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Article

Shrawan Kumar Trivedi and Amrinder Singh

There is a strong need for companies to monitor customer-generated content of social media, not only about themselves but also about competitors, to deal with competition…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a strong need for companies to monitor customer-generated content of social media, not only about themselves but also about competitors, to deal with competition and to assess competitive environment of the business. The purpose of this paper is to help companies with social media competitive analysis and transformation of social media data into knowledge creation for decision-makers, specifically for app-based food delivery companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Three online app-based food delivery companies, i.e. Swiggy, Zomato and UberEats, were considered in this study. Twitter was used as the data collection platform where customer’s tweets related to all three companies are fetched using R-Studio and Lexicon-based sentiment analysis method is applied on the tweets fetched for the companies. A descriptive analytical method is used to compute the score of different sentiments. A negative and positive sentiment word list is created to match the word present on the tweets and based on the matching positive, negative and neutral sentiments score are decided. The sentiment analysis is a best method to analyze consumer’s text sentiment. Lexicon-based sentiment classification is always preferable than machine learning or other model because it gives flexibility to make your own sentiment dictionary to classify emotions. To perform tweets sentiment analysis, lexicon-based classification method and text mining were performed on R-Studio platform.

Findings

Results suggest that Zomato (26% positive sentiments) has received more positive sentiments as compared to the other two companies (25% positive sentiments for Swiggy and 24% positive sentiments for UberEats). Negative sentiments for the Zomato was also low (12% negative sentiments) compared to Swiggy and UberEats (13% negative sentiments for both). Further, based on negative sentiments concerning all the three food delivery companies, tweets were analyzed and recommendations for business provided.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study reveal the value of social media competitive analysis and show the power of text mining and sentiment analysis in extracting business value and competitive advantage. Suggestions, business and research implications are also provided to help companies in developing a social media competitive analysis strategy.

Originality/value

Twitter analysis of food-based companies has been performed.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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Article

Hong Zhao, Yi Huang and Zongshui Wang

This paper aims to systematically find the main research differences and similarities between social media and social networks in marketing research using the bibliometric…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically find the main research differences and similarities between social media and social networks in marketing research using the bibliometric perspective and provides suggestions for firms to improve their marketing strategies effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The methods of co-word analysis and network analysis have been used to analyze the two research fields of social media and social networks. Specifically, this study selects 2,424 articles from 27 marketing academic journals present in the database Web of Science, ranging from January 1, 1996 to August 8, 2020.

Findings

The results show that social networks and social media are both research hotspots within the discipline of marketing research. The different intimacy nodes of social networks are more complex than social media. Additionally, the research scope of social networks is broader than social media in marketing research as shown by the keyword co-occurrence analysis. The overlap between social media and social networks in marketing research is reflected in the strong focus on their mixed mutual effects.

Originality/value

This paper explores the differences and similarities between social networks and social media in marketing research from the bibliometric perspective and provides a developing trend of their research hotspots in social media and social networks marketing research by keyword co-occurrence analysis and cluster analysis. Additionally, this paper provides some suggestions for firms looking to improve the efficiency of their marketing strategies from social and economic perspectives.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article

Khaldoon Nusair

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the current state of social media literature by examining co-word network analysis and thematic keyword…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the current state of social media literature by examining co-word network analysis and thematic keyword analysis of both scholars and hospitality and tourism journals in three sub-periods (2002-2006, 2007-2012 and 2013-2018).

Design/methodology/approach

This research used a bibliometric analysis of social media literature in the field of hospitality and tourism by synthesizing the literature of a large sample of 601 studies over an extended time period (2002-2018).

Findings

The jump in the number of examined contexts, platforms, methodological approaches and research implications during 2007-2012 has marked the start of social media as a new phenomenon in hospitality and tourism research. Interestingly, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management was a leading contributor to social media research between 2017 and 2018. The period 2013-2018 has witnessed newly emerging trends such as “big data,” “e-tourism,” “green experience” and “smart tourism.” This study’s analysis indicated that few keywords in social media appeared in the maturity stage. New platforms such as “Expedia,” “Foursquare,” “Flickr,” “Pinterest,” “Couchsurfing” and “Twitter” appeared between 2013 and 2018.

Originality/value

The scope of past research on the evolution of social media was limited to either a few of the most popular cited journals and/or analysis within a narrow time span. In contrast, the present study aims to uncover the rapid progress in social media research between 2002 and 2018, addressing growth in breadth and depth of thematic areas. Finally, this paper concluded with the proposal of knowledge-based life cycle framework that identifies key themes related to social media research. This framework provided insights into what has been addressed in previous literature (maturity and decline stages) and reported the topics that have been under-researched (introduction and growth stages).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Wu He, Weidong Zhang, Xin Tian, Ran Tao and Vasudeva Akula

Customer knowledge from social media can become an important organizational asset. The purpose of this paper is to identify useful customer knowledge including knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Customer knowledge from social media can become an important organizational asset. The purpose of this paper is to identify useful customer knowledge including knowledge for customer, knowledge about customers and knowledge from customers from social media data and facilitate social media-based customer knowledge management.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a case study to analyze people’s online discussion on Twitter regarding laptop brands and manufacturers. After collecting relevant tweets using Twitter search APIs, the authors applied statistical analysis, text mining and sentiment analysis techniques to analyze the social media data set and visualize relevant insights and patterns in order to identify customer knowledge.

Findings

The paper identifies useful insights and knowledge from customers and knowledge about customers from social media data. Furthermore, the paper shows how the authors can use knowledge from customers and knowledge about customers to help companies develop knowledge for customers.

Originality/value

This is an original social media analytics study that discusses how to transform large-scale social media data into useful customer knowledge including knowledge for customer, knowledge about customers and knowledge from customers.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article

Gülçin Büyüközkan and Öykü Ilıcak

SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis is a powerful approach for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of an organization with an internal…

Abstract

Purpose

SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis is a powerful approach for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of an organization with an internal perspective. The approach also takes into account the opportunities and the threats from an external point of view. These features make SWOT a commonly used approach in strategic management. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated SWOT analysis with multiple preference relations technique, to show the application of the proposed methodology, to prioritize the strategic factors and to present alternative strategies for ABC, a case company, which is targeting to use social media more effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, expert opinions are used to identify SWOT factors of ABC on social media. The obtained findings are evaluated and each factor is prioritized by means of the multiple preference relations technique.

Findings

The proposed evaluation model has four main groups, namely, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, under which 17 factors are identified. As a result of the evaluations, “O2: Opportunity to contact a large number of users simultaneously at affordable cost” has the highest importance level among other factors. Alternative strategies are developed based on the obtained results.

Originality/value

Decision-makers who have different backgrounds or ideas can state their preferences in different formats. Multiple preference relations technique is used to combine different assessments. SWOT analysis with multiple preference relations technique with a group decision-making perspective is proposed. This is the first time the method is used in the social media-related literature. With this study, the most appropriate social media strategic factors are selected for ABC and alternative strategies are determined based on the results.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

Khaldoon Nusair, Irfan Butt and S.R. Nikhashemi

While the importance of social media will continue to grow, the purpose of this study is to provide a retrospective systematic literature review of the social media

Abstract

Purpose

While the importance of social media will continue to grow, the purpose of this study is to provide a retrospective systematic literature review of the social media research published in major hospitality and tourism journals over a specific time period.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducted a bibliometric analysis to review the literature of 439 social media articles published in 51 hospitality and tourism journals over a 15-year time span (2002-2016).

Findings

Ulrike Gretzel authored the highest fractional citations. The results indicated that social media-related research was mostly published in top-tier journals. The International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management was amongst the four leading journals in terms of the percentage of published social media articles. While inter-country social media research collaborations were relatively modest, interestingly, inter-country collaborations have been steadily increasing in the past five years. Another finding indicated that social media research in hospitality and tourism journals has been predominantly quantitative. The results revealed six new areas within the consumer behaviour research theme, namely, eWOM, service recovery, customer satisfaction, brand/destination image and service quality. Finally, it is important to note that four new trends in social media research appeared between 2011 and 2016, namely, big data, netnography, Travel 2.0 and Web 2.0.

Research limitations/implications

While this study made significant contributions to the social media literature, some limitations do exist. For example, the current research excluded publications from major conferences, books, book chapters and dissertations. Additionally, it is not within the scope of this paper to take into account issues related to self-citations.

Practical implications

The results obtained from analysis contribute to a comprehensive understanding of social media research progress in hospitality and tourism. For example, evaluating the performance of individual scholars helps educational institutions to compete in the global university ranking system. Additionally, to compete for funding opportunities on the topic of social media, institutions can use citation counts to demonstrate their competitiveness. Furthermore, due to the expected future growth in the number of social media platforms, practitioners need to understand motivating factors and tourists’ needs in different countries, target market segments, age groups and cultures to create highly engaging communities around their brands.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the sample of this study synthesized the largest selection of social media articles published in hospitality and tourism journals. This is the first study to apply the fractional score at the author level, the adjusted appearance score at the university level and the average citation score at the journal and inter-country levels in the analysis. In addition, prevalent research orientations and research trends in social media made significant contributions to existing literature.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Tracy Tuten and Victor Perotti

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the influence of media coverage and sentiment about brands on user-generated content amplification and opinions expressed in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the influence of media coverage and sentiment about brands on user-generated content amplification and opinions expressed in social media.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a mixed-method approach, using a brand situation as a case example, including sentiment analysis of social media conversations and sentiment analysis of media coverage. This study tracks the diffusion of a false claim about the brand via online media coverage, subsequent spreading of the false claim via social media and the resulting impact on sentiment toward the brand.

Findings

The findings illustrate the influence of digital mass communication sources on the subsequent spread of information about a brand via social media channels and the impact of the social spread of false claims on brand sentiment. This study illustrates the value of social media listening and sentiment analysis for brands as an ongoing business practice.

Research limitations/implications

While it has long been known that media coverage is in part subsequently diffused through individual sharing, this study reveals the potential for media sentiment to influence sentiment toward a brand. It also illustrates the potential harm brands face when false information is spread via media coverage and subsequently through social media posts and conversations. How brands can most effectively correct false brand beliefs and recover from negative sentiment related to false claims is an area for future research.

Practical implications

This study suggests that brands are wise to use sentiment analysis as part of their evaluation of earned media coverage from news organizations and to use social listening as an alert system and sentiment analysis to assess impact on attitudes toward the brand. These steps should become part of a brand’s social media management process.

Social implications

Media are presumed to be impartial reporters of news and information. However, this study illustrated that the sentiment expressed in media coverage about a brand can be measured and diffused beyond the publications’ initial reach via social media. Advertising positioned as news must be labeled as “advertorial” to ensure that those exposed to the message understand that the message is not impartial. News organizations may inadvertently publish false claims and relay information with sentiment that is then carried via social media along with the information itself. Negative information about a brand may be more sensational and, thus, prone to social sharing, no matter how well the findings are researched or sourced.

Originality/value

The value of the study is its illustration of how false information and media sentiment spread via social media can ultimately affect consumer sentiment and attitude toward the brand. This study also explains the research process for social scraping and sentiment analysis.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

Deptii Devendra Chaudhari and Ambika Vishal Pawar

This paper aims to examine the trends in research studies in the past decade which address the use and analysis of propaganda in social media using natural language…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the trends in research studies in the past decade which address the use and analysis of propaganda in social media using natural language processing. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric review of studies focusing on the use, identification and analysis of propaganda in social media.

Design/methodology/approach

This work investigates and examines the research papers acquired from the Scopus database which has huge number of peer reviewed literature and also provides interfaces to access required for bibliometric study. This paper has covered subject papers from 2010 to early 2020 and using tools such as VOSviewer and Biblioshiny.

Findings

This bibliometric survey shows that propaganda in social media is more studied in the area of social sciences, and the field of computer science is catching up. The evolution of research for propaganda in social media shows positive trends. This subject is primarily rooted in the social sciences. Also this subject has shown a recent shift in the area of computer science. The keyword analysis shows that the propaganda in social media is being studied in conjunction with issues such as fake news, political astroturfing, terrorism and radicalization.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of highly cited papers and co-citation analysis implies intermittent contributions by the researchers. Propaganda in social media is becoming a global phenomenon, and ill effects of this are evident in developing countries as well. This denotes a great deal of scope of work for researchers in other countries focusing on their territorial issues. This study was conducted in the confines of data captured from the Scopus database. Hence, it should be noted that some vital publications in recent times could not be included in this study.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of this work is that a thorough bibliometric analysis of the topic is demonstrated using several forms such as mind map, co-occurrence, co-citations, Sankey plot and topic dendrograms by using bibliometric tools such as VOSviewer and Biblioshiny.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

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Article

Farshid Mirzaalian and Elizabeth Halpenny

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of hospitality and tourism studies that have used social media analytics to collect, examine, summarize and interpret “big…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of hospitality and tourism studies that have used social media analytics to collect, examine, summarize and interpret “big data” derived from social media. It proposes improved approaches by documenting past and current analytic practice addressed by the selected studies in social media analytics.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies from the past 18 years were identified and collected from five international electronic bibliographic databases. Social media analytics-related terms and keywords in the titles, keywords or abstracts were used to identify relevant articles. Book chapters, conference papers and articles not written in English were excluded from analysis. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guided the search, and Stieglitz and Dang-Xuan’s (2013) social media analytics framework was adapted to categorize methods reported in each article.

Findings

The research purpose of each study was identified and categorized to better understand the questions social media analytics were being used to address, as well as the frequency of each method’s use. Since 2014, rapid growth of social media analytics was observed, along with an expanded use of multiple analytic methods, including accuracy testing. These factors suggest an increased commitment to and competency in conducting comprehensive and robust social media data analyses. Improved use of methods such as social network analysis, comparative analysis and trend analysis is recommended. Consumer-review networks and social networking sites were the main social media platforms from which data were gathered; simultaneous analysis of multi-platform/sources of data is recommended to improve validity and comprehensive understanding.

Originality/value

This is the first systematic literature review of the application of social media analytics in hospitality and tourism research. The study highlights advancements in social media analytics and recommends an expansion of approaches; common analytical methods such as text analysis and sentiment analysis should be supplemented by infrequently used approaches such as comparative analysis and spatial analysis.

研究目的

本文对酒店旅游学科中采用社交媒体数据分析的文献进行梳理。本文通过审阅其相关分析方法的文献来提出分析方法的改进策略。

研究设计/方法/途径

样本数据包括过去18年中五个国际在线文献索引库中的文献。搜索通过标题、关键词、或者摘要中出现社交媒体数据分析等相关字样的文章。书章节、会议文章、以及非英文文章未被收录在索引中。系统回顾和文献综述的方法(PRISMA)指导本文文献索引, Stieglitz和Dang-Xuan(2013)社交媒体数据分析框架作为本文文献分类的方法。

研究结果

本文汇报了每篇文献的研究目的以及系统归类以更好理解社交媒体数据分析的研究问题以及每种方法的使用频率。自2014年起, 社交媒体数据分析快速增长, 以及其他相关分析方法, 包括精度测试(accuracy testing)。这些结果表明更多全面、稳定的分析方法需求增强以及竞争激烈。本文推荐使用改良方法, 比如社交网络分析法、比较分析、趋势分析等。消费者评价网络和社交网站成为主要社交媒体网络数据的提供平台。本文推荐多源数据应该同步分析以提高有效性和全面性的理解。

研究原创性/价值

本文是首篇酒店旅游领域中对社交媒体数据分析的系统文献回顾型文章。本文强调了社交媒体数据分析的先进性以及扩展其方法的全面性;常见分析方法比如文本分析和情感分析应该结合非常见的分析方法比如比较分析法和空间分析法进行系统分析。

关键词 –关键词 对比分析, 情感分析, 用户原创内容,社交媒体分析, 主题模型, 空间分析, 文本分析文章类型 文献综述

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Article

Collins Udanor and Chinatu C. Anyanwu

Hate speech in recent times has become a troubling development. It has different meanings to different people in different cultures. The anonymity and ubiquity of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Hate speech in recent times has become a troubling development. It has different meanings to different people in different cultures. The anonymity and ubiquity of the social media provides a breeding ground for hate speech and makes combating it seems like a lost battle. However, what may constitute a hate speech in a cultural or religious neutral society may not be perceived as such in a polarized multi-cultural and multi-religious society like Nigeria. Defining hate speech, therefore, may be contextual. Hate speech in Nigeria may be perceived along ethnic, religious and political boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to check for the presence of hate speech in social media platforms like Twitter, and to what degree is hate speech permissible, if available? It also intends to find out what monitoring mechanisms the social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter have put in place to combat hate speech. Lexalytics is a term coined by the authors from the words lexical analytics for the purpose of opinion mining unstructured texts like tweets.

Design/methodology/approach

This research developed a Python software called polarized opinions sentiment analyzer (POSA), adopting an ego social network analytics technique in which an individual’s behavior is mined and described. POSA uses a customized Python N-Gram dictionary of local context-based terms that may be considered as hate terms. It then applied the Twitter API to stream tweets from popular and trending Nigerian Twitter handles in politics, ethnicity, religion, social activism, racism, etc., and filtered the tweets against the custom dictionary using unsupervised classification of the texts as either positive or negative sentiments. The outcome is visualized using tables, pie charts and word clouds. A similar implementation was also carried out using R-Studio codes and both results are compared and a t-test was applied to determine if there was a significant difference in the results. The research methodology can be classified as both qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative in terms of data classification, and quantitative in terms of being able to identify the results as either negative or positive from the computation of text to vector.

Findings

The findings from two sets of experiments on POSA and R are as follows: in the first experiment, the POSA software found that the Twitter handles analyzed contained between 33 and 55 percent hate contents, while the R results show hate contents ranging from 38 to 62 percent. Performing a t-test on both positive and negative scores for both POSA and R-studio, results reveal p-values of 0.389 and 0.289, respectively, on an α value of 0.05, implying that there is no significant difference in the results from POSA and R. During the second experiment performed on 11 local handles with 1,207 tweets, the authors deduce as follows: that the percentage of hate contents classified by POSA is 40 percent, while the percentage of hate contents classified by R is 51 percent. That the accuracy of hate speech classification predicted by POSA is 87 percent, while free speech is 86 percent. And the accuracy of hate speech classification predicted by R is 65 percent, while free speech is 74 percent. This study reveals that neither Twitter nor Facebook has an automated monitoring system for hate speech, and no benchmark is set to decide the level of hate contents allowed in a text. The monitoring is rather done by humans whose assessment is usually subjective and sometimes inconsistent.

Research limitations/implications

This study establishes the fact that hate speech is on the increase on social media. It also shows that hate mongers can actually be pinned down, with the contents of their messages. The POSA system can be used as a plug-in by Twitter to detect and stop hate speech on its platform. The study was limited to public Twitter handles only. N-grams are effective features for word-sense disambiguation, but when using N-grams, the feature vector could take on enormous proportions and in turn increasing sparsity of the feature vectors.

Practical implications

The findings of this study show that if urgent measures are not taken to combat hate speech there could be dare consequences, especially in highly polarized societies that are always heated up along religious and ethnic sentiments. On daily basis tempers are flaring in the social media over comments made by participants. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to implement a technology that can track and terminate hate speech in a micro-blog like Twitter. This can also be extended to other social media platforms.

Social implications

This study will help to promote a more positive society, ensuring the social media is positively utilized to the benefit of mankind.

Originality/value

The findings can be used by social media companies to monitor user behaviors, and pin hate crimes to specific persons. Governments and law enforcement bodies can also use the POSA application to track down hate peddlers.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

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