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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Stephanie Habersaat, Sid Hamed Abdellaoui and Jutta M. Wolf

The purpose of this study is (1) to confirm the relationship between the two dimensions of social desirability (pretending and denying), self-reported stress and health…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is (1) to confirm the relationship between the two dimensions of social desirability (pretending and denying), self-reported stress and health reports in police officers and (2) to assess whether dysfunctions in basal cortisol profiles are related to social desirability.

Design/methodology/approach

Social desirability is known to influence how individuals respond to sensitive topics, such as questions concerning health in the workplace, and has usually been defined according to two dimensions: pretending and denying. However, it is not known whether social desirability is only a bias in responding to health surveys or a more general attitude of denying problems and pretending to be stronger than one is in the everyday life. If the latter is true, social desirability may have important health implications, and underlying mechanisms must be described. In total, 77 police officers completed questionnaires measuring social desirability (denying and pretending), perceived stress as well as mental and somatic health symptoms. They were further instructed to collect saliva samples for cortisol concentrations assays.

Findings

These preliminary results showed that denying was negatively related to the report of stress and health symptoms. Furthermore, police officers higher in pretending showed a flatter diurnal cortisol slope.

Research limitations/implications

The correlation between dysregulation of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as expressed by a flatter cortisol slope, and a higher score in the pretending subscale suggests that looking for social approval by inflating one's capacities is related to chronic work-related stress, making the individual more vulnerable to stress-related disease.

Originality/value

To study the potential health-relevant consequences and underlying mechanisms of social desirability bias related to police culture by including stress biomarkers.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2016

Henri Kuokkanen and William Sun

Many consumer-focused corporate social responsibility (CSR) studies suggest a positive link between the responsibility demonstrated by a company and consumers’ intention…

Abstract

Purpose

Many consumer-focused corporate social responsibility (CSR) studies suggest a positive link between the responsibility demonstrated by a company and consumers’ intention to favor the company in their purchases. Yet an analogous causal effect between corporate social and financial performances is not evident. This chapter conceptualizes how social desirability and cynicism contribute to the discrepancy between consumers’ attitudes and their actual purchase behavior, and analyzes why consumer choices indicated in surveys do not consistently convert into actions.

Methodology/approach

We develop a conceptual framework based on hybrid choice modeling to estimate the impact of two new variables, Corporate Social Desirability and Corporate Social Cynicism, on CSR research. The model presented synthesizes research findings from the fields of CSR and psychology with a discrete choice methodology that allows inclusion of psychological aspects as latent variables.

Findings

The goal of the framework is to bridge the gap between choices stated by consumers in CSR surveys and their actual choices by quantifying and extracting the effects of biases that otherwise threaten the validity of such survey results. As the next step, the practical value of the model must be evaluated through empirical research combining a CSR choice study with social desirability and cynicism measurement.

Originality

The framework proposes a novel way of controlling CSR surveys for potential biases created by social desirability and cynicism and enables quantification of this impact, with potential application to other fields where psychological aspects may distort research results. Future empirical evidence based on the framework may also offer new insights into the mechanisms by which the two biases distort findings.

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Tser Yieth Chen, Tsai Lien Yeh and Ya Jou Wang

Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the…

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model and to enhance insights for practical applications, this study modifies the causal relationship among two types of scarcity, three types of expansiveness and desirability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 400 Taipei city residents who had purchase experience with luxury brands products in Taiwan. The study employed structural equation modeling as empirical analysis.

Findings

The empirical results show that limited-quantity scarcity main influences perceived social status and then affects desirability. The second path is that limited-quantity scarcity influences perceived uniqueness and then affects desirability. Therefore, perceived social status and perceived uniqueness dominate the majority of effects on desirability because they are the recognition of the individual compared to others, especially when applied to luxury goods.

Practical implications

Because limited-quantity scarcity has a greater impact on desirability than limited-time scarcity in the empirical results, marketers can adopt limited-quantity scarcity messages that are better than limited-time scarcity, to increase consumers’ desire to purchase luxury goods.

Originality/value

The first novelty of this study is dividing scarcity marketing into limited-quantity and limited-time scarcity in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model. This study extends expensiveness in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model with a complete demonstration, that is, perceived social status, perceived uniqueness and perceived value, which is the second novelty of this study.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Donna M. Randall, Y. Paul Huo and Patrice Pawelk

This paper discusses the impact of a social desirability (SD) bias in cross‐cultural ethics research. An SD bias may mask a relationship between key variables, provide a…

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478

Abstract

This paper discusses the impact of a social desirability (SD) bias in cross‐cultural ethics research. An SD bias may mask a relationship between key variables, provide a false correlation between them, moderate their relationship, or influence the response rate to the survey instrument. When survey researchers present hypothetical ethical dilemmas to respondents and ask them what they would do, the respondents' answers will not only be influenced by their actual values and desires, but also by what those individuals perceive to be desirable within their society. We argue that key value differences between countries, as noted by Hofstede, will exert an independent influence on responses to self‐report questionnaires. Four propositions are set forth detailing how this SD bias may differentially affect responses to ethics surveys across cultures. A longitudinal research design is proposed to help disentangle the impact of culture values, personal values, and an SD bias. Several measures to prevent and to control the bias in cross‐cultural ethics research are discussed The use of pretests, pilot tests, and SD scales imbedded within research instruments is recommended.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Rajat Roy, Fazlul K. Rabbanee and Piyush Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of internal reference price (IRP) in a pay-what-you-want (PWYW) price setting. Specifically, it examines the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of internal reference price (IRP) in a pay-what-you-want (PWYW) price setting. Specifically, it examines the effects of altruism, social desirability and price consciousness as the antecedents of IRP and consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP), future purchase intention and attitude toward the seller as the outcomes of IRP.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for the study were collected from 272 respondents through a structured survey and analyzed through structural equation modeling technique using AMOS 22.0.

Findings

Altruism and social desirability positively influence IRP whereas price consciousness influences IRP negatively. IRP mediates the effects of altruism, social desirability and price consciousness on WTP, future purchase intention and attitude toward the seller.

Research limitations/implications

PWYW pricing strategy can help attract consumers with self-less characteristics or a desire to behave in a socially appropriate manner but not those who are highly price conscious as reflected by the differences in the way in which their IRPs influence their WTP, future purchase intention and attitude toward the seller.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a parsimonious framework to explain how three consumer characteristics influence consumers’ pricing decisions in PWYW context. The finding that the effects of antecedent variables on WTP, attitude and future purchase intention are mediated by IRP provides new insights that have not been explored earlier.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Hao Jiao

The emerging literature on social entrepreneurship and its role in economic development and social value creation is riddled with inconsistencies, overlapping definitions…

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6215

Abstract

Purpose

The emerging literature on social entrepreneurship and its role in economic development and social value creation is riddled with inconsistencies, overlapping definitions, and contradictions. However, the theoretical and practical importance of developing and applying social entrepreneurship to sustain social development and enhance human well‐being in rapidly changing environments has catapulted this issue to the forefront of the research agendas of many scholars. In light of advancement, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of social entrepreneurship. Further, a conceptual model is developed encompassing antecedents and consequence of social entrepreneurship in an integrated framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the work of others and to this adds personal conclusions from both direct experience and observation.

Findings

The central argument is that desirability and feasibility of social entrepreneur in the decision‐making process, human capital, and social capital at the individual level will have the positive effects on social entrepreneurship. The author also discusses the moderation effects between the desirability and feasibility of social entrepreneur in the decision‐making process on initiating social entrepreneurship activities. Moreover, it is argued that social and institutional environment factors also promote social entrepreneurship activities which push the social improvement.

Originality/value

The paper presents a theoretical research model incorporating antecedents and consequence of social entrepreneurship to direct a future research agenda. The paper could be used as the research model by researchers to empirically test antecedents and consequences of social entrepreneurship. Moreover, practitioners can also gain benefits from the conceptual framework and promote social entrepreneurship.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Iain Densten

The executives, just below the chief executive officers represent an important but rarely investigated senior executives. The purpose of this paper is to investigate their…

Abstract

Purpose

The executives, just below the chief executive officers represent an important but rarely investigated senior executives. The purpose of this paper is to investigate their need for social acceptance and the impact of culture on the perceived use of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional, multi-instrument design was used to investigate 439 Australian executives at the apex of their organization.

Findings

The results suggest that these executives identified a prominent need to self-deceive themselves when assessing their perceived use of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. In addition, the cultural dimensions, such as supportiveness and performance orientation, were identified as influencing specific leadership behaviors, in order to produce competitive advantages. However, the cultural dimension of emphasis on rewards uniquely decreased the perceived use of several leadership behaviors (i.e. articulates vision, fosters the acceptance of group goals, and provides an appropriate role model).

Research limitations/implications

The study provides further evidence of how the social context impacts on leadership behaviors and thinking

Practical implications

The development of executive requires insights into how their personal need for social acceptance and culture alter their use of leadership.

Originality/value

Social desirability and specific culture dimensions do not uniformly influence the perceived use of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Juliana Maria Magalhães Christino, Erico Aurelio Abreu Cardozo, Thaís Santos Silva and Caroline Mazzini

This study aims to understand the extent to which packaging influences Brazilian parents' purchasing willingness based on children's food preferences for unhealthy food products.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the extent to which packaging influences Brazilian parents' purchasing willingness based on children's food preferences for unhealthy food products.

Design/methodology/approach

Parents, with children up to 12 years old, answered questions about the positive influence of the packaging on the children, the preferences of the children in their willingness to buy and the propensity to give in to the desires of the children. Data analysis was performed with the statistical software SPSS and Stata used for structural equations modeling.

Findings

The results back the outlined hypotheses and point out that the characteristics of the packaging positively influence children's preferences as well as parents’ who are prone to give in to such influences. In some relationships, there was a minute moderating effect of social desirability and social class.

Research limitations/implications

The research presents as a limitation the nature of the sample, parents, to the extent that the influences of the packages on the children were analyzed from their perspectives.

Practical implications

Findings from the research can be used to think about preventive public policies to protect children as highly vulnerable subjects. Another practical implication is that the same marketing strategies that are used for unhealthy foods can also be used for healthy foods, improving their linkage to the children once there are evidences that packaging can positively influence their preferences.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is to focus on children's food preferences for unhealthy products and in parents with children up to 12 years old, which is not often investigated by researchers.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Rajat Roy and Fazlul K. Rabbanee

This study aims to propose and test a parsimonious framework for self-congruity, albeit in the context of luxury branding. This paper is the first to propose an integrated…

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3326

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose and test a parsimonious framework for self-congruity, albeit in the context of luxury branding. This paper is the first to propose an integrated model focusing on the drivers and consequences of self-congruity. The model is further applied to explain how self-congruity may motivate future experiences with the luxury brand, mainly by influencing self-perception. Although a substantive marketing literature on self-congruity currently exists, there is a lack of an integrated framework, a gap that the current work addresses.

Design/methodology/approach

A paper and pencil survey was conducted among female subjects only, and structural path relationships were tested using AMOS.

Findings

Consumers’ self-congruity with a luxury brand (non-luxury brand) is positively (negatively) influenced by its antecedents: social desirability, need for uniqueness and status consumption. Self-congruity with a luxury (non-luxury) brand is found to enhance (undermine) consumers’ self-perceptions. This, in turn, is found to have a stronger (weaker) positive impact on consumers’ motivation to re-use a shopping bag from luxury brand (non-luxury brand) for hedonic purpose. Mediation analyses show that self-congruity has a positive (negative) indirect effect on hedonic use via self-perception for luxury (non-luxury) brand.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies may involve actual shoppers, causal design and additional variables like “utilitarian usage “of shopping bags to extend the proposed framework.

Practical implications

A better understanding of the findings has implications for brand positioning, advertising and packaging.

Originality/value

Till date, no research has examined a parsimonious model for self-congruity complete with its antecedents and consequences and tested it in the context of a luxury versus non-luxury brand.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

James C. Sarros, Brian K. Cooper and Anne M. Hartican

The purpose of this paper is to examine self‐assessed character among Australian managers in relation to selected demographic variables of these managers, and to establish…

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15461

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine self‐assessed character among Australian managers in relation to selected demographic variables of these managers, and to establish the initial psychometric properties of the Virtuous Leadership Scale used to measure dimensions of character.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a national online survey of managers utilizing the membership base of the Australian Institute of Management.

Findings

The findings reveal that self‐assessed character is multifaceted and varies across specific demographics (gender, age, level of seniority, years as an executive), and is subject to some degree of social desirability bias. Further research is warranted to explore these outcomes and relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited by national culture and management self‐report data that need verification across different national cultures, work settings, and work groups. The findings indicate that integrity is a key character attribute reported by managers, but the present results require further validation across industry sectors and other organizational contexts.

Practical implications

The findings suggest the need for further examination of character as an important component of leadership success, strategy, and impact.

Originality/value

The study identifies attributes of character linked to selected demographic (personal and professional) variables of practising managers, and points the way for further examination of the part character has to play in the leadership of organizations.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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