Search results

1 – 10 of over 3000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Chiara Burlina and Eleonora Di Maria

This paper aims to provide a snapshot of various countries’ contributions to value produced along global value chains (GVCs). It focusses on manufacturing activities and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a snapshot of various countries’ contributions to value produced along global value chains (GVCs). It focusses on manufacturing activities and their evolution over time, in the context of GVC regionalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The Trade in Value Added (TiVA) and World Integrated Trade Solution databases for the period of 2005-2015 were used to explore the case of Italy and its industries’ specialisations (Made in Italy): fashion, furniture, automotive and machinery traditionally organised into clusters. Various analyses were used to show the dynamics of gross import–export and imported–exported value-added. Moreover, the revealed comparative advantage index was computed to test whether the Made in Italy sector remains a source of competitive advantage for Italy within GVCs.

Findings

The results highlight how the geography of value-added is changing over time, with growing importance placed on the countries close to Italy and with a different pace according to each considered GVC.

Originality/value

The paper applied new methods to compare trade and analyse value-added dynamics through a recent database released by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development within the TiVA initiative that is useful for scholars and policymakers.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Marco Bettiol, Chiara Burlina, Maria Chiarvesio and Eleonora Di Maria

Defined as local manufacturing systems, industrial districts have been recognized as particularly important for the location of firms’ manufacturing activities intertwined…

Abstract

Defined as local manufacturing systems, industrial districts have been recognized as particularly important for the location of firms’ manufacturing activities intertwined with innovation processes. The debate on the internationalization of production has stressed the low value related to manufacturing within value chain activities (smile framework), emphasizing the need to focus on high value-added activities (R&D or marketing). Following multinational enterprises’ internationalization strategies, also district firms have progressively offshored their production phases in the past years. However, recent studies focused on backshoring have revamped the attention on the domestic control of production for firms’ competitiveness. This chapter explores district firms’ location choices for manufacturing activities between local and global. Based on an empirical analysis of about 260 Italian district firms specialized in mechanics, furniture, and fashion and supported by a case study investigation, our results show that despite district internationalization processes, a non-negligible amount of firms still carry out – in-house or through outsourcing – production activities at district level. Larger firms couple district production and long-term upstream outsourced internationalization activities. The district system confirms its role of pooling specialized competences and product know-how, being decisive for firms’ innovation and responsiveness to national and international markets. Backshoring, instead, is a very limited phenomenon and linked to upgrading strategies.

Details

Breaking up the Global Value Chain
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-071-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Stephen Hynes and Cathal O’Donoghue

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-570-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Abstract

Details

Breaking up the Global Value Chain
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-071-6

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

Giuseppe Anastasi, Marco Conti, Enrico Gregori, Andrea Passarella and Luciana Pelusi

Pervasive services and smart environments are becoming more and more popular as an ever‐increasing number of people enjoys these services typically by means of portable…

Abstract

Pervasive services and smart environments are becoming more and more popular as an ever‐increasing number of people enjoys these services typically by means of portable devices. These devices are battery‐fed and, thus, energy efficiency is a critical factor for the deployment of pervasive services. In this paper we focus on multimedia streaming services for mobile users. Specifically, we consider a scenario where mobile users with Wi‐Fi devices access the Internet to receive audio files from a remote streaming server. We propose a proxybased architecture and an energy‐efficient streaming protocol that minimize the energy consumption of the Wi‐Fi interface at the mobile device, while guaranteeing the real‐time constraints of the audio streaming. The experimental analysis performed on a prototype implementation shows that our solution allows an energy saving ranging from 76% to 91% of the total consumption due to the network interface. Moreover, it also preserves a good user‐level Quality of Service.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Tobias Otterbring

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of employee-displayed smiling on customers’ affective states (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) and satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of employee-displayed smiling on customers’ affective states (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) and satisfaction. Building on the stimulus-organism-response framework and theories of emotional contagion and feelings-as-information, the main hypothesis was that a smiling (vs non-smiling) employee significantly increases customer satisfaction through the mediating influence of pleasure.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a quasi-experimental two-group between-subjects design. A total of 210 customers at a large retail bank had a brief service encounter at the store entrance with a smiling (vs non-smiling) bank teller. Customers then went into the bank to do what they came to do. Before leaving the bank, customers completed a survey that included demographic information, affect (pleasure, arousal, and dominance), and measures of customer satisfaction.

Findings

A smiling (vs non-smiling) employee had a significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. This effect was mediated by pleasure, but also, to a weaker extent, by dominance. These results contradict previous claims that smiling-induced emotional contagion does not remain throughout the completion of a service encounter.

Practical implications

Managers should encourage, and potentially train, employees to act in ways associated with positive emotions. Managers could also hire employees based on how good they are at acting and expressing themselves in a genuinely positive manner and create a pleasant store atmosphere so that the feelings and behaviors displayed by frontline employees are genuine rather than inauthentic.

Originality/value

This is the first experimental field study to examine the isolated effect that employee-displayed smiling has on customers’ affective states and satisfaction. The results provide more direct evidence for the psychological processes justified by emotional contagion and feelings-as-information theories. Furthermore, the finding that dominance mediates the smiling-satisfaction link has never been shown before.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Ruijuan Wu, Xiaoqian Ou and Yan Li

The objective of this study is to examine the effect of human model facial presentation (a smiling facial expression vs a neutral facial expression vs no facial…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to examine the effect of human model facial presentation (a smiling facial expression vs a neutral facial expression vs no facial presentation) on consumers' approach behavior and to determine the mechanism and boundary conditions behind such effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The research consisted of four laboratory experiments.

Findings

The results of four studies showed that a smiling facial expression led to the highest score for approach behavior. Pleasure and arousal mediated the effect of facial presentation on approach behavior. In the relationship between facial presentation and approach behavior, the moderating effects of emotional receptivity and the situation were significant. To be specific, for participants with high emotional receptivity, smiling facial expressions led to the highest approach behavior; for participants with low emotional receptivity, neutral expressions led to the highest approach behavior. In a browsing situation, the approach behavior of participants in response to a smiling facial expression was the highest. However, no significant differences were found in approach behavior under the three conditions regarding a purchasing situation.

Originality/value

This study supplements the literature on human model presentation and enriches the study of facial expressions.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 October 2008

Magnus Söderlund and Sara Rosengren

The purpose of this paper is to examine if the service worker's display of smiles in the service encounter has an effect on customer satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine if the service worker's display of smiles in the service encounter has an effect on customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design was used in which participants (N=220) were randomly allocated to one of four service encounters. Two variables were manipulated; the service worker with whom the participant interacted had either a neutral facial expression or a smiling facial expression, and the service worker was either male or female.

Findings

The smiling service worker produced a higher level of customer satisfaction than the neutral service worker, regardless of the sex of the service worker (and the sex of the participant). In addition, the results indicate that this outcome involved both emotional contagion and affect infusion.

Originality/value

This paper extends the service literature's discourse on the impact of the service worker's smile behavior on customer satisfaction by including intermediate variables such as appraisals, emotions, and the attitude toward the service worker.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Estella W. Chizhik, Alexander W. Chizhik, Catherine Close and Margaret Gallego

The researchers developed a model of mentoring student teachers, known as Shared Mentoring in Learning Environments (SMILE), to provide opportunities for classroom…

Abstract

Purpose

The researchers developed a model of mentoring student teachers, known as Shared Mentoring in Learning Environments (SMILE), to provide opportunities for classroom teachers to build shared understanding with university field supervisors. The purpose of this paper is to compare teaching efficacy of those student teachers who matriculated through the SMILE approach with mentoring student teachers who matriculated through a traditional approach to mentoring and identifying aspects of SMILE that may have contributed to the development of teacher efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 29 student teachers participated in the SMILE model of supporting student teaching, and 29 student teachers (comparison group) were provided with a traditional support structure. At the start and end of their one-year post-baccalaureate credential program, all student teachers completed a teaching efficacy questionnaire. During the last month of the teacher-credential program, all student teachers were interviewed in focus groups regarding the quality of their student-teaching mentoring. In addition, the researchers asked classroom teachers in the SMILE cohort to complete a questionnaire, identifying specific strengths and weaknesses of the SMILE model of mentoring student teachers.

Findings

Student teachers in the SMILE cohort improved their teaching efficacy in comparison with student teachers in a traditional model of support. SMILE student teachers appreciated critical feedback, while the comparison group participants focused on whether feedback was positive or negative. In addition, SMILE student teachers attributed their development of instructional skills to the mentoring process from classroom teachers and university supervisors, while comparison group participants attributed their development as teachers mainly to their classroom teachers who modeled effective instructional strategies. SMILE classroom teachers made reference to how particular aspects of the model (e.g. sequencing and lesson study) contributed to both student- and mentor-teacher development.

Originality/value

The SMILE approach to mentoring student teachers facilitated collaboration between university field supervisors and classroom teachers in joint mentoring of future teachers into their profession, a rare occurrence in teacher education programs. Joint mentoring led to improved teaching efficacy among student teachers.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Jasmina Ilicic and Stacey M. Brennan

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and examine the effect of a celebrity’s eye gaze on self-celebrity connection. A celebrity’s direct (vs averted) eye gaze can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and examine the effect of a celebrity’s eye gaze on self-celebrity connection. A celebrity’s direct (vs averted) eye gaze can be used as a tactic in social media posts to increase self-celebrity connection and behavioral intentions. Examining the effectiveness of a celebrity’s eye gaze is important, as celebrities regularly use social media to manage their brand image and to build a relationship with consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 examines the effect of a celebrity’s eye gaze (direct vs averted) on self-celebrity connection. Study 2 investigates the role of celebrity authenticity in explaining the effect of a celebrity’s eye gaze on consumer–celebrity brand relationships. Study 3 examines the moderating role of a non-Duchenne smile (fake, social smile) in diluting the effect of a celebrity’s direct eye gaze on self-celebrity connection and the downstream consequences on behavioral intentions.

Findings

The findings from Study 1 indicate that a celebrity’s direct (averted) eye gaze strengthens (weakens) self-celebrity connection. Study 2 provides evidence of celebrity authenticity as the explanation for stronger consumer–celebrity connection when a celebrity is featured with a direct eye gaze. The results of Study 3 show that a fake smile in a celebrity’s social media posts can weaken relationships with and behavioral intentions toward celebrities with a direct eye gaze.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited, as it focuses only on eye gaze and smiles as non-verbal cues depicted in celebrity images on social media.

Practical implications

This paper has important implications for celebrities, celebrity brand managers (including digital/social media marketing managers and public relations professionals) and advertisers. Celebrities, celebrity brand managers and advertisers should develop social media posts that can strengthen consumer–celebrity relationships and positively influence behaviors toward the celebrity through: 1) ensuring that photographs are taken with the celebrity looking directly into the camera at the target (audience); and 2) avoiding posting images of a celebrity’s direct eye gaze with a non-Duchenne (fake) smile.

Originality/value

This paper introduces and provides evidence of a celebrity’s direct eye gaze–self-celebrity relationship effect. Tactics, such as eye gaze, can strengthen consumer–celebrity relationships, which is crucial in building brand equity and in increasing financial value for the celebrity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000