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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Hanna Berg, Magnus Söderlund and Annika Lindström

The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer response to pictures of smiling models in marketing, focusing on the roles of emotional contagion from the smiling models…

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2264

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer response to pictures of smiling models in marketing, focusing on the roles of emotional contagion from the smiling models and the perceived typicality of marketing with smiling models.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports the findings from three experimental studies, comparing consumer response to two versions of an advertisement (Study 1) and a packaging design (Study 2 and 3), including either a picture of a smiling or a non-smiling model. To measure consumer response, a combination of self-report questionnaires and eye-tracking methodology was used.

Findings

The pictures of smiling models produced more consumer joy and more positive attitudes for the marketing. The positive effects on attitudes were mediated by consumer joy, and the effects on consumer joy were mediated by the perceived typicality of the marketing with smiling models.

Originality/value

Despite the ubiquity of photos of smiling faces in marketing, very few studies have isolated the effects of the smile appeal on consumer response to marketing objects. By comparing marketing where the same model is shown smiling or with a neutral facial expression, the positive effects were isolated. The roles of emotional contagion and perceived typicality in this mechanism were also examined and implications of the findings for research and practitioners are discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Catarina Peixoto Carvalho and Antonio Azevedo

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of glamour, scopophilia and self-sexualisation in luxury celebrity endorsement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of glamour, scopophilia and self-sexualisation in luxury celebrity endorsement.

Design/methodology/approach

In step 1, an experimental study was conducted with 100 respondents assessing the response towards manipulated print ad stimuli operationalizing the influence (in general terms) of lay out, endorser’s beauty pattern, body language (cool, smile appeal, sex appeal and disruptive), gazing and landscape. In step 2, respondents evaluated their response towards five perfume print ads retrieved from real advertising campaigns with different brand personalities (DKNY, Moschino, Chanel, Gucci and Boss).

Findings

The ideal copy strategy is: a couple of brunette Caucasian endorsers; “close-up” photo; sexy body language; indirect smiling gaze; and urban landscape. Multiple regression models were built for each ad/brand (personality) in order to predict the willingness to pay for a bottle of perfume.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests a holistic theoretical framework describing the influence of celebrity characteristics, advertising copy strategy, social-cultural trends and brand variables in the advertising processing.

Practical implications

Advertising copywriters and brand managers must control the role of glamour and the self-consciousness of women seduction power in branding advertising.

Social implications

Glamour, scopophilia or self-sexualisation are three different concepts which have a lot of sociological implications because they influence the way as the society perceive the role of women as endorsers in advertising, but also in other life dimensions.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in the literature, since this paper make an innovative analysis of the influence of these recent post-modernist socio-cultural trends.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Christine Mathies, Tung Moi Chiew and Michael Kleinaltenkamp

While researchers in other disciplines seek to determine the impact that humour has in personal interactions, studies of humour in service delivery are lacking. The…

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1226

Abstract

Purpose

While researchers in other disciplines seek to determine the impact that humour has in personal interactions, studies of humour in service delivery are lacking. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether it is beneficial to deliberately use humour in service encounters.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a comprehensive review of humour research in multiple disciplines to assess the applicability of their key findings to the service domain. By establishing the antecedents, types, and consequences of humour, the authors build a framework and propositions to help service researchers uncover the potential of injecting humour into service interactions.

Findings

The authors find that using humour in service encounters is an ingenious affiliative behaviour which strengthens rapport between service employees and their customers. Humour also permits frontline service employees to better cope with the emotional challenges of their work, thus promising to reduce emotional labour and increase well-being. The effectiveness of service recovery efforts may also grow if employees use humour successfully to soften unpleasant emotional reactions and accept responsibility.

Originality/value

The authors explore cross-disciplinary humour research to apply the findings to the use of humour in service encounters. The authors also attempt to identify situations in which humour usage is most promising or beneficial, as well as its main beneficiaries.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1925

The announcement of their Annual Conference which has been made by the Library Association gives promise of a meeting of quite unusual interest and value. The programme…

Abstract

The announcement of their Annual Conference which has been made by the Library Association gives promise of a meeting of quite unusual interest and value. The programme has been shorn of unnecessary redundancies and every subject upon it should lead to fruitful discussion. The only point in connection with the programme which appears to demand consideration is whether in all cases the papers should be read. There are several objections. Such papers occupy a lot of time, are not sufficiently dramatic to be interesting in themselves, however valuable the subject matter may be, and too often it must be confessed they are read in a manner which induces somnolence rather than energetic discussion. It is the exchange of opinion across the floor that matters at a Conference, We hope, therefore, that in certain cases the method of taking papers as read and requiring their writers to speak to them briefly may be followed.

Details

New Library World, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Giuliana Isabella and Valter Afonso Vieira

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emotional contagion theory in print ads, and expand the literature of smiling to different type of smiles and gender…

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2221

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emotional contagion theory in print ads, and expand the literature of smiling to different type of smiles and gender congruency. Emotional contagion happens when an emotion is transferred from a sender to a receiver by the synchronization of emotions from the emitter. Drawing on emotional contagion theory, the authors expand this concept and propose that smiles in static facial expressions influence product evaluation. They suggest that false smiles do not have the same impact as genuine smiles on product evaluation, and the congruence between the model gender–product in a static ad and the gender of the viewer moderates the effects.

Design/methodology/approach

In Experiment 1, subjects were randomly assigned to view one of the two ad treatments to guard against systematic error (e.g. bias). In Experiment 2, it was investigated whether viewing a static ad featuring a model with a false smile can result in a positive product evaluation as was the case with genuine smiles (H3). In Experiment 3, it was assumed that when consumers evaluate an ad featuring a smiling face, the facial expression influences product evaluation, and this influence is moderated by the congruence between the gender of the ad viewer and the product H gender of the model in the ad.

Findings

Across three experiments, the authors found that the model’s facial expression influenced the product evaluation. Second, they supported the association between a model’s facial expression and mimicry synchronization. Third, they showed that genuine smiles have a higher impact on product evaluation than false smiles. This novel result enlarges the research on genuine smiles to include false smiles. Fourth, the authors supported the gender–product congruence effect in that the gender of the ad’s reader and the model have a moderating effect on the relationship between the model’s facial expression and the reader’s product evaluation.

Originality/value

Marketing managers would benefit from understanding that genuine smiles can encourage positive emotions on the part of consumers via emotional contagion, which would be very useful to create a positive effect on products. The authors improved upon previous psychological theory (Gunnery et al., 2013; Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006) showing that a genuine smile results in higher evaluation scores of products presented in static ads. The theoretical explanation for this effect is the genuine smile, which involves contraction of both zygomatic major and orbicularis oculi muscles. These facial muscles can be better perceived and transmit positive emotions (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006).

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2019

Chi Pham and Felix Septianto

This paper aims to investigate how to improve the effectiveness of charitable advertising by matching emotional appeal (happy-faced vs sad-faced beneficiary) and message…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how to improve the effectiveness of charitable advertising by matching emotional appeal (happy-faced vs sad-faced beneficiary) and message framing (recognition vs request) within advertising messages.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments examining real donation allocations were conducted. Study 1 established the “match-up” effect between advertising image and message. Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 as well as testing the mediating role of hope and sympathy.

Findings

The authors provide empirical evidence that consumers allocate a greater donation amount to a charity when they see an image of a sad-faced child combined with a request message (e.g. “please donate”), or an image of a happy-faced child combined with a recognition message (e.g. “thank you”). Notably, these effects are mediated by the emotions of hope and sympathy, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

This research highlights the importance of matching images of beneficiaries with the appropriate advertising copy. Depending on whether a charity seeks to position itself in a positive perspective to evoke hope, or alternatively, portray itself in relation to a sadder landscape that elicits sympathy, the respective choice of recognition or request messages can help boost donation outcomes.

Practical implications

Charities and non-profit organizations can develop more effective charitable advertising by purposively matching specific emotional appeals and message framings when designing advertisements.

Originality/value

The research illustrates a novel mechanism that shows when and how combining image and message can influence the effectiveness of charitable advertising.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Marine Kergoat, Thierry Meyer and Alain Merot

The present study aims to further examine the persuasive effect of pictures in a print ad according to the recipient’s ability to process the information and to observe to…

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2348

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to further examine the persuasive effect of pictures in a print ad according to the recipient’s ability to process the information and to observe to what extent the presence of a picture could negatively influence recipients’ attitude toward the ad’s verbal claim.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were designed to manipulate the presence vs absence of an attractive/unattractive picture, the kind of verbal claims (affectively based vs rationally based) and the recipient’s ability to process the ad (cognitive load vs no cognitive load).

Findings

Main findings showed that the presence of an attractive picture elicited an unfavorable attitude toward the functional verbal claim when recipients were not cognitively charged. Furthermore, it proved to be a mediator of the influence of pictures on attitude toward the ad. The positive influence of an attractive picture on product evaluation and purchase intention was greater under a cognitive load but showed contrasting results for price perceptions. For the unattractive picture, cognitive load was found to be a moderator only when recipients had to infer the product price.

Research limitations/implications

The present research emphasized the negative influence of attractive pictures on functional verbal claims and the moderating role of cognitive load on pictorial stimuli either acting as peripheral or central cues in the persuasive process.

Practical implications

Practitioners may want to consider that an attractive picture in advertising is not always the best route for persuasion, especially when the verbal ad content emphasizes the product’s properties.

Originality/value

The present study provides new insights regarding the role of pictures in advertising persuasive effectiveness. Until now, no research had addressed the extent to which the presence of a picture could affect processing of an ad’s verbal claims. Additionally, the present study expands research on persuasive communication and affirms the necessity of more intensively investigating the role of pictures in advertising under the rubric of information processing level.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Emmanuel Mogaji, Barbara Czarnecka and Annie Danbury

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to analyse the use of emotional appeals in business-to-business (B2B) bank advertisements and to understand business owners…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to analyse the use of emotional appeals in business-to-business (B2B) bank advertisements and to understand business owners’ perceptions of such appeals.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1,834 print advertisements collected from British newspapers were content analysed. In Study 2, semi-structured interviews with 17 business owners operating a business current account with a British bank were carried out.

Findings

Emotional appeals are embedded in B2B financial services advertisements, and business owners acknowledge the presence of emotional appeals; however, the perceived congruency between emotional appeal and financial services could not be established as participants reported a largely utilitarian, need- and benefit-driven decision-making process.

Research limitations/implications

Accurately measuring emotions aroused through advertisements is considered a limitation. In addition, the sample of participants considered for this research project was small and medium-sized business owners.

Practical implications

Emotional appeals should be used in conjunction with detailed rational information about financial products, as emotional appeals only arouse interest. Relationship is considered crucial in capitalising on the emotionally appealing advertisements. Customers must feel appreciated and loyalty should be rewarded.

Originality/value

The paper responds to numerous calls for more research into the role of emotional influences on the relationships in a B2B context and on the behaviour of business customers.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2020

Jihye Park and Arim Kim

This study aims to examine the following issues: whether consumers use a dog’s facial expressions and gaze on a product’s packaging to interpret the emotions of a dog and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the following issues: whether consumers use a dog’s facial expressions and gaze on a product’s packaging to interpret the emotions of a dog and evaluate product quality and how owner identification with the dog moderates the effect of a dog’s facial expressions on product evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

A field study and three lab experiments were conducted to examine the moderating roles of a dog’s gaze on the product package (Study 1) and owner–dog identification (Study 2) in the effect of facial expressions of a dog on product evaluations.

Findings

Results showed that the facial expressions of a dog presented on the product package influenced the perceived mood of a dog and product quality evaluation. The effects of the facial expressions were strengthened when the dog looked at the front. Furthermore, those who were more likely to identify with their dog tended to be more responsive to the dog with a smiling face and evaluated the product quality more positively than those who were less likely to identify with their dog.

Practical implications

Marketing practitioners in the pet industry can use the findings of this study to select and place an appropriate pet image on the product package. Happy facial expressions and the direct gaze of a pet can influence positive evaluations of a product and, as a result, increase the purchase intention. Product managers also can place words, phrases or images on the product package that highlight a dog as an inseparable part of the owner’s everyday life and as a representation of his/her identity. Emphasizing the owner’s dog as an extension of him/herself or a part of his/her identities can encourage the active processing of a dog’s facial expressions on the product package and the positive evaluation of a product.

Originality/value

The present work adds valuable empirical findings to the limited marketing literature for the pet-related industry. The results of the experiments showed how consumers process the facial expressions and gaze of a dog and use them to infer the quality of a product. Furthermore, the findings extend prior literature reporting that dog owners with a greater identification are more likely to humanize their pet dogs and develop empathetic abilities.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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