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Article

Margaret McCann and Alexis Barlow

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are using social media and how they should measure its return on investment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are using social media and how they should measure its return on investment (ROI). The measurement of economic value associated with the use of social media by business is discussed in order to construct a model designed for analysing the ROI of social media for SMEs. The importance of a planned entry into the social media arena, formulation of measurable goals and objectives and understanding the business process are presented as vital pre-cursors to measuring, and indeed attaining, ROI.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was compiled to explore the current thinking that exists on business use and measurement of social media in mainstream academic literature and other business-oriented publications. Primary research in the form of a survey was conducted with SMEs to determine the usefulness of social media and how SMEs measure its ROI.

Findings

SMEs find some social media applications more valuable than others but 65 per cent of the companies surveyed did not measure the ROI. An overarching framework, aimed at SMEs, is presented which advocates that SMEs should take a strategic focus and plan their use of social media, and draw insight from both quantitative and qualitative data when measuring ROI.

Originality/value

Most existing research on social media is related to large organisations and tends to focus on technical and commercial use rather than examining the value and ROI gained from social media from an SME perspective. This paper offers a simple framework to help SMEs plan their use of social media as well as measure its true value.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Deborah Agostino and Yulia Sidorova

The purpose of this paper is to focus on measuring the contribution generated by social media when used for business purposes, distinguishing between metrics and methods…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on measuring the contribution generated by social media when used for business purposes, distinguishing between metrics and methods for data collection and data analysis. Organizations worldwide have widely endorsed social media, but available studies on the contribution generated by these technologies for organizations are fragmented. A performance measurement system (PMS) framework to monitor social media is theoretically derived, highlighting the methods for data collection and data analysis and metrics to quantify social media impacts in terms of financials, network structure, interactions, conversations and users’ opinion.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative research based on a literature review of papers in management, information technology, marketing and public relations.

Findings

A PMS framework to quantify the contribution of social media is theoretically derived, distinguishing between metrics and methods. PMS metrics support the measurement of the financial and relational impact of social media, as well as the impact of social media conversations and users’ opinions. PMS methods comprise different approaches for data collection and data analysis that range from manual to automated data collection and from content to sentiment analysis techniques.

Originality/value

The PMS framework contributes to the academic literature by integrating a unique model of the available approaches for social media measurement that can serve as a basis for future research directions. The framework also supports practitioners that face necessity to quantify financial and relational contributions of social media as well as the contribution of social media conversation and users’ opinion.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Book part

Robert Kozielski, Grzegorz Mazurek, Anna Miotk and Artur Maciorowski

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are…

Abstract

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are currently enjoying a period of fast and stable growth. This is manifested by the growing number of both Internet users and companies which – to an ever-increasing extent – use the Internet as a form of communication (both internal and external), promotion, sales etc. Expenditures on Internet advertising are growing continuously and now constitute more than 25% of all advertising expenditure. A natural consequence of this development is the need for the standardisation and organisation of the world of the Internet. These activities will result in a greater awareness of the benefits which this medium provides, increasing the possibilities of its use, and – most importantly – the opportunity to evaluate the return on investments made on the Internet. Nowadays, it is clear that many companies are striving to increase the quality of their activities on the Internet or to improve the effectiveness of such activities. As a consequence, the number of companies that look for indices which would enable the making of more precise and effective decisions in the scope of online operations is growing.

This chapter is dedicated to the phenomenon of the increasing role of the Internet in business, including the scale of its use by Polish and international companies. We present the most commonly used measures of marketing activities on the Internet and in social media. This group includes the indices which make it possible to determine whether a company actually needs a website. Other measures allow for the improvement in the effectiveness of the activity on the Internet, whereas others specify the costs of activities on the Internet and often serve as the basis for settlements between a company and advertising agencies or companies specialising in website design. It is worth emphasising that the Paid, Earned, Shared, Owned (PESO) model, worked out by Don Bartholomew,1 is the basis for creation and description of indices concerning social media. This model has gained certain popularity in the social media industry. It does not, however, specify how individual indices should be named and calculated. It maps already existing indices and adapts them to specific levels of marketing communication measurement. All the measures indicated by the author of the model have been grouped into five major areas: exposure, engagement, brand awareness, action and recommendations. This model– similarly to all models of performance measurement – inspired by the sales funnel concept, adjusts certain standard indices and proposals of measurements for specific levels. Additionally, the measures are divided into four types, depending on who the owner of the content is: Paid (P) – refers to all forms of paid content; Owned (O) – all websites and web properties controlled by a company or brand; Earned (E) – the contents about a given brand created spontaneously by Internet users; and Shared (S) – the contents shared by Internet users.

Details

Mastering Market Analytics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-835-2

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Article

Miriam Muñoz-Expósito, M. Ángeles Oviedo-García and Mario Castellanos-Verdugo

As social media are essentially different from traditional media, due to their social networking structures and egalitarian nature, conventional media metrics are not…

Abstract

Purpose

As social media are essentially different from traditional media, due to their social networking structures and egalitarian nature, conventional media metrics are not appropriate. Social media networks have nevertheless become another communications channel that companies use to achieve their marketing goals. Even though the measurement of marketing constructs in social media is elusive, a comprehensive means of measuring engagement is proposed for a successful social media site: Twitter. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A measurement for customer engagement based on conceptual reflections is presented in the context of Twitter.

Findings

A new environment fostered by internet obliges companies to manage social media accounts and to assess engagement with company brands. To do so, companies need to analyze engagement trends by means of a metric, helping them to design an appropriate engagement strategy. The proposed metric provides much needed insight for companies to fine-tune their engagement strategy. Moreover, a means of calculating engagement from the parameters that Twitter makes available to the public is also proposed.

Research limitations/implications

The metric for engagement in Twitter that is proposed in this paper will be the starting point for future improvements through a conceptual and empirical discussion on this issue.

Originality/value

This is the first proposal specifically designed for Twitter, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, for measuring engagement.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article

Elena Alberghini, Livio Cricelli and Michele Grimaldi

This paper aims to discuss the individual participation and involvement affecting the user engagement in social media and to answer the following research questions: Is it

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the individual participation and involvement affecting the user engagement in social media and to answer the following research questions: Is it possible to measure the individual participation and involvement of social media within organizations? Which factors should be analysed in order to increase the individual participation in social media? Which KPIs should be selected in order to increase the user ' s engagement and increase individual participation in social media? Can social media in a company be measured in terms of their impact on KM?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a case study that describes how Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used to monitor and manage the applications of social technologies, which include many tools facilitating the participation and collaboration on the web. The case study was applied to the information and communication technology area of Eni S.p.A., which is an integrated energy company active in over 70 countries in the world.

Findings

Based on the indications obtained from the case study, a methodology is proposed to select and develop the appropriate KPIs in order to manage and monitor the application of social technologies. The methodology turned out to be able to monitor collaboration and knowledge sharing activities among employees and to incentivize participation and involvement of employees who use the company ' s social media.

Practical implications

Organizations can use the suggested methodology as a guideline for managing and monitoring social media inside a company. The possibility of continuously modifying the adopted social media tool by means of corrective actions together with the possibility of adapting the KPIs to new situations make the present methodology an efficient management approach to take on the multifaceted activities of a social media environment.

Originality/value

Few case studies dealing with the applications regarding the implementation and management of social technologies within organizations have been carried out. Similarly, even if some empirical studies have been proposed to analyse what motivates and prevents employees from sharing their knowledge through social media, there appears to be a lack of studies which have taken into consideration the evaluation of the actual benefits in terms of individual involvement and participation, knowledge sharing and increase in performance.

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Book part

Lukasz M. Bochenek and Sam Blili

This chapter presents results of a qualitative study among European champions in social media management. It aims to describe a strategic process and its implications for…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter presents results of a qualitative study among European champions in social media management. It aims to describe a strategic process and its implications for social media strategic management.

Methodology/approach

The chapter is based on four in-depth case studies involving both primary and secondary data analysis and interviews.

Findings

Social media management is governed by similar principles as corporate communication management. However, there is an important role of personal preferences of senior executives for an effectiveness of the strategic process.

Practical implications

The model allows describing the social media management in the multinational companies. Organizational learning process drawn in this chapter can be directly applied in the multinational companies from various industries.

Social implications

Social media create an environment in which established actors need to learn how to communicate socially. Sophistication of the tools requires sophistication of the strategies and processes.

Originality/value of chapter

This chapter analyzes companies from various industries which are considered successful in social media strategic management. It creates a model which is applicable in various industries. It provides also insights into social media strategies from the research among social media global leaders.

Details

Social Media in Strategic Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-898-3

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Article

Nathaniel Discepoli Line, Lydia Hanks and Tarik Dogru

With the proliferation of internet-based communication channels, understanding how restaurant consumers engage in electronic word of mouth (EWOM) has become an important…

Abstract

Purpose

With the proliferation of internet-based communication channels, understanding how restaurant consumers engage in electronic word of mouth (EWOM) has become an important field of academic pursuit. However, while communication channels have become more numerous and complex, the methods used to operationalize the attendant EWOM behaviors on these channels have remained relatively simplistic. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to consider existing methods of measuring restaurant EWOM in terms of their face validity in the contemporary communications landscape.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a total of six independent surveys that use various combinations of sampling, methodological and analytical approaches to demonstrate, measurement, social media, methodology, user-generated content, EWOM, electronic word of mouth the multiple problems associated with the measurement of restaurant EWOM as a latent construct.

Findings

The results suggest that the current methods for measuring EWOM are indeed outdated, indicating the need for a more nuanced approach to the academic pursuit of EWOM behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The existing methods of measuring restaurant EWOM are found to be invalid for many reasons. These methods of measuring EWOM should be abandoned in favor of channel-specific operationalizations that control for previous behavior and respondents’ account access at a minimum.

Originality/value

As its inception, many studies have operationalized restaurant EWOM as an intention-based construct used to measure an individual’s likelihood to communicate information about hospitality experiences “online.” While such measures were no doubt valid in the early years of EWOM research, the research is the first to criticize the face validity of this approach in terms of its relevance in the contemporary communications environment.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Gohar Khan, Manar Mohaisen and Matthias Trier

Leveraging social action theory, social network theory and the notion of network externality, the purpose of this paper is to model two different return on investment…

Abstract

Purpose

Leveraging social action theory, social network theory and the notion of network externality, the purpose of this paper is to model two different return on investment (ROI) measures: the networked ROI which captures the network effect originating from a social media investment, and the discrete ROI which focuses social media discrete returns from individual users.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment was set up over a period of three months to test the effects of two variants of an advertisement campaign (a social vs a discrete ad) on the modeled networked and discrete ROIs.

Findings

The authors find that emphasizing discrete user actions leads to lower network gains, but higher monetary returns while the social action emphasis produces higher network gains, but lower monetary returns. The study further suggests that social action focus is preferable for brand promotion and engagement, whereas the discrete action focus is suitable for boosting sales and website traffic.

Practical implications

Several potential implications for social media researchers and marketers are also discussed.

Originality/value

The authors for the first time showed that that the social media returns are derived not only from individual actions taken by the user (e.g. likes and shares) but also from users’ social interdependencies and the additional exposure that results from network effects.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article

Christos Begkos and Katerina Antonopoulou

In the current digital era where online content is riddled with fabricated metrics and rankings, this research aims to investigate the underpinning mechanisms of the…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current digital era where online content is riddled with fabricated metrics and rankings, this research aims to investigate the underpinning mechanisms of the calculative practices which actors engage with to evaluate digital platform content in the absence of well-defined performance measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on the online, photo-sharing platform Instagram which is devoid of common performance measures such as rankings, ratings and reviews. The authors applied netnographic methods to capture users' actions and interactions at the Greek Instagram community. The authors adopt a practice lens as informed by Schatzki's ‘site ontology’ to capture actors' calculative practices as organised by rules, teleoaffective structures and general and practical understandings.

Findings

Platform actors engage in aesthetic and palpable evaluations of other user profiles and their posted content. They employ permissible (e.g., using third-party apps) and illicit (e.g., lobbying and procuring engagement) tactics to measure and manage digital platform performance, fabricate metrics and blur others' evaluations, in pursuit of prestige and material teleologies. Their calculative practices are conditioned by an implicit social etiquette, which permeates the platform both horizontally and vertically.

Originality/value

First, the paper captures and theorises the mechanisms which underpin actors' calculative practices for performance measurement in the absence of robust judgement devices. Second, it demonstrates how ambiguous assemblages of material and prestige teleologies, aesthetic and palpable evaluative regimes and implicit rules and practical expertise collectively invoke platform actors' calculative practices and the construction of performance measures. In doing so, it contributes to performance measurement literature via demonstrating how management accounting is implicated in the evaluation of digital platform outputs.

Practical implications

The paper provides insight on how platform actors fabricate performance metrics, what they perceive as ‘good’ online content and what constitutes an ‘impactful’ user account or a ‘successful’ social media campaign. Such findings are valuable to management accountants, entrepreneurs and practitioners who seek to evaluate digital platform performance.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

Ridwan Adetunji Raji, Sabrina Rashid and Sobhi Ishak

This study aims to answer an important question of how brand-related communications, including advertising and sales promotion contents, which are disseminated on social

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to answer an important question of how brand-related communications, including advertising and sales promotion contents, which are disseminated on social media platforms, can enhance positive brand image and evoke favourable behavioural intention from consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveys 615 consumers of automotive brands across Malaysia. The data were analysed with AMOS, which was used to specify both the measurement and structural models. The mediating effect of both hedonic and functional brand images was tested using the bootstrapping approach in AMOS and Sobel test.

Findings

The findings reported in this research demonstrate that there are positive and significant relationships between social media advertising content, social media sales promotion content, hedonic brand image, functional brand image and behavioural intention. Both hedonic and functional brand images have significant mediating effects on social media advertising content, social media sales promotion content and behavioural intention. However, the relationship between social media advertising content and behavioural intention is insignificant.

Practical implications

This paper proffers insights to brand managers and marketers on how to leverage on social media contents by unearthing the roles of traditional marketing communications such as social media advertising and promotional information in enhancing brand preference and improving consumers’ purchase intention.

Originality/value

This research advances the discussions in the realm of social media communications and branding by examining the mediating effects of both hedonic and functional brand images of automotive brands. In addition, this study focuses on two essential marketing communications, advertising and sales promotions, which are commonly disseminated by brand managers on social media platforms.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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