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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Houssni El‐Saied, Snaa M. El‐Sawy and Altaf H. Basta

Reports on tests in which barium metaborate pigment and its modified form are prepared, identified by chemical and X‐ray diffraction methods, and specified according to…

Abstract

Reports on tests in which barium metaborate pigment and its modified form are prepared, identified by chemical and X‐ray diffraction methods, and specified according to standard methods. Evaluates the modified barium metaborate as a new filler for paper making by carrying out two series of experiments. Details the results which showed that the efficiency of the filler retention when using modified barium metaborate was higher than that of the other two conventional fillers. Reveals that at relatively low filler addition (2–5 percentage weight), higher improvement in the strength properties can be obtained when using the modified pigment instead of titanium dioxide and kaolin, but observes the reverse (i.e. a detrimental effect) at relatively high filler addition (8–10 percentage weight). Discovers that the optical properties of the modified pigment‐loaded sheets lie between those of titanium dioxide and kaolin. Shows that blending barium metaborate with kaolin or titanium dioxide has a significant effect on strength properties rather than optical properties. Concludes that modified barium metaborate pigment can be successfully used in paper filling applications and that modified barium metaborate pigment‐kaolin blend (80/20 per cent) can be used instead of titanium dioxide as a paper filler.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Umakant L. Tupe, Sachin D. Babar, Sonali P. Kadam and Parikshit N. Mahalle

Internet of Things (IoT) is an up-and-coming conception that intends to link multiple devices with each other. The aim of this study is to provide a significant analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

Internet of Things (IoT) is an up-and-coming conception that intends to link multiple devices with each other. The aim of this study is to provide a significant analysis of Green IoT. The IoT devices sense, gather and send out significant data from their ambiance. This exchange of huge data among billions of devices demands enormous energy. Green IoT visualizes the concept of minimizing the energy consumption of IoT devices and keeping the environment safe.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper attempts to analyze diverse techniques associated with energy-efficient protocols in green IoT pertaining to machine-to-machine (M2M) communication. Here, it reviews 73 research papers and states a significant analysis. Initially, the analysis focuses on different contributions related to green energy constraints, especially energy efficiency, and different hierarchical routing protocols. Moreover, the contributions of different optimization algorithms in different state-of-the-art works are also observed and reviewed. Later the performance measures computed in entire contributions along with the energy constraints are also checked to validate the effectiveness of entire contributions. As the number of contributions to energy-efficient protocols in IoT is low, the research gap will focus on the development of intelligent energy-efficient protocols to build up green IoT.

Findings

The analysis was mainly focused on the green energy constraints and the different robust protocols and also gives information on a few powerful optimization algorithms. The parameters considered by the previous research works for improving the performance were also analyzed in this paper to get an idea for future works. Finally, the paper gives some brief description of the research gaps and challenges for future consideration that helps during the development of an energy-efficient green IoT pertaining to M2M communication.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that reviews 65 research papers and states the significant analysis of green IoT.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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