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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2003

Kimberly A Mahaffy

Within the past twenty years, the transition to adulthood has become a burgeoning area of research. The status attainment process, an early model for transition to…

Abstract

Within the past twenty years, the transition to adulthood has become a burgeoning area of research. The status attainment process, an early model for transition to adulthood research, has given way to research focusing on singular outcomes such as completing formal education, leaving home, obtaining employment, forming a union through marriage or cohabitation, and becoming a parent. As young adults continue to delay family formation, some argue that one’s first experience of heterosexual intercourse is also a symbol of adult status (Meier, 2001). Although most scholars agree that these outcomes along with chronological age symbolize being an adult, relatively few empirical studies examine them as inter-dependent transitions. A recent comparison of these indicators by gender, race, and social class is also needed.

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Sociological Studies of Children and Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-180-4

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Russell Spiker, Lawrence Stacey and Corinne Reczek

Purpose: We review theory and research to suggest how research on sexual and gender minority (SGM) population health could more completely account for social class.…

Abstract

Purpose: We review theory and research to suggest how research on sexual and gender minority (SGM) population health could more completely account for social class.

Approach: First, we review theory on social class, gender, and sexuality, especially pertaining to health. Next, we review research on social class among SGM populations. Then, we review 42 studies of SGM population health that accounted for one or more components of social class. Finally, we suggest future directions for investigating social class as a fundamental driver of SGM health.

Findings: Social class and SGM stigma are both theorized as “fundamental causes” of health, yet most studies of SGM health do not rigorously theorize social class. A few studies control socioeconomic characteristics as mediators of SGM health disparities, but that approach obscures class disparities within SGM populations. Only two of 42 studies we reviewed examined SGM population health at the intersections of social class, gender, and sexuality.

Research implications: Researchers interested in SGM population health would benefit from explicitly stating their chosen theory and operationalization of social class. Techniques such as splitting samples by social class and statistical interactions can help illuminate how social class and SGM status intertwine to influence health.

Originality: We synthesize theory and research on social class, sexuality, and gender pertaining to health. In doing so, we hope to help future research more thoroughly account for social class as a factor shaping the lives and health of SGM people.

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Lynn Weber and Deborah Parra-Medina

Scholars and activists working both within and outside the massive health-related machinery of government and the private sector and within and outside communities of…

Abstract

Scholars and activists working both within and outside the massive health-related machinery of government and the private sector and within and outside communities of color address the same fundamental questions: Why do health disparities exist? Why have they persisted over such a long time? What can be done to significantly reduce or eliminate them?

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Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Adolfo R. Mora

Gloria Pritchett – the fiery and caring Latina mother in Modern Family – is believed to recreate cultural and gender stereotypes. This audience study was interested in…

Abstract

Gloria Pritchett – the fiery and caring Latina mother in Modern Family – is believed to recreate cultural and gender stereotypes. This audience study was interested in situating her as an intersectional representation to recognize that numerous social categories coproduce her characterization not just one. Textual analyses of open-ended questions reveal that participants tend to explicitly and exclusively discuss her stereotypes in ethnic and gender terms, with an emphasis on the former. However, a semantic analysis of the words/adjectives used to describe Gloria Pritchett suggested these share meaning across multiple social categories. Some aspects of her representation, like those based on ethnicity and gender (her Latina wisdom) or ethnicity and social class (her social mobility from Colombia to the United States), were found commendable, respectable, and likable. Eventually, the social identities encompassing Gloria Pritchett are taken apart and compounded, which in turn, suggest that her intersectionality was malleable for viewers.

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Media and Power in International Contexts: Perspectives on Agency and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-455-2

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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Catharine H. Warner and Melissa A. Milkie

Purpose – We seek to understand how gender shapes the practice of concerted cultivation in connection to other key social locations of race and class

Abstract

Purpose – We seek to understand how gender shapes the practice of concerted cultivation in connection to other key social locations of race and class.Design/methodology/approach – This quantitative research paper uses multi-level modeling to provide an intersectional analysis of parenting practices across diverse social and institutional settings.Findings – We find gender matters: across three aspects of “concerted cultivation” (involvement in schooling, extracurricular activities, and cultural outings), parents invest more time and resources in girls compared to boys. More importantly, using an intersectional approach, we find distinct racial/ethnic differences in engendering concerted cultivation. Gender differences occur among Black and Hispanic but not white parents’ involvement in their child's schooling. Additionally, parents cultivate girls’ participation in certain kinds of extracurricular activities more so than for boys, but this difference is greatest at the highest socioeconomic levels.Social and practical implications – The ways in which parents’ shape young children's activities and experiences in daily life vary greatly across gender, race, and class statuses.Originality/value – Gender shapes access and exclusion to various social settings across the life course; this paper adds to literature on socialization, incorporating other social statuses into understandings of processes of the social reproduction of inequality. These results are of value to parents, schools, and social scientists.

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Notions of Family: Intersectional Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-535-7

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2014

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Practical and Theoretical Implications of Successfully Doing Difference in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-678-1

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Book part
Publication date: 10 May 2016

Alexandra Allan

To consider how knowledge about social class is produced in research and how it can become obscured from view through certain empathic practices of representation.

Abstract

Purpose

To consider how knowledge about social class is produced in research and how it can become obscured from view through certain empathic practices of representation.

Methodology/approach

A number of data extracts, generated through participant observation and focus group interviews, are reflexively (re)considered in the chapter. These are drawn from an ethnographic study, previously undertaken by the author with a class of 25 young women in one private, selective girls’ school in the United Kingdom.

Findings

Social class was found to be silenced in the accounts which resulted from the research. This relative neglect is considered to have resulted from the primacy given to gender in a feminist project; to an over-emphasised sense of empathy and due to the desire to build and maintain respect and rapport. Strategies of empathic identification and representation should not be evaded altogether, but they need to be carefully considered (how and why are they used and to what effect?) and not taken up too readily, so that researchers don’t inadvertently re-inscribe the inequalities they are seeking to eliminate.

Originality/value

The chapter argues that greater attention needs to be paid to the class-making practices which researchers and participants engage in during and after fieldwork. Social class is brought to the foreground in the analyses presented.

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Gender Identity and Research Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-025-1

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Gender remains a politically charged and powerful ideological social identity dimension that categorically essentializes and reproduces opportunities and limitations in…

Abstract

Gender remains a politically charged and powerful ideological social identity dimension that categorically essentializes and reproduces opportunities and limitations in organizations. Addressed in Chapter 6 are assumptions about gender and ways that gender classifications and gender roles form and spill forth into both work and home life for an overlap of public and private spheres that disadvantage women and privilege men. Furthermore, femininity and masculinity constructs strengthen the power system that undergirds them, reinforces their meanings, and perpetuates behaviors, changing over time, across and within cultures, and over the life course.

In organizations, the glass ceiling metaphor has become a popular representation of inequality in the workplace for women, people of color and sexual minorities; a phenomenon expanded in recent years to include glass walls and glass cliffs to describe advancement barriers. Gender-neutral mindsets and blame-the-victim strategies found in organizations are examined, as well as the breadwinner role and intersectionalities of gender with social identity dimensions of age, ethnicity, and social class. Chapter 6 is divided into these subthemes: gender, roles, femininity, and masculinity; power and gender inequality at work, and effects on women; gender, parenting, and the second shift; the breadwinner role, hegemonic masculinity, and masculinity in crisis; gendered occupations and feminization of career fields; intersectionalities of gender with age, ethnicity, and social class; and shattering schemas with androgyny and transgenderism.

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International Perspectives on Equality, Diversity and Inclusion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-678-1

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Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2011

Judith Lorber

Purpose – This chapter will discuss strategies of feminist research that can best be applied to globalized gender studies.Approach – These strategies work with the premise…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter will discuss strategies of feminist research that can best be applied to globalized gender studies.

Approach – These strategies work with the premise that women and men are not homogeneous categories that can be used for simple comparisons. They are divided by national allegiances, social class statuses, and racial ethnic identities as well as by gender. Individuals have more than one status, and these statuses intersect and impact on each other. When some or all of these statuses are in disadvantaged groups, the result of this intersectionality of disadvantaged statuses is complex inequality. Feminist scholarship has to be able to work with multiple categories and multiple identities in examining the causes of and remedies for complex inequality.

The concept of gender in intersectional research alludes to a social status equivalent to other advantaged and disadvantaged social statuses. I contrast the premises of gender feminism and woman's feminism to show the development of the concept of gender as social structural, rather than just individual, interactive, and relational.

Findings – Useful strategies in the new directions in feminist research that are intersectional and global are the following: using more than one set of opposites, recognizing subjects’ multiple identities and status dilemmas, analyzing the effects of intersectionality on complex inequality, and being aware of the advantages and disadvantages of the researcher's standpoint.

Value – The value of these strategies of multidimensional feminist research is to develop new sources of knowledge and new approaches for effective transnational feminist political activism.

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Analyzing Gender, Intersectionality, and Multiple Inequalities: Global, Transnational and Local Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-743-8

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Book part
Publication date: 10 May 2016

Garth Stahl

To understand how research-participant relationships are formed in research settings through experiences and analyses of content-specific gendered identity practices.

Abstract

Purpose

To understand how research-participant relationships are formed in research settings through experiences and analyses of content-specific gendered identity practices.

Methodology/approach

I draw upon a school-based ethnographically informed study exploring the construction of masculinities among white working-class boys in three schools in South London, United Kingdom between 2009 and 2011. To access participants’ perceptions, I used a methodology of observation, focus groups, semi-structured interviews and visual methods.

Findings

Themes of gendered embodiment, physicality and performance play a part in the formation of relationships in this study. Furthermore, such themes play a role – to varying degrees – in researcher-participant relationship-building. In understanding relationship-building practices, I make connections to my own reflexivity accounting for the multifaceted nature of identities, lifestyles and perspectives present in researcher-participant interaction.

Originality/value

Throughout the fieldwork, constructs of gender, nationality and class all contributed to how relationships were built. In navigating the power relations innate to all relationship-building, I discuss how I capitalised on my outsider status in terms of nationality to neutralise certain elements of class and gender that were normative to my participants, but, simultaneously, draw upon my insider status in terms of knowledge of the locale, humour and clothing which contributed greatly to how the relationships were constructed and maintained.

Details

Gender Identity and Research Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-025-1

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