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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Nasir Azis, Muslim Amin, Syafruddin Chan and Cut Aprilia

The purpose of this study is to investigate how smart tourism technologies and memorable tourism experiences affect tourist satisfaction and tourist destination loyalty.

1581

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how smart tourism technologies and memorable tourism experiences affect tourist satisfaction and tourist destination loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed, 360 were returned (60% response rate) and a covariance-based structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results of this study explain that smart tourism technologies and memorable tourism experiences play essential roles in enhancing tourist satisfaction and tourist destination loyalty.

Practical implications

This study specifies that tourists have pleasant memories and are satisfied at a tourist destination; as a result, they are more likely to revisit and recommend a tourist destination to their friends, family and other tourists. If a tourist has a negative experience with smart city info-structure facilities, a tourist might reach an overall conclusion to not revisit or recommend the location to other tourists.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence to support the importance of smart tourism technologies and memorable tourism experiences in enhancing tourist satisfaction and tourist destination loyalty.

研究目的

本论文旨在研究智慧旅游科技和难忘的旅游体验如何影响游客满意度和游客对目的地的忠诚。

研究设计/方法/途径

共600份问卷发放, 并收回360份数据(回应率为60%), 本论文采样基于协方差的结构方程模型以测验假设。

研究结果

研究结果表明智慧旅游科技和难忘的旅游体验对增强游客满意度和游客对目的地的忠诚度起到至关重要的作用。

研究实践启示

本论文证实游客有着美好的旅游回忆与对旅游目的地满意, 因此, 他们更愿意重游以及向他们的朋友、家人、以及其他游客推荐这个目的地。如果游客对智慧城市信息基础建设有不好的体验, 那么他们则会决定不会重游或者推荐这个城市给其他游客。

研究原创性/价值

本论文为证实智慧旅游科技和难忘的旅游体验对加强游客满意度和游客对目的地忠诚度的至关重要的作用方面, 提供了强有力的实践证实。

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Francisco Femenia-Serra, José F. Perles-Ribes and Josep A. Ivars-Baidal

This paper aims to contrast the expectations placed on the smart destination as a theoretical management approach with the reality of emergent tech-savvy tourism demand by…

4141

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contrast the expectations placed on the smart destination as a theoretical management approach with the reality of emergent tech-savvy tourism demand by examining the response of this segment to three critical dimensions of technology use in the context of smart destinations. Tech-savvy tourists are here represented by highly educated Spanish millennial tourists.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained through an online survey and analysed through descriptive techniques and exploratory factor analysis using SPSS. Literature review was critical for setting the foundations of the research in this novel context.

Findings

Results suggest the existence of a gap between the smart destination theoretical expectations and created hype and the real response of the examined demand in the three main scopes for this tourist-smart destination technology-based relationship, namely, mobile technology use, data sharing for personalised experiences and smart technologies for enhanced experiences.

Research limitations/implications

Convenience sampling was used, and the results of the study cannot be generalised to all millennial tourists. The research is a first approximation to the interrelationship between tourists and smart destinations.

Practical/implications

Tourists’ role and experiences mediated by information and communication technologies (ICTs) are decisive in smart destinations. Destination Management Organisations (DMOs), through their policies and actions, ought to take into account the limited predisposition of tourists in using mobile devices, sharing data and using smart technologies for their experiences. Privacy concerns appear to have special relevance for tourists and, therefore, for the future of smart destinations.

Originality/value

The findings offer relevant insights for smart destinations from a neglected angle hitherto, as they introduce several interesting nuances which do not match entirely the fast track taken by institutions, media and academia. This is critical for better understanding tourists in the current panorama, for DMOs and for the theoretical foundations of smart tourism. Besides, the exploratory data analysis reveals potential dimensions of millennials’ behaviour, which can be useful for further investigations.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Francisco Javier Ballina

Smart tourism (ST) needs the development of smart business. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the future of the smart component of tourism companies, what their…

1505

Abstract

Purpose

Smart tourism (ST) needs the development of smart business. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the future of the smart component of tourism companies, what their perspectives are and what factors can help to accelerate it.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 133 managers of tourist companies is the basis of the empirical information. The study was a personal survey carried out during FITUR 2019 International Tourism Fair of Madrid. The main element of the study is the future development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and smart tourism (ST) in business.

Findings

The results indicate that there is little development at present of the smart business eco-system and that development will continue to be slow in the future. Moreover, this is not a critical issue in the agendas of companies. It was found that tourists pressure tourism through the extensive use of their smartphones, but only at the level of tourism resources. Furthermore, it will be the consolidation of the smart tourism destination that marks the medium and long-term design of smart business.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations concern the problems of a sampling procedure. Firstly, it operates with a database of managers’ opinions; secondly, there are specificities of each company in particular.

Practical implications

The design of the smart tourism destination must incorporate the integration of tourism companies, both with a useful vision of ICTs towards the creation of experiences.

Originality/value

Research on smart business tourism is very scarce compared to smart destination and smart tourists. Also, the data are supported by managers of important tourism companies, as their companies are present at FITUR.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Chung Shing Chan, Mike Peters and Birgit Pikkemaat

The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceptions of visitors in terms of multiple aspects of smart cities to allow wise decisions to be made about smart tourist

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceptions of visitors in terms of multiple aspects of smart cities to allow wise decisions to be made about smart tourist destinations by municipal governments and tourism authorities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes a sample of inbound visitors (n=205) from Hong Kong as an empirical questionnaire-based survey on visitors’ perceptions of these smart city attributes, which are collected from literature, and framed in Cohen’s Smart City Wheel.

Findings

This paper identifies the distinctive factors for branding Hong Kong as a smart city. The results from the factor analysis identify four factors for determining what a smart city is from the perspective of visitors, namely, the quality of a smart society: energy consumption in an urban environment, smart city governance and smart city livelihood. The first two factors further become the determinants of a successful smart city brand considered by visitors, which contribute to their locational decisions and thus the strategies and policies of smart destination branding.

Research limitations/implications

The results obtained can serve as insights for tourism policy makers and destination marketers when considering significant information and communication technology, or other smart and sustainable attributes for city branding (e.g. Buhalis and Amaranggana, 2014; Marine-Roig and Anton Clavé, 2015), as well as common investment and resource allocation for shared benefits in similar metropolises.

Practical implications

The smartness factors represent important dimensions of urban smartness as prioritized areas for further development, innovation and marketing of tourism industries and enterprises in Hong Kong, as a mature urban destination incorporating the branding of a proposed smart district as a strategy of urban development.

Originality/value

Smart urban development and tourism development have increasingly become inseparable, especially when visitors utilize cities as tourist destinations but share other urban resources and spaces with local citizens. Unlike the development of smart tourist attractions, smart tourist destinations should have a wider scope of smartness. A smart tourist destination may carry similar and overlapping characteristics of smart cities, which may be interpreted by visitors and may eventually affect their perceived image of a city.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2018

Pedro Liberato, Elisa Alen and Dalia Liberato

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the increasing importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in smart tourism destinations, in their…

11114

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the increasing importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in smart tourism destinations, in their integration in the activity of the tourism companies, and in their interaction with visitors/tourists. In summary, it is intended to evaluate in the city of Porto how the use of technology before, during and after the visit influences the tourist experience.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors empirically investigate the importance of using ICTs during tourism experience, assess the access/availability of ICT at the destination and its importance in tourist’s decisions. It is analyzed if the applications and/or information available on the internet are important and positively influence the tourism experience in Porto, that is, the degree of tourist satisfaction. The empirical evidence is based on a quantitative analysis, using a data set involving 423 tourists in the city of Porto.

Findings

The importance of the internet access at the destination, especially in places like airports and hotels, since most tourists are primarily using their mobile devices and computers during the trip, and the existing information technologies available in the destination (internet, smartphones or other mobile devices and applications) are considered very important in explaining tourists’ experience.

Originality/value

This study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the technological strategies, providing useful information for destination management, discussing innovation in tourism, and proposing a framework that empirically evaluates how technological components used in smart tourism destinations can improve tourists’ experiences.

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2019

Francisco Javier Ballina, Luis Valdes and Eduardo Del Valle

Information communication technologies (ICTs) of destination are not a mere mechanism of technical interaction; they are, above all, new mixed realities that integrate…

Abstract

Purpose

Information communication technologies (ICTs) of destination are not a mere mechanism of technical interaction; they are, above all, new mixed realities that integrate physical and digital resources. Using the utility of technology indicator, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate a new experiential model.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 377 tourists that stayed at hotels was conducted. It dealt with three different issues: the value of digital technologies when creating experiences, the different appeal of the digital device applications, and the measurement of the level of satisfaction with the destination, stay and expenditure.

Findings

ICTs are the main tool for building the value of the tourist experience and technological utilities increase the competitiveness of the destination. Furthermore, two types of ICT utility were identified: individual and social experience.

Research limitations/implications

These include the problems of a sampling procedure, operating with a database of tourists’ opinions, and also the specificities of each destination in particular.

Practical implications

Smart tourism destination should be considered a part of the tourist service. They are not merely information feedback but facilitate the generation of experiences built on the new digital realities.

Social implications

The Phygital phenomenon represents a radical change in the personal and social behaviour of tourists, incorporating technological matters as a direct component in their decisions and actions.

Originality/value

Phygital experience is a radical change for co-creation in tourism. Tourists are not demanding improvements but rather a new experiential model.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Nathalie Fabry and Cyril Blanchet

Monaco is a simultaneously a destination, a state and a city, which belongs to the long list of places that aims to become smart. The purpose of this paper is to present…

Abstract

Purpose

Monaco is a simultaneously a destination, a state and a city, which belongs to the long list of places that aims to become smart. The purpose of this paper is to present Monaco’s transformation strategy from October 2017 to May 2019. It will present Monaco’s smart urban ecosystem as a meeting point between the destination and the smart city.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop the methodology as an exploratory observation of the state transformations. The methodology relies on an understanding of smart cities policy from an insider perspective, as one of the co-authors participates in the “Matrice Smart-City Monaco” program (Season 1: Tourism), on a media coverage analysis and in a semi-directive interview with a stakeholder of the digital transformation in Monaco.

Findings

The paper empirically and theoretically explores the following three hypotheses: H1 – being a smart city/destination is less a status than a process; H2 – a permeable state city challenges the boundaries between the city and the smart destination; and H3 – the conceptualization of the smart city requires a broader definition of who its engaged stakeholders are.

Research limitations/implications

The case of Monaco helps us to understand the role of tourism in a smart city and to deepen the link between “smart city” and “smart destination” from a theoretical point of view. Monaco offers us the opportunity to reinforce our understanding of the relationship between the smart city and the smart destination.

Originality/value

The study concerns a micro-state that aims to become smart using a top–down strategy. However, for a city to become smart, stakeholders including citizens must be able to support the process.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Sanaz Shafiee, Ali Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Alireza Hasanzadeh and Saeed Jahanyan

This study aims to present a systematic review of smart tourism articles using a meta-synthesis method. Effective systematic reviews are essential for assisting…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present a systematic review of smart tourism articles using a meta-synthesis method. Effective systematic reviews are essential for assisting stakeholders in implementing smart destinations. A systematic comprehension of studies on smart tourism is needed regarding the various components of smart tourism destinations, the metrics to map these components and their expected results. This study creates a framework for understanding how smart tourism destinations are theorized and developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the meta-synthesis approach, this study collects, analyzes and synthesizes relevant research in smart tourism published in online databases by following a predetermined review protocol.

Findings

This study contributes to the discourse on smart tourism destinations by increasing the knowledge on the subject of smart destinations in regard to different categories. The selected articles were analyzed according to the proposed research questions and classified into three main categories: components, measurement and outputs. This study presents a new archetype for developing smart destinations and addresses efforts to bridge the gap in this research field.

Practical implications

This paper is noteworthy for stakeholders because it provides a comprehensive vision into the components that influence the growth of smart destinations. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it creates a framework for understanding how smart destinations are theorized. Furthermore, it is helpful to use qualitative methodologies that efficiently allow the analysis of related literature and that also offer conceptual insights.

Originality/value

The findings provide information that can be used to help shape a fully conceptualized understanding of the smart destinations concept and can also prove important in providing a guide for policymakers and stakeholders in the tourism industry who seek to intelligently develop tourism destinations.

设计/方法论/方法

本研究基于综合集成方法, 遵循预先设计的回顾方案, 收集、分析和综合线上资料库中相关智慧旅游的研究成果

目的

本研究旨在运用综合集成方法对智慧旅游文献进行系统的回顾。有效的系统的综述对协助相关利益者实现智慧旅游目的地至关重要。有必要系统地理解智能旅游的研究, 包括智能旅游目的地的各个要素, 映射这些要素的指标及其预期结果。本研究为理解智慧旅游目的地如何理论化和发展提供了框架。

发现

本研究通过增加不同类别的智慧旅游目的地的相关知识, 推动对智慧旅游目的地的探讨。根据提出的研究问题和三大主要类别:组成要素、测量和产出, 对遴选的文章进行分析。本研究为开发智慧旅游目的地提供了新的典例, 并致力于这一研究领域的空白。

实践意义

本文对利益相关者是重要的, 因为它为影响智慧旅游目的地增长的要素提供了一个综合性视角。此方法的优点在于为理解智慧旅游目的地理论化提供框架。此外, 本文有助于运用定性方法有效地分析相关文献, 并提供概念化见解。

创意/价值

研究结果提供的信息可用于帮助形成对智慧旅游目的地概念的全面的概念化理解, 也对旅游业中寻求智能化开发旅游目的地的决策者和利益相关者提供指导具有重要意义。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Basándose en el enfoque de la metasíntesis, este estudio recoge, analiza y sintetiza las investigaciones pertinentes en materia de turismo inteligente publicadas en bases de datos en línea siguiendo un protocolo de revisión predeterminado.

Propósito

Este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar una revisión sistemática de los artículos de turismo inteligente utilizando un método de meta-síntesis. Las revisiones sistemáticas eficaces son esenciales para ayudar a los interesados a poner en práctica los destinos inteligentes. Se necesita una comprensión sistemática de los estudios sobre turismo inteligente en relación con los diversos componentes de los destinos de turismo inteligente, las métricas para trazar el mapa de estos componentes y sus resultados esperados. Este estudio crea un marco para comprender cómo se teorizan y desarrollan los destinos turísticos inteligentes.

Hallazgos

El presente estudio contribuye al discurso sobre los destinos turísticos inteligentes al aumentar el conocimiento sobre el tema de los destinos inteligentes en relación con diferentes categorías. Los artículos seleccionados fueron analizados de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación propuestas y clasificados en tres categorías principales: componentes, medición y resultados. Este estudio presenta un nuevo arquetipo para el desarrollo de los destinos inteligentes y aborda los esfuerzos para salvar la brecha en este campo de investigación.

Implicaciones prácticas

Este artículo es digno de mención para los interesados porque ofrece una visión global de los componentes que influyen en el crecimiento de los destinos inteligentes. La ventaja de la metodología propuesta es que crea un marco para comprender cómo se teorizan los destinos inteligentes. Además, es útil para utilizar metodologías cualitativas que permitan analizar eficazmente la literatura conexa y que también ofrezcan perspectivas conceptuales.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio ofrece una revisión sistemática de la investigación más reciente publicada sobre turismo inteligente. Los resultados de este estudio podrían ser importantes para proporcionar una guía a los responsables políticos y a los actores del sector turístico que buscan desarrollar inteligentemente sus destinos turísticos. Los resultados del análisis sistemático pueden servir de punto de partida útil para futuras investigaciones en este ámbito.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 February 2022

Yuke Yuan, Chung-Shing Chan, Sarah Eichelberger, Hang Ma and Birgit Pikkemaat

This paper investigates the usage and trust of Chinese social media in the travel planning process (pre-trip, during-trip and post-trip) of Chinese tourists.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the usage and trust of Chinese social media in the travel planning process (pre-trip, during-trip and post-trip) of Chinese tourists.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a combination of structured online survey (n = 406) and follow-up interviews, the research identifies the diversification of the demand-and-supply patterns of social media users in China, as well as the allocation of functions of social media as tools before, during and after travel.

Findings

Social media users are diverse in terms of their adoption of social media, use behaviour and scope; the levels of trust and influence; and their ultimate travel decisions and actions. Correlations between the level of trust, influence of social media and the intended changes in travel decisions are observed. Destination marketers and tourism industries should observe and adapt to the needs of social media users and potential tourist markets by understanding more about user segmentation between platforms or apps and conducting marketing campaigns on social media platforms to attract a higher number of visitors.

Research limitations/implications

This paper demonstrated the case of social media usage in mainland China, which has been regarded as one of the fastest growing and influential tourist-generating markets and social media expansions in the world. This study further addressed the knowledge gap by correlating social media usage and travel planning process of Chinese tourists. The research findings suggested diversification of the demand-and-supply pattern of social media users in China, as well as the use of social media as tools before, during and after travel. Users were diversified in terms of their adoption of social media, use behaviour, scope, the levels of trust, influence and the ultimate travel decisions.

Practical implications

Destination marketing organizations should note that some overseas social media platforms that are not accessible in China like TripAdvisor, Yelp, Facebook and Instagram are still valued by some Chinese tourists, especially during-trip period in journeys to Western countries. Some tactics for specific user segments should be carefully observed. When promoting specific tourism products to Chinese tourists, it is necessary to understand the user segmentation between platforms or apps.

Originality/value

Social media is a powerful tool for tourism development and sustainability in creating smart tourists and destinations worldwide. In China, the use of social media has stimulated the development of both information and communication technology and tourism.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Rodolfo Baggio, Roberto Micera and Giacomo Del Chiappa

The aim of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the main literature contributions that concern smart tourism development and management, highlighting gaps and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the main literature contributions that concern smart tourism development and management, highlighting gaps and logical inconsistencies. In addition, to further stress the importance of the issues at stake, a simulation is performed for showing how technology allows achieving better outcomes when a certain level of efficiency is obtained via re-engineering of main organizational and operational processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of recent relevant literature is performed with the help of machine learning topic modelling algorithms. A network analytic approach to digital ecosystems, then, is used to study the relationship between technological tools and physical entities in a destination and how these and their combination affect the efficiency of the system at local and global levels.

Findings

The literature analyzed lacks a good discussion on the necessity to improve and rationalize the operational and organizational processes while emphasizing mostly the technological aspects. On the other hand, the simulation case presented shows that if information and knowledge flows are reasonably efficient and well organized in the physical world, the integration of digital components further enhances these processes, whereas inefficiencies can hinder the flow of information and reduce its efficiency.

Originality/value

Apart from the methods used, relatively little explored, the authors show that, as also much of the computer science literature states, a fundamental prerequisite for successful “smart” projects is a logical and effective restructuring of the main operational and organizational processes.

研究目的

本论文旨在分析关于智慧旅游发展和管理话题的主要文献, 指出文献缺口和逻辑矛盾。此外, 为了进一步指出这个话题的重要性, 本论文运行了一个模拟程序, 以证明科技如何帮助冲破瓶颈达到新的高峰, 通过重组重要组织和流程管理。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用内容分析法, 并借助机器学习建模程序。本论文采用电子生态环境的网络分析方法来研究科技工具与实体设备在旅游目的地中的关联, 以及如何这些设备资源能够融合在区域和全球范围内提高系统效率。

研究结果

文献分析结果表明, 大部分文章都着重强调科技方面, 而忽略了运营和组织流程的改进。此外, 本论文展示的模拟案件表明如果信息和知识流在实体世界中有效的利用和管理, 那么与电子软配件的结合就会更加相得益彰, 相反, 如果未达到有效结合, 那么将阻碍信息流和降低效率。

研究原创性/价值

除去本文利用的研究方法相对很少学者涉及, 正如计算机科学文献所说, 本论文证实了成功的“智能”项目所需要的前提条件是主要运营和管理流程的逻辑有效的重组。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000