Social implications

The suggested framework identifies the capabilities and the ways in which (tourism/hospitality) social enterprises can engage with and form markets for co-creating social value and escalating their social impacts through social transformation.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new marketing approach (that overcomes the limitations of traditional economic theories) for understanding how social enterprises can shape, manage and engage with social markets for generating social value.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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