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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2009

Natasha A. Frost and Todd R. Clear

Prison populations in the United States have increased in every year since 1973 – during depressions and in times of economic growth, with rising and falling crime rates…

Abstract

Prison populations in the United States have increased in every year since 1973 – during depressions and in times of economic growth, with rising and falling crime rates, and in times of war and peace. Accomplishing this historically unprecedented penal pattern has required a serious policy agenda that has remained focused on punishment as a goal for more than a generation. This paper seeks to understand that policy orientation from the framework of a social experiment. It explores the following questions: how does the penal experiment – which we have called the Punishment Imperative – compare to other “grand” social experiments? What were its assumptions? What forms did the experiment take? What lessons can be learned from it? What is the future of the grand social experiment in mass incarceration?

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Special Issue New Perspectives on Crime and Criminal Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-653-9

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Yuanyuan Zhou, Minxue Huang, Alex S.L. Tsang and Nan Zhou

Consumers use cues to assess whether a recovery is effective. Prior literature on service recovery has focused mainly on individual-related factors. This paper aims to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Consumers use cues to assess whether a recovery is effective. Prior literature on service recovery has focused mainly on individual-related factors. This paper aims to study how other consumers in the same failure and recovery influence an individual consumer to evaluate the firm ' s recovery efforts.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the interaction effects between recovery modes (public vs private) and recovery dimensions (economic vs social) on an individual consumer ' s evaluation of a recovery strategy for a group service failure. Experiment 2 investigated the complementary role of social recovery on economic compensation.

Findings

Experiment 1 identified a significant interaction effect. Results suggest that an individual in a group service failure responds more favorably to public economic recovery than to private recovery. However, an individual ' s reaction to social recovery follows the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in experiment 2 a complementary effect between economic recovery and social recovery was found.

Originality/value

One potential contribution is that the paper sheds light on the issue related to the influence from other affected consumers in the same service failure and recovery situation in affected consumers ' recovery evaluation. An individual will consider the recovery other individuals receive when he or she evaluates the recovery ' s strategy. The paper also provides insight into the complementary use of economic and social recoveries to enhance a consumer ' s evaluation of a firm ' s overall recovery at a reduced cost.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Waldo Rocha Flores, Hannes Holm, Gustav Svensson and Göran Ericsson

The purpose of the study was threefold: to understand security behaviours in practice by investigating factors that may cause an individual to comply with a request posed…

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1406

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was threefold: to understand security behaviours in practice by investigating factors that may cause an individual to comply with a request posed by a perpetrator; to investigate if adding information about the victim to an attack increases the probability of the attack being successful; and, finally, to investigate if there is a correlation between self-reported and observed behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Factors for investigation were identified based on a review of existing literature. Data were collected through a scenario-based survey, phishing experiments, journals and follow-up interviews in three organisations.

Findings

The results from the experiment revealed that the degree of target information in an attack increased the likelihood that an organisational employee falls victim to an actual attack. Further, an individual’s trust and risk behaviour significantly affected the actual behaviour during the phishing experiment. Computer experience at work, helpfulness and gender (females tend to be less susceptible to a generic attack than men), had a significant correlation with behaviour reported by respondents in the scenario-based survey. No correlation between the results from the scenario-based survey and the experiments was found.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is that the scenario-based survey may have been interpreted differently by the participants. Another is that controlling how the participants reacted when receiving the phishing mail, and what actually triggered each and every participant to click on the attached link, was not possible. Data were however collected to capture these aspects during and after the experiments. In conclusion, the results do not imply that one or the other method should be ruled out, as they have both advantages and disadvantages which should be considered in the context of collecting data in the critical domain of information security.

Originality/value

Two different methods to collect data to understand security behaviours have rarely been used in previous research. Studies that add target information to understand if such information could increase the probability of attack success is sparse. This paper includes both approaches.

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Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Charles G. Leathers, J. Patrick Raines and Heather R. Richardson-Bono

The role of debt in episodes of financial stability is a topic of increasing important as the global economy struggles to recover from the worst crisis since the Great…

Abstract

Purpose

The role of debt in episodes of financial stability is a topic of increasing important as the global economy struggles to recover from the worst crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mortgage finance booms of the 1920s and 2000s as natural experiments, new insights into debt-driven financial crises are gained.

Design/methodology/approach

The general methodology is interpreting anomalous historical events as natural experiments. The specific methodology is the approach to natural experiments provided by Joseph A. Schumpeter and Milton Friedman. The hypothesis tested is that laxity in lending standards was the prime contributor to the mortgage debt booms. In each case, we explain why factors other than laxity in lending standards would be secondary factors, with the pre-boom and post-boom lending standards providing the control groups of natural experiments. The two episodes of mortgage debt booms occurring under very different general economic and financial conditions provide an especially strong test of the hypothesized functional relationship.

Findings

The results of the two natural experiments support the hypothesis that lax lending standards were the prime contributors to the two episodes of debt-driven financial crisis.

Originality/value

From a social economics perspective, the insights gained are important because a major social goal has been to encourage greater opportunities for home ownership. The results of these natural experiments provide guidance for policymakers in the search for a viable balance between achieving that social goal and maintaining financial stability.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Daniel L. Chen

I propose a model of behavior in social interactions where individuals maximize a three-term utility function: a conventional consumption utility term and two “social”…

Abstract

I propose a model of behavior in social interactions where individuals maximize a three-term utility function: a conventional consumption utility term and two “social” terms that capture social preference. One social term is a taste for desert, which is maximized when the individual believes the other person is getting what they deserve. The second social term measures the target individuals’ anger or gratitude from the interaction which is determined by a value function derived from prospect theory. After introducing the model and generating a series of comparative statics results and derived predictions, I report the results of a series of quasi-field experiments on social preferences. I discuss how the model explains several paradoxes of empirical moral philosophy that are less explicable by current economic models of social preference focusing on outcomes and intentions.

Details

Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2019

Gohar Khan, Manar Mohaisen and Matthias Trier

Leveraging social action theory, social network theory and the notion of network externality, the purpose of this paper is to model two different return on investment…

Abstract

Purpose

Leveraging social action theory, social network theory and the notion of network externality, the purpose of this paper is to model two different return on investment (ROI) measures: the networked ROI which captures the network effect originating from a social media investment, and the discrete ROI which focuses social media discrete returns from individual users.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment was set up over a period of three months to test the effects of two variants of an advertisement campaign (a social vs a discrete ad) on the modeled networked and discrete ROIs.

Findings

The authors find that emphasizing discrete user actions leads to lower network gains, but higher monetary returns while the social action emphasis produces higher network gains, but lower monetary returns. The study further suggests that social action focus is preferable for brand promotion and engagement, whereas the discrete action focus is suitable for boosting sales and website traffic.

Practical implications

Several potential implications for social media researchers and marketers are also discussed.

Originality/value

The authors for the first time showed that that the social media returns are derived not only from individual actions taken by the user (e.g. likes and shares) but also from users’ social interdependencies and the additional exposure that results from network effects.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Akbar Adhiutama, Rony Darmawan, Shimaditya Nuraeni, Noorhan Firdaus Pambudi and Nur Budi Mulyono

The lack of studies about the relevance of disaster awareness factors and disaster evacuation as a part of disaster responses especially for fire cases in an academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The lack of studies about the relevance of disaster awareness factors and disaster evacuation as a part of disaster responses especially for fire cases in an academic environment in Indonesia has triggered this study to explore the disaster awareness factors and evacuation experiment without emergency alarm for case study students in the classroom. The relevance of disaster awareness factors in transforming into practical action and decision in a disaster evacuation need to be examined to study the relevance of both phases in disaster.

Design/methodology/approach

This research conducted a quantitative approach by studying questionnaires from 162 respondents collectively divided into five groups to examine the student disaster awareness factors randomly from those groups. The qualitative approach was implemented through the evacuation experiments that were conducted twice to analyze the disaster evacuation performance. The analysis for the relevance is conducted by comparing the result of the questionnaire study and the evacuation experiment.

Findings

According to the questionnaire study, generally, the students are highly confident with their hazard knowledge in disaster awareness except that half of them are doubtful about appropriate steps in a disaster. The experiment without explosive sound showed that they have slower responses in the critical moment of evacuation. The response in the experiments showed relevance with several disaster awareness factors

Research limitations/implications

This study has explored the relevance of disaster awareness factors with disaster response in a campus building. In the part of reducing risk during fire disaster, this research shows the importance of social interaction and hazard knowledge during the disaster.

Practical implications

The improvement of disaster evacuation procedures and training in a campus building is mandatory to reduce disaster risk based on the relevance of disaster awareness factors and disaster response in this study.

Originality/value

This study measures the relevance of disaster awareness factors performance of the students by comparing it to their actions and decisions in an experimental setting of fire building. The disaster awareness factor performance was measured by a questionnaire survey while the experiments were deployed to observe the performance of their actions and decisions during evacuation as part of the disaster response phase.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Matúš Sloboda, Patrik Pavlovský and Emília Sičáková-Beblavá

The objective was to increase earnings of the city of Prievidza from waste disposal fee by proactive communication – reminder (a letter) and leaflets with targeted…

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43

Abstract

Purpose

The objective was to increase earnings of the city of Prievidza from waste disposal fee by proactive communication – reminder (a letter) and leaflets with targeted framing. The quasi-experiment aims to find out which type of leaflet framing (an injunctive social norm or public good) causes the most effective change in the debtors' behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The article presents the results of a behavioural quasi-experiment, carried out on a local government level. The effectiveness of the intervention was tested in a quasi-experiment with the sample size 712, which is 35% of all waste disposal fee debtors in Prievidza.

Findings

The intervention that has proven to be the most effective was a reminder together with an injunctive social norm leaflet. It resulted in a 1.7 times higher probability for the debt to be paid. The results also indicate that a reminder is significantly more effective if targeted at debtors who only owe one payment–this group was three times more likely to pay their debt after being exposed to the intervention.

Practical implications

Public policy recommendation is to primarily target the group of debtors who owe one payment.

Originality/value

Another testing and replication of this experiment design is highly important. Nonetheless, the first testing (field quasi-experiment) shows the potential of using the notification as well as social norm framing. It also appears that self-governments should use notifications to primarily address debtors without a long history of non-payment.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Elena R. Agadullina, Andrey Lovakov and Natalia V. Kiselnikova

The first year of college is a stressful life period connected with the experience of loneliness, isolation and depression since the majority of freshmen can no longer…

Abstract

Purpose

The first year of college is a stressful life period connected with the experience of loneliness, isolation and depression since the majority of freshmen can no longer maintain an equally close relationship with school friends and family. Social networks have become a significant part of students' daily lives and might be an effective tool for maintaining relationship and reducing loneliness. There are contradictory results concerning the relationship between social networks sites (SNS) use and feelings of loneliness.

Design/methodology/approach

A four-week experiment was conducted to study the effect of SNS on feelings of social and emotional loneliness across freshmen. The treatment group (n = 40) took a break from SNS, while the control group (n = 37) used SNS as usual.

Findings

Comparison of the treatment and control groups showed that quitting SNS does not change either feeling of social/emotional loneliness. This paper also found that feelings of social and emotional loneliness did not depend on freshmen's positive/negative attitudes toward being alone.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few that uses experimental design to study the effects of using social networks on the psychological state of students in the context of higher education. The results showed that refusing SNS use can have a positive potential for psychological well-being of freshmen since solitude can be used by them as time for self-discovery and self-development. According to the results, social networks neither increase nor decrease the feeling of loneliness, and offline learning and communication environment plays a more significant role in the adaptation of freshmen. These results allow to take a new look at the studies related to the relationship between SNS use and loneliness and the role of social networks in the adaptation of freshmen.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Martha Foschi, André Ndobo and Alice Faure

Many everyday situations involve the performance of a task and the inference of competence from the results. Here, we focus on situations in which two or more persons who…

Abstract

Many everyday situations involve the performance of a task and the inference of competence from the results. Here, we focus on situations in which two or more persons who differ on status (e.g., sex category, skin tone) perform a valued task with equivalent, objectively judged results, and yet are not granted equal competence. We examine the conditions under which such a conclusion derives from the use of different standards for each status level.

We review and assess the findings of all the 17 social psychological experiments completed to date and designed to investigate the hypothesis that the lower a person’s social status is perceived to be, the stricter the competence standard applied to him or her.

We find substantial support for this hypothesis, but there are also factors that either moderate (e.g., qualifications level) or even reverse (e.g., participant’s sex category) such link. Of particular interest among those factors is whether competence is measured directly or indirectly. For example, we found overall that the specific question about competence often restrains the use of double standards, whereas the wider questions (e.g., about suitability) are more likely to allow that practice to emerge.

We also identify and expand interventions from three different research traditions designed to deter bias, and propose ways of applying them to block double standards in the assessment of equivalent performances. The interventions involve (1) increasing assessor’s accountability, (2) increasing similarity across the performers, and (3) disrupting the often taken-for-granted association between higher status and good performance – as well as the corresponding link between lower status and poor performance.

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