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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2012

Gil Richard Musolf

Purpose – Role-taking refusal was a foundational problem in Mead's work but was ignored by subsequent interactionists who focused on the benefits of role-taking – empathy…

Abstract

Purpose – Role-taking refusal was a foundational problem in Mead's work but was ignored by subsequent interactionists who focused on the benefits of role-taking – empathy and solidarity – but failed to examine how they are destroyed or crippled from emerging as inclusionary aspects of social consciousness. Role-taking refusal constitutes both the microfoundation of dehumanization in the case of the oppressor and, in the case of the oppressed, the microfoundation of resistance. Role-taking refusal is linked to Giddens's notion of the reflective project of the self, Omi and Winant's racial formation theory, Feagin's theory of systemic racism, and the perspective of Critical Race Theory.

Methodology – I shall portray role-taking refusal by using historical, theoretical, and empirical works, especially ethnographic studies.

Social implications – The oppressed know the image their oppressors have of them. Refusing to internalize this image is the first step – the microfoundation – of resistance. Role-taking refusal in the oppressed fosters critical consciousness, which, if solidarity with others is formed, can lead to collective action and, possibly, permanent institutional change.

Originality – “The superiority delusion” is the paradigmatic ideology of all oppressors, deployed to justify their power, privilege, and prestige. This delusion is maintained by the microfoundation of dehumanization, which is a systematic refusal to role-take from those over whom oppressors oppress. All other ideologies that justify oppression are derived from some form of “the superiority delusion,” identifying for the first time role-taking refusal as paradoxically both the original sin of social relations and the foundation of social resistance.

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Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-057-4

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Wei-Lun Chang

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self-consciousness and physical attractiveness from a psychological perspective, examining the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self-consciousness and physical attractiveness from a psychological perspective, examining the relationship of physical attractiveness with the three dimensions of self-consciousness.

Design/methodology/approach

The research involved investigating the relationship between self-consciousness and physical attractiveness, focusing on how the three self-consciousness dimensions (i.e., private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness and social anxiety) affected physical attractiveness. Clustering techniques using self-organizing maps of data mining and decision trees were used in this study. The primal concept of clustering entails grouping unsorted and disorganized raw data and arranging data with similar properties into clusters. Classification primarily involves establishing classification models according to the category attributes of existing data. These models can be used to predict the classes of new data and determine interdata relationships and data characteristics.

Findings

Public self-consciousness was most strongly related to physical attractiveness, whereas the other two dimensions exhibited no obvious relationship to physical attractiveness. It may be concluded that people with higher physical attractiveness draw attention from others more easily and are more likely to be evaluated positively, and that they thus tend to be more confident in front of others and less likely to care about the opinions of others. Alternatively, perhaps people with lower public self-consciousness care less about how others view them and have the courage to express themselves, which signifies confidence and increases their physical attractiveness.

Practical implications

This research investigated the importance of self-consciousness that may apply to recruitment in practice. People with low public self-consciousness may have high confidence and efficiency. People have low social anxiety may not be nervous or anxious in public and easy to speak to strangers. This kind of employees are appropriate for the jobs involving team work and interaction such as public relations. Hence, companies can apply our findings to search appropriate employees except the first impression of appearance.

Originality/value

The results revealed that high physical attractiveness is related to low public self-consciousness, whereas low physical attractiveness is related to high public self-consciousness. Good-looking people tend to attract attention from others. The relationship between private self-consciousness and physical attractiveness is non-significant. The relationship between social anxiety and physical attractiveness is non-significant.

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Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Zhuomin Shi, Lufang Wu and Zaoying Kuang

The purpose of this paper is to focus on ecological consumption and test the effect of social value orientation on ecological consumption. What is more, this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on ecological consumption and test the effect of social value orientation on ecological consumption. What is more, this paper explores how Chinese consumers choose between prosocial and non-prosocial products under the influence of Chinese face culture.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors assume that social value orientation will change individual’s ecological consumption through the in-group identification, and simultaneously predict that the influence in pro-self and pro-social consumer groups will vary. Furthermore, Chinese face consciousness will moderate the relationship between ecological consumption and social value orientation. Online research and intercept survey are employed to collect data. In total, 600 questionnaires were distributed.

Findings

The results indicate that pro-social individuals prefer sustainable consumption than pro-self-individuals, and in-group identification mediates the effect of social value orientation on ecological consumption. Interestingly, pro-self-individuals’ behaviors have changed dramatically by the influence of face consciousness.

Originality/value

The authors discovered that social value orientation has a deep impact on ecological consumption through in-group identification. The authors tested and verified the dominance of Chinese face culture. Besides, four key elements of China’s “face” construct are proposed, namely, holism, synergy, synchronicity and dynamics, which enlarge the horizon of the theory of face.

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Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

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Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2014

Michael J. Thompson

To defend the thesis that the base-superstructure hypothesis central to Marxist theory is also central paradigm of the tradition of Critical Theory. This is in opposition…

Abstract

Purpose

To defend the thesis that the base-superstructure hypothesis central to Marxist theory is also central paradigm of the tradition of Critical Theory. This is in opposition to those who see this hypothesis as determinist and eliminating the possibilities for the autonomy of social action. In doing so, it is able to retard and atrophy the critical capacities of subjects.

Design/methodology/approach

Emphasis on the return to a structural-functionalist understanding of social processes that places this version of Critical Theory against the more domesticated forms that consider “discourse ethics” and an “ethic of recognition” as the normative research program for Critical Theory. Also, an analysis of the purpose and logic of functional arguments and their relation to Marx’s concept of “determination” is undertaken.

Findings

The essence of Critical Theory hinges upon the ways that social structures are able to deform and shape structures of consciousness of modern subjects to predispose them to forms of domination and to view the prevailing hierarchical structures of extractive domination as legitimate in some basic sense.

Research limitations/implications

The foundations of Critical Theory need to be rooted in a renewed understanding of the relation between social structure and forms of consciousness. This means a move beyond theories of social practices into the realm of social epistemology as well as the mechanisms of consciousness and their relation to ideology.

Originality/value

Few analyses of the relation between the base and the superstructure or material organization of society and the social-epistemological layer of consciousness delineate the mechanisms involved in shaping consciousness. I undertake an analysis that utilizes insights from the philosophy of mind such as the theory of intentionality as well as the sociological approach to values through Parsons.

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Mediations of Social Life in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-222-7

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Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2015

Michael J. Thompson

To defend the thesis that critical theory has become unable to call into question and challenge the main impulses of modern capitalist societies. The reason for this is…

Abstract

Purpose

To defend the thesis that critical theory has become unable to call into question and challenge the main impulses of modern capitalist societies. The reason for this is that the capacities of language on the one hand and the hermeneutic processes that underlie the process of “recognition” are insufficient to counter the power of socialization to shape subjectivity and the cognitive and evaluative capacities of subjects.

Methodology/approach

I provide a critical reading of the methodology of linguistic and recognitive theories of intersubjectivity by means of a theory of domination derived from Rousseau which shapes the cognitive and epistemic powers of subjects thereby weakening their capacity to be socialized via the media of language and social recognition.

Findings

By divorcing our cognitive ideas about the social world from the social-ontological processes that shape and deform it under capitalism, this brand of critical theory succeeds in sealing off the mechanisms of social domination and power relations that were at the heart of the enterprise from its inception.

Research limitations/implications

Critical theory must move toward a more comprehensive theory of the social totality in order for it to retain its critical character.

Originality/value

The paper questions the main ideas held by the mainstream of critical theory such as its reliance on hermeneutic and linguistic forms of consciousness and social praxis as well as a theoretical reliance on pragmatic theories of mind and Mead’s conception of socialization.

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Globalization, Critique and Social Theory: Diagnoses and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-247-4

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Lance Richard Newey

This paper aims to conceptualize how business and society co-evolve their efforts to maximizing the greatest well-being of the greatest number following a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conceptualize how business and society co-evolve their efforts to maximizing the greatest well-being of the greatest number following a conscious-unconscious, staged, dialectical process.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a conceptual framework linking eight components of well-being (economic, environmental, social, cultural, psychological, spiritual, material and physical), with stages of consciousness and the co-evolution of business and society.

Findings

Stages of consciousness – traditionalist, modernist, post-modernist and integral – moderate both the pace and direction with which business and society co-evolve to the greatest well-being of the greatest number across eight components of well-being.

Research limitations/implications

This is a conceptual framework which integrates existing empirical relationships, but the overall framework itself is yet to be empirically tested.

Practical implications

The whole process of maximizing well-being can become more conscious for both business and society. This requires making unconscious components conscious and becoming conscious of the inseparability of the eight components of well-being as a counter-balanced set.

Social implications

Businesses and societies can maximize well-being across eight inseparable components. But implementing this is a staged process requiring progressing populations through stages of consciousness. Earlier stages lay the platform for a critical mass of people able to integrate the eight components.

Originality/value

Knowledge of well-being is dominated by disciplinary disconnection and bivariate studies; yet, current meta-crises and calls for post-conventional leaders indicate the importance of an integrated multidisciplinary well-being model which explains past efforts of business and society, diagnoses current problems and points towards more viable paths.

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Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Per Nikolaj Bukh, Karina Skovvang Christensen and Anne Kirstine Svanholt

This paper aims to explore how the introduction of new accounting information influences the understandings of cost-consciousness. Furthermore, the paper explores how…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how the introduction of new accounting information influences the understandings of cost-consciousness. Furthermore, the paper explores how managers use accounting information to shape organizational members’ understanding of changes, and how focusing on cost-consciousness influence professional culture within social services.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a case study, drawing on sensemaking as a theoretical lens. Top management, middle management and staff specialists at a medium-sized Danish municipality are interviewed.

Findings

The paper demonstrates how accounting metaphors can be effective in linking cost information and cost-consciousness to operational decisions in daily work practices. Further, the study elucidates how professionalism may be strengthened based on the use of accounting information.

Research limitations/implications

The study is context specific, and the role of accounting in professional work varies on the basis of the specific techniques involved.

Practical implications

The paper shows how managers influence how professionals interpret and use accounting information. It shows how cost-consciousness can be integrated with social work practices to improve service quality.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on how accounting information influences social work. To date, only a few papers have focused on how cost-consciousness can be understood in practice and how it influences professional culture. Further, the study expands the limited accounting metaphor research.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Norizan M. Kassim, Mohamed Zain, Naima Bogari and Khurram Sharif

The purpose of this paper is to examine customer attitudes toward purchasing counterfeit luxury products (ATPCLP) in two cities in two different countries (Saudi Arabia…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine customer attitudes toward purchasing counterfeit luxury products (ATPCLP) in two cities in two different countries (Saudi Arabia and Malaysia) by testing the relationships between the various reasons for purchasing those products: social status insecurity, status consumption and value consciousness.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were distributed conveniently to urban customers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Altogether 658 useable questionnaires were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics, general linear model of univariate analysis of variance and structural equation modeling.

Findings

Quality, price, popularity and status signaling represent the main motivating factors for their brand choices of counterfeit luxury products among the two country groups of customers. As expected, customers' social status insecurity influences their ATPCLP, but not their status consumption. However, status consumption does positively moderates the relationship of their social status insecurity and their ATPCLP. Furthermore, customers' value consciousness influences their ATPCLP and moderates the relationship between status consumption and ATPCLP. The impact of status consumption on ATPCLP depends on the importance one places on the value of the products. However, the authors found no differences in social status insecurity, status consumption and value consciousness, on their ATPCLP among the customers. Some implications and limitations of the results are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The use of convenience sampling and mainly college students (in Saudi Arabia) as respondents represent the main limitations of this study.

Practical implications

The practical implication of this study is to discourage the purchasing of counterfeit luxury products in their respective country Malaysian marketers need to stress that their genuine products are of top quality while Saudi marketers need to stress that their genuine products are of well-known brands that are sourced from well-known countries of origin. Besides, Malaysian marketers need to offer genuine products that are not overly priced or ones that indicate value-for-money while Saudi marketers need to convey the message that their genuine products could help enhance or uplift their customers' social status. In this study, the authors did not find any support for differences in ATPCLP between the two rather different Muslim-majority countries. This could be due to the fact that the majority of the respondents were females in their mid-20s and that both countries have a growing number of young customer base, which makes them particularly attractive target customers for branded/luxury products and, at the same time, easy preys to luxury products counterfeiters. This implies that there are still more opportunities for academics to study the topic or related topics in the future.

Originality/value

As far as the authors know, no one has undertaken a comparative study involving two very different Islamic majority countries (more conservative mono-cultural and mono-ethnicity Saudi Arabia versus less conservative multicultural and multi-ethnicity Malaysia) before.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Huda Khan

Supermarket scans in the contextual non-Western markets (Pakistan and China) revealed that the majority Western consumer products are available in both global (English…

Abstract

Purpose

Supermarket scans in the contextual non-Western markets (Pakistan and China) revealed that the majority Western consumer products are available in both global (English) and the vernacular language (Urdu, Chinese) packaging. The availability of two different packaging raises a question – which is more effective and under what situation. This study aims to address this question by investigating the roles of an internal-oriented disposition (concern for quality) and an external-oriented disposition (social consciousness) on packaging choice, under different consumption situations (conspicuous versus inconspicuous). The conceptual model tested concern for quality as a mediator on the influence of social consciousness on packaging choice, under the moderating effects of conspicuous versus inconspicuous consumption situation.

Design/methodology/approach

Two in-store choice experiments were conducted in Pakistan and China. Shoppers who agreed to participate were first primed to either of the two conditions (conspicuous and inconspicuous). They were then shown two packaging types (global versus local language) on store shelves and asked to pick the preferred packaging. Finally, the participants completed a paper-based questionnaire containing the scale items and demographics variables.

Findings

Participants with high social consciousness preferred the global (English) packaging. The interaction effect of social consciousness and consumption situation moderated the choice. Concern for quality mediated the influence of social consciousness on global packaging preference.

Originality/value

This study extends the research into packaging by considering the mediating relationship and conceptualisation between external-oriented personal antecedent (social consciousness) and internal-oriented disposition (concern for quality), under different consumption (conspicuous versus inconspicuous) situation. The findings will inform brand managers’ packaging strategies in non-Western markets.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Richard C. Pees, Glenda Hostetter Shoop and James T. Ziegenfuss

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual understanding of organizational consciousness that expands the discussion of organizational analysis, and use a case…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual understanding of organizational consciousness that expands the discussion of organizational analysis, and use a case study to apply it in the analysis of a merger between an academic health center and a regional medical center.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the experiences and insights of scholars who have been exploring complex organizational issues in relationship with consciousness.

Findings

Organizational consciousness is the organization's capacity for reflection; a centering point for the organization to “think” and find the degree of unity across systems; and a link to the organization's identity and self‐referencing attributes. It operates at three stages: reflective, social, and collective consciousness.

Research limitations/implications

Translating abstract concepts such as consciousness to an organizational model is complex and interpretive. For now, the idea of organizational consciousness remains mostly a theoretical concept. Empirical evidence is needed to support the theory.

Practical implications

Faced with complicated and compelling issues for patient care, health care organizations must look beyond the analysis of structure and function, and be vigilant in their decisions on where important issues sit on the ladder of competing priorities. Organizational consciousness keeps the organization's attention focused on purpose and unifies the collective will to succeed.

Originality/value

If the paper can come to understand how consciousness operates in organizations, and learn how to apply it in organizational decisions, the pay‐off could be big in terms of leading initiatives for change. The final goal is to use what is learned to improve organizational outcomes.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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