In this chapter, we explore whether various true, endogenous social cycle theories share common patterns and characteristics.
We examine a number of prominent social theories describing cyclical patterns, and attempt to abstract an ideal type common to all of them, based on the idea of two populations disrupting each other and adjusting to the other’s disruptions.
At the core of such theories we typically find a variation of a two-population model. In these theories, cycles emerge when one of the populations seems to disrupt the other population’s plans, leading to recurring adjustments and disruptions that constitute the cycle.
Finding such commonalities in the world of theories can be useful for several reasons. For one thing, noticing that two theories share certain traits may help us understand each of them better. Furthermore, we show that agent-based modelers using modern object-oriented programming techniques can benefit from finding common patterns in theories.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how social networks evolve as small business enterprises transition across the organizational lifecycle. It aims to give…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how social networks evolve as small business enterprises transition across the organizational lifecycle. It aims to give attention to how social identities of small business owners impact social networks and whether social networks improve organizational performance in small firms.
A sample of small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME) owners employing less than 500 employees was drawn from the local directory of businesses in two Indian cities. A total of 297 SME owners participated in the study, for a response rate of 85.6 percent.
The findings show that social networks for small businesses change as firms transition from startup to growth and beyond. Personal networks were most important during startup, with other social networks growing in contact frequency and importance over time. The findings also show that small business owners can be classified along network preferences and that social networks lead superior performance.
The study focused on a limited set of performance indices. Future research should assess a wider set of organizational metrics and should investigate granular aspects of transitional networks.
The findings suggest that small business owners cannot adhere to the status quo and must instead be willing to change business practices as their organizations evolve across the organizational lifecycle.
The study provides evidence that small business owners use different types of social networks and that the range and value of the strategic advice that they receive differ as their organization unfolds over time. The research contributes to the literature by showing that social networks and entrepreneurial learning practices are not static, and instead must be viewed in terms of dynamic decision making needs and processes.
Online social network (OSN) users have a high propensity to malware threats due to the trust and persuasive factors that underpin OSN models. The escalation of social…
Online social network (OSN) users have a high propensity to malware threats due to the trust and persuasive factors that underpin OSN models. The escalation of social engineering malware encourages a growing demand for end-user security awareness measures. The purpose of this paper is to take the theoretical cybersecurity awareness model TTAT-MIP and test its feasibility via a Facebook app, namely social network criminal (SNC).
The research employs a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the SNC app. A system usability scale measures the usability of SNC. Paired samples t-tests were administered to 40 participants to measure security awareness – before and after the intervention. Finally, 20 semi-structured interviews were deployed to obtain qualitative data about the usefulness of the App itself.
Results validate the effectiveness of OSN apps utilising a TTAT-MIP model – specifically the mass interpersonal persuasion (MIP) attributes. Using TTAT-MIP as a guidance, practitioners can develop security awareness systems that better leverage the intra-relationship model of OSNs.
The primary limitation of this study is the experimental settings. Although the results testing the TTAT-MIP Facebook app are promising, these were set under experimental conditions.
SNC enable persuasive security behaviour amongst employees and avoid potential malware threats. SNC support consistent security awareness practices by the regular identification of new threats which may inspire the creation of new security awareness videos.
The structure of OSNs is making it easier for malicious users to carry out their activities without the possibility of detection. By building a security awareness programme using the TTAT-MIP model, organisations can proactively manage security awareness.
Many security systems are cumbersome, inconsistent and non-specific. The outcome of this research provides organisations and security practitioners with a framework for designing and developing proactive and tailored security awareness systems.
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
The purpose of the chapter is to consider the methodology of studying socio-economic systems through the prism of the theory of cycles and to analyze applicability of this…
The purpose of the chapter is to consider the methodology of studying socio-economic systems through the prism of the theory of cycles and to analyze applicability of this methodology to studying economic.
Based on the dynamic model of development of socio-economic system through the prism of the theory of cycles, the authors analyze dynamics of development of Russia’s socio-economic system through the prism of the theory of cycles in 2000–2022.
Drawbacks of the existing theory of cycles are determined. First, the models of economic cycles are too idealized and are alien to the current economic reality. These models do not correctly describe cyclic fluctuations of modern socio-economic systems – which is shown by the example of Russia. Second, application of the methodology of the theory of cycles in practice (by the example of Russia) leads to contradictory results. Each indicator of economic growth, including investments into economy, inflation, unemployment level, and balance of federal budget, has its own cyclic fluctuations, which could differ from fluctuations of GDP in constant prices. Third, the system of factors of cyclic fluctuations of socio-economic systems includes primarily economic (not social) factors. Due to this, the theory of cycles takes into account only objective reasons of crises of socio-economic systems.
It is determined that domination of subjective reasons in emergence of economic conflicts makes application of the theory of cycles not applicable to full-scale study of economic conflicts – application of this concept is expedient only as to economic crises that are one of a lot of manifestations of economic conflicts. It is probably that neglecting subjective (social) factors leads to the above contradictions of the theory of cycles and difference between its theoretical models and empirical data. Based on this conclusion, it is substantiated that methodology of studying socio-economic system through the prism of the theory of cycles is not applicable to economic conflicts; it is determined that development of the concept of economic conflicts can specify and improve the methodology of the theory of cycles.
Indicators of economic and social phenomena can be useful descriptive and analytical inputs for public policy. The “social indicators movement” has emerged in the last…
Indicators of economic and social phenomena can be useful descriptive and analytical inputs for public policy. The “social indicators movement” has emerged in the last decade and is devoted to the measurement of widely‐ranging dimensions of human welfare. For the most part, questions of systematic measurement for public policy are explored here. Drawing initially on some traditions of measurement in economics, the principal aim is to provide a broad theoretical frame of reference for policy indicator design. Questions of indicator development necessarily involve ideas of suitability or validity of indicators designed for a purpose. Approaches to indicator design for the purpose of enhancing collective decision‐making—including formal model building approaches—are subsumed as special cases once a more general theory is espoused in sections II and III.
Of all the various interventions into the market economy, which have been invented and implemented by man and state, those that historically have caused the gravest…
Of all the various interventions into the market economy, which have been invented and implemented by man and state, those that historically have caused the gravest consequences in the advanced industrialized economies surely are the inflationist policies, which lead inexorably to the business cycle in all of its various aspects and manifestations. In this paper, we shall attempt to trace through a number of socio-economic consequences and implications of the business cycle. We are convinced that ultimately the business cycle has political implications, which are just as far reaching and grave as its numerous economic consequences.