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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Fiona McCullough, Sian Jones and Daniella Vignali

Identifying the target audience for hot pot snacks and which factors influence their buyer behaviour is vital information for product developers and manufacturers. The…

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Abstract

Identifying the target audience for hot pot snacks and which factors influence their buyer behaviour is vital information for product developers and manufacturers. The reported market research, undertaken at Manchester Metropolitan University, evaluated the effect of changing lifestyles on the growth of the pot snack market and investigated consumer opinion of pot snacks with particular regard to their nutritional status. A consumer questionnaire was used to measure the opinion of pot snacks and frequency of consumption and influences on the growth of the pot snack market. Existing data on snacking habits, household size, increase of working women and changes in society were reviewed. Conclusions from the work confirm that food choice is multi‐factorial and within the pot snack market there is a variety of reasons determining the demand, each influenced by a variety of extrinsic factors. The findings indicate that frequency of consumption is influenced by knowledge and opinion about the nutritional content of the pot snack product, suggesting that consumers now are demanding health as well as convenience.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 105 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Irma Tikkanen, Salla Honkanen and Sanna‐Pauliina Salmela

The purpose of this paper is to construct and describe a snack service model for a comprehensive school.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to construct and describe a snack service model for a comprehensive school.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from the school officials and the pupils by using a focus group method in two comprehensive schools. Moreover, the food service managers of Espoo and Vantaa cities' catering services were theme interviewed. Consequently, a description of the snack service models was conducted and a snack service model for a comprehensive school was constructed.

Findings

A constructed model for serving snacks consists of eight elements: snack products; service process; customers; pricing; procurement of snacks; nutrition recommendations; in‐house control and interest groups.

Research limitations/implications

The constructed snack service model can be utilized as a standard model when serving snacks in a comprehensive school.

Originality/value

The constructed model may act as a reference model for the school catering organisations and the school officials when decisions related to snacks serving are made.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

B. Oogarah‐Pratap and B.J. Heerah‐Booluck

The snacking habits of children can be a cause for concern. Little research has been undertaken on the snacking habits of Mauritian schoolchildren. This study was…

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1786

Abstract

Purpose

The snacking habits of children can be a cause for concern. Little research has been undertaken on the snacking habits of Mauritian schoolchildren. This study was conducted to identify the popular snacks upper primary schoolchildren (8‐12 year old) buy at school. It also aimed at determining the factors that influenced children’s purchase of snacks.

Design/methodology/approach

Twelve primary schools were selected using stratified random sampling. Thirty children from each school were involved. Data collection methods included an interviewer‐administered questionnaire and observation of schoolchildren’s snacking habits during lunch‐time. Canteen sellers were also interviewed to gather information about the most popular snacks and their cost.

Findings

Findings revealed that most of the popular snacks were high in sugar, fat, energy or salt. Snacking habit of schoolchildren was significantly associated with age and gender (p<0.05). Children’s snacking habit seemed to be largely influenced by the cost of snacks, their taste and availability, and the amount of pocket money.

Originality/value

Previous studies on snacking habits have focused on lower primary schoolchildren (5‐7 year old) and adolescents, while this study has focused on the upper primary schoolchildren (8‐12 year old). The findings provide a sound basis for health and education authorities to develop a national policy on the sale of nutritious foods in primary school canteens.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Richu Singla, Moushumi Ghosh and Abhijit Ganguli

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the total polyphenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties of a ready to‐eat snack food prepared from Agaricus bisporous. A…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the total polyphenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties of a ready to‐eat snack food prepared from Agaricus bisporous. A comparison of these properties with the raw, unprocessed mushroom was also carried out.

Design/methodology/approach

Extracts of raw and snack mushrooms (osmotically dehydrated, dried and spiced and following sensorial analysis) were analyzed for antioxidant activities using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging methods. Flavonoids were determined by the method of Jia et al. Total polyphenolics (free and bound) were determined by the Folin‐Ciocalteu method; reducing power and hemolysis inhibition of the extracts were determined by the methods of Oyaizu and Zhang et al.

Findings

Scavenging activity of free extracts of raw and dry snack mushrooms on DPPH radical were 76 per cent and 72 per cent respectively. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the free extracts of raw sample was 2.76 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/100 g and 2.67 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/100 g snack mushroom. Both free and bound polyphenolic contents in mushroom snacks were slightly higher than raw mushrooms, total flavonoids levels decreased marginally in snack mushrooms. Hemolysis inhibition was decreased (marginally) in free extract of snack mushroom as compared to raw mushroom whereas total reducing power of snack mushroom extract increased significantly. The antioxidant status was unaffected following storage of the snack at ambient temperature for up‐to 15 days.

Research limitations/implications

Mushrooms snacks may serve as a good alternative for currently existing snack foods since they retain a significant amount of polyphenolics and antioxidants; mixed with other commonly used snack foods it may provide beneficial health effects to the consumers economically.

Practical implications

A simple, economical process for preparation of Agaricus bisporous snack using sequential application of osmotic dehydration and drying was optimized; the snack mushrooms possessed functional properties comparable to raw, unprocessed mushrooms.

Originality/value

This paper reports for the first time a simple, economical process for preparation of functional snack food from mushrooms.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

MoezAlIslam E. Faris, Ala'a Al-Bakheit, Hayder Hasan, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Haitham Jahrami, Dina Rajab, Afra Afra Almashgouni, Alanood Alshehhi, Asma Aljabry, Mariam Aljarwan, Moza Alnaqbi and Reyad Shaker Obaid

Vending machines (VMs) provide quick access for snack foods and beverages for students during their study days. These vended foods have been reported to affect the…

Abstract

Purpose

Vending machines (VMs) provide quick access for snack foods and beverages for students during their study days. These vended foods have been reported to affect the student's nutritional status and contributing to obesity by increasing the caloric intake. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value of snacks and beverages provided by VM at the university campuses.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional observational study in one large urban university with four campuses was conducted. In total, 55 VMs were found distributed over 50 buildings of the four university campuses. Of the vending slots surveyed, only 57 snacks and beverage food items were found repeated. These items were vended and analyzed using nutrient databases, and their nutritional quality was assessed using nutrient adequacy ratio and nutritional quality score.

Findings

Most vended snacks were salty (77%) and sweet (23%). Neither snacks nor beverages were nutrient-dense, and the majority (65%) of snacks and beverages were calorie-dense, with high contents of sugar, sodium and saturated fat; while they were low in vitamins C and A, calcium, iron, sodium, protein and dietary fibers. None of the vended beverages met the low calorie, low sugars and high-fiber criteria.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the current work is represented in the fact that VM snacks and beverages are not fixed throughout the year days, and exposed to continuous changes, depending on the customers' attitudes and economic and financial considerations related to the operating contractor company and the customer students. Thus, a continuous, long-term evaluation is suggested to be conducted for a more representative and reflective evaluation of the nutritional quality of vended snacks and beverages.

Practical implications

Poor nutritional quality has been found for vended foods. Healthier food options should be provided to improve students' dietary intake.

Social implications

Attention has to be directed toward the nutritional quality of VM foods, and how to provide adolescents and young adults with healthy options.

Originality/value

This is the first study conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC) assessing the nutritional value of vending machine foods in university settings.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Victor Immink, Marcel Kornelis and Ellen Van Kleef

Snacks at work are often of poor dietary quality. The main objective of the current study is to examine the effect of making vegetable snacks available at workplace…

Abstract

Purpose

Snacks at work are often of poor dietary quality. The main objective of the current study is to examine the effect of making vegetable snacks available at workplace meetings on consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

In three between-subjects field experiments conducted at a hospital and three ministries in the Netherlands, with meeting as the unit of condition assignment, attendees were exposed to an assortment of vegetables, varying in vegetable variety and presence of promotional leaflet in study 1 (N = 136 meetings), serving container in study 2 (N = 88 meetings) and additional presence of cookies in study 3 (N = 88 meetings). Consumption of vegetables and cookies was measured at meeting level to assess grams consumed per person.

Findings

Across the three studies, average consumption per meeting attendee was 74 g (SD = 43) for study 1; 78 g (SD = 43) for study 2 and 87 g (SD = 35) for study 3. In the first study, manipulation of perceived variety and information leaflets did not affect intake. In the second study, significantly more vegetables were eaten when they were offered in single sized portions (M = 97 g, SD = 45) versus in a shared multiple portions bowl (63 g, SD = 38) (p < 0.001). In the third study, no effect was found of the additional availability of cookies on vegetable consumption during the meeting.

Practical implications

The present studies show how availability of vegetables at unconventional occasions makes meeting attendants consume considerable portions of vegetables on average. As such, offering healthy snacks at the workplace may be a valuable part of workplace health promotion programs and positively change the “office cake culture”.

Originality/value

Vegetable intake is less than recommended in many countries worldwide. Many snacking occasions are at work, which makes office meetings a potential consumption occasion to encourage vegetable intake. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine whether free availability of vegetable snacks during meetings contributes to their consumption among meeting attendees and under what conditions consumption is optimal.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Marilú Andrea Silva-Espinoza, María del Mar Camacho and Nuria Martínez-Navarrete

A healthy and easy-to-use orange snack obtained from the freeze-dried orange pulp puree is proposed. Once the commercial packaging of the snack has been opened, the effect…

Abstract

Purpose

A healthy and easy-to-use orange snack obtained from the freeze-dried orange pulp puree is proposed. Once the commercial packaging of the snack has been opened, the effect of conventional home storage temperature on its physicochemical properties and on the content of bioactive compounds has been studied. This research aims to recommend the consumer, and therefore the manufacturer, the best conditions for home storage of this product, keeping its nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity, as well as maintaining its colour and crispness.

Design/methodology/approach

The water content, water activity, hygroscopicity, crispness, colour, vitamin C, β-carotene, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were characterised both when the orange snack was newly obtained and after one, two and six months of storage inside zipper bags, at 4 and 20 ºC.

Findings

The results indicated that, in these conditions, the orange snack increased its water content, causing a loss in both its porosity and its characteristic crispness. Nevertheless, the bioactive compounds remained stable throughout the storage period, with the exception of β-carotene, the content of which decreased markedly when the orange snack was stored at 20 ºC.

Originality/value

Few studies have evaluated the stability of food products during home storage. The findings showed that the maximum storage time to ensure a proper texture of the orange snack studied is between two and six months, both at 4 and 20 ºC. However, from the point of view of the conservation of both vitamin C and, especially, of β-carotene, it is recommended that this product be stored in refrigeration.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Emily C. Crofton and Amalia G.M. Scannell

Using a consumer-led approach, the purpose of this research is to examine how consumers perceive new cereal-based snack food concepts using healthy brewers spent grain…

Abstract

Purpose

Using a consumer-led approach, the purpose of this research is to examine how consumers perceive new cereal-based snack food concepts using healthy brewers spent grain (BSG) as a sustainable and functional ingredient.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth laddering interviews based on means–end chain theory were conducted with 40 healthy snack consumers in Dublin, Ireland.

Findings

Four hierarchical value maps (HVM) representing data from each snack concept dimensions were generated. The results identified the crispy crackers concept as the most promising for further development, followed by crispy sticks with dip, fruity biscuits and twisted breadsticks. Consumer cognitions regarding the crispy sticks with dip and fruity biscuits were more dominantly associated with a hedonic orientation, while crispy crackers and twisted breadsticks were more strongly associated with health- related dimensions. The HVMs also identified factors which could potentially prevent the acceptance of these snacks. Although consumers displayed a level of environmental consciousness regarding the perceived packaging type, outcomes also showed that the environmental benefit of using BSG in foods is not viewed as a means to attain a desired end state in the consumers’ mind. Our findings also suggest the rich protein content of BSG is not considered relevant in the context of a cereal snack product.

Practical implications

BSG is an abundant, low-cost, nutritious waste material which is available globally in large quantities. This study provides new actionable consumer insights with important implications for snack manufacturers regarding the design and development of cereal snack foods containing this healthy by-product.

Originality/value

This study contributes to a limited body of literature by illustrating which product characteristics are considered important for consumers when selecting healthy, cereal-based snack foods using BSG as an ingredient.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 22 December 2020

Tashooq Bhat, Syed Zameer Hussain, Bazila Naseer, Abdul Hameed Rather and Shakeel Ahmad Mir

Snack industry is one of the fastest growing food sectors globally, and people are nowadays conscious about intake of healthy snacks on regular basis. There is enormous…

Abstract

Purpose

Snack industry is one of the fastest growing food sectors globally, and people are nowadays conscious about intake of healthy snacks on regular basis. There is enormous variety of ready-to-snacks available in the market. Brown rice though highly nutritious in comparison to polished rice is consumed meagerly by masses. Each raw material/ingredient used in extrusion cooking requires specific control of processing variables to meet acceptable product characteristics and consumer demands, which in turn necessitates the need to optimize the conditions for development of brown-rice-based snacks. The aim of this study was to optimize the extrusion cooking conditions for development of brown-rice-based extrudates.

Design/methodology/approach

Extrusion conditions were optimized through design expert using central composite rotatable design (CCRD) experimental design. The effect of feed moisture (10–22%), screw speed (215–385 rpm) and barrel temperature (95–160 °C) on specific mechanical energy (SME), bulk density (BD), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS) and instrumental color (L*, a*, b*) was evaluated.

Findings

All the system and product responses were significantly (p < 0.01) affected by independent variables. Regression models obtained were highly significant with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.992). The optimum extrusion conditions obtained by numerical optimization for development of snacks were moisture content of 12%, screw speed of 350 rpm and temperature of 133 °C. The vitamin B1 content of brown-rice-based snacks was 0.45 mg/100 (50% of RDA) whereas no vitamin B1 was detected in white-rice-based snacks used as control.

Practical implications

The developed snacks contain 0.45 mg/100 g of vitamin B1. If a person on an average consumes 150 g of snacks in a day, 50% of RDA (1.2 mg/day) for vitamin B1 can be sufficed. Therefore, developed snacks can prove to be a viable vehicle to reduce the vitamin B1 deficiency burden among the target population. Large-scale production and consumption of such type of snacks could improve the nutritional status of vitamin B1 deficient people. Furthermore, it can also provide a good opportunity for snack industry to develop nutritious snacks through utilization of brown rice.

Originality/value

Brown rice flour contains nutrients such as iron, calcium, zinc, sodium and vitamin B1 in appreciable portions and was thus explored for development of nutritious snacks. Moreover, developed snacks recorded an overall acceptability of 4.70 out of 5, which depicts it is acceptable for mass production and consumption.

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2020

Christine E. Walsh, Rebecca Seguin-Fowler, Alice Ammerman, Karla Hanson, Stephanie B. Pitts Jilcott, Jane Kolodinsky, Marilyn Sitaker and Susan Ennett

Snacking contributes to one-quarter of children’s total daily energy intake in the USA, with many snack foods being nutrient-poor and energy-dense. Snacking and sugary…

Abstract

Purpose

Snacking contributes to one-quarter of children’s total daily energy intake in the USA, with many snack foods being nutrient-poor and energy-dense. Snacking and sugary beverage consumption have been identified as potential contributors to childhood overweight and obesity and may play a particularly important role among children from socioeconomically disadvantaged households that generally display higher rates of obesity. This exploratory study investigated associations between consumption of snack foods, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and overweight and obesity in children from low-income households.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from households that participated in a multi-state cost-offset (CO-CSA) community supported agriculture intervention in 2016 and 2017 (n = 305) were analyzed. Fixed effect regression models were used to estimate associations between child monthly consumption of salty snack foods; sweet snack foods and SSBs; and child weight status, accounting for demographic characteristics.

Findings

No associations were found between snack or SSB consumption and child overweight. However, household income was significantly, negatively related to all three consumption variables (Salty snacks: ß = −0.09, SE = 0.04, p = 0.02; Sweet snacks: ß= −0.10, SE = 0.04, p = 0.01; SSB: ß= −0.21, SE = 0.05, p = 0.0001). The results suggest that household income may play an important role in children’s snacking and SSB behaviors among more disadvantaged households.

Practical implications

Factors beyond snack food and SSB consumption should be explored to better understand childhood overweight and obesity, and to inform future obesity interventions.

Originality/value

Socioeconomic disparities in childhood obesity are an ongoing policy-relevant issue within the USA and internationally. This study provides new information about child snacking behaviors in a unique, low-income population and contributes to the evidence base regarding the role household context in shaping child consumption behaviors.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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