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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Uğur Akdu

Rapid development of IT and communication technologies resulted in the “Smart” concept, which of late has become quite popular. The smart concept signifies the integration…

Abstract

Rapid development of IT and communication technologies resulted in the “Smart” concept, which of late has become quite popular. The smart concept signifies the integration of organizational networks and smart features that enrich the ecosystem, facilitate daily activities for all stakeholders, and for automatization. Smart concept was discussed as a complicated technological infrastructure in urban areas intended to promote economic, social and environmental welfare. The latest technological developments gave rise to the concepts of smart planet, smart city and smart destination that have become important in recent years. Technological innovations have had a big influence on the development of the tourism industry. Smart concept is conceptualized as smart tourism for tourism sector. Smart Tourism generally has a positive effect on the rapid change of information and technology and on the tourism sector, tourism activities and increase in customer satisfaction. In this chapter, the concept of Smart and its smart technologies are explained and information about its reflections on the tourism sector and smart tourism destinations are discussed.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-689-4

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2017

Luisa Errichiello and Alessandra Marasco

The chapter aims at advancing existing knowledge on innovation-oriented public-private partnerships for developing smart tourism services at destination level. Recent…

Abstract

The chapter aims at advancing existing knowledge on innovation-oriented public-private partnerships for developing smart tourism services at destination level. Recent research has emphasized to the importance of collaborative arrangements involving public sector organizations and private companies for the development of new or improved ICT-enabled tourism services towards the smart transformation of destinations. However, knowledge on public-private partnerships specifically set up for realizing smart innovations is still scarce. This chapter develops a framework for understanding the nature and functioning of this type of partnerships at destination level by integrating literature on tourism partnerships, smart tourism, and innovation in services with a case study of a successful partnership in the Italian destination of Siracusa.

Details

Knowledge Transfer to and within Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-405-7

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 April 2020

J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak

The purpose of this trends paper is to offer insights into the technological changes affecting our cities and urban tourism destinations, and to explore avenues for…

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2994

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this trends paper is to offer insights into the technological changes affecting our cities and urban tourism destinations, and to explore avenues for further research and practice in the context of smart tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature on smart cities and smart tourism destinations is analysed in view of delivering a research agenda for a new generation of “post-smarttourism destinations, beyond existing paradigms in this field.

Findings

Smart tourism research to date is found to be lacking in terms of addressing emerging (“post-smart”) social issues increasingly faced by global tourism cities, such as growing inequalities between host communities and visitors, wellness (e.g. slow tourism and slow cities) and resilience and mental health (e.g. digital detox), among others.

Practical implications

A post-smart approach to tourism city management and marketing calls for rethinking of existing tourism and urban policies that address wider sustainability issues exemplified by the urban transitions debate as well as adopting a more holistic networked approach to smartness involving entire regions. This also calls for the development of a new research agenda in urban tourism through a new prism – the post-smart “wise” tourism destination.

Originality/value

A new tourism futures construct – the “wise” tourism destination – is posited. This is done within the context of a new (“post-smart”) generation of tourism cities. It is argued that “wise” tourism cities will require novel attributes and adopt a visionary strategic positioning well beyond today’s smart tourism destination paradigms. Additionally, a tentative research agenda for “wise” tourism cities is discussed.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2019

Ulrike Gretzel and Maria Collier de Mendonça

Smart tourism is a destination management approach that requires the buy-in of a myriad of stakeholders. Its many audiences and complexity demand the creation of…

Abstract

Purpose

Smart tourism is a destination management approach that requires the buy-in of a myriad of stakeholders. Its many audiences and complexity demand the creation of meaningful brands to effectively position and communicate smart tourism initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to explore how smart tourism branding strategies have been implemented to communicate relevant values, benefits and attributes to industry stakeholders through institutional websites.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a semiotic analysis of two smart tourism-related sites (destinosinteligentes.es and smarttourismcapital.eu), the research interprets the brand-related visual and verbal signs.

Findings

The findings highlight how brand elements embedded in websites communicate a brand identity and facilitate particular interpretations of smart tourism. Both brands use similar signs to promote a techtopian vision of smart destinations but employ different strategies to motivate stakeholder buy-in.

Research limitations/implications

Smart tourism is currently largely embedded in overall smart city initiatives and finding tourism-specific examples online is difficult. However, the two selected websites reflect the brands of multiple destinations and permit a detailed analysis of meaning making. Future research can focus on how brand-related signs are perceived by different stakeholders.

Practical implications

Identifying the strategies and shortcomings of current smart tourism brands informs future smart tourism branding efforts and effective communication with smart tourism stakeholders.

Originality/value

Semiotics is a relevant but underutilized method to understand how smart tourism initiatives conceptualize “smartness.”

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Fuad Mehraliyev, Youngjoon Choi and Mehmet Ali Köseoglu

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic and quantitative review of published papers on smart tourism. More specifically, the paper aims to identify the smart

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic and quantitative review of published papers on smart tourism. More specifically, the paper aims to identify the smart tourism research life cycle, collaboration trends, main social structure, disciplinary approaches and foundations, research topics and methodological approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic quantitative review techniques were used to review smart tourism literature. Frequency analysis, network analysis, text mining techniques were performed on data obtained from 96 papers collected from three databases as follows: Web of Science, Scopus and EBSCOhost.

Findings

The smart tourism research life cycle has two turning points with an exponential increase: 2015 and 2017. The latter is mainly associated with the internationalization of collaboration. Social structure of smart tourism research was revealed. Many of the ideas and research trends are affected by one research cluster. Destination related articles are dominant in smart tourism research. Internet of things and tourist experience are less researched areas. Only a quarter of the articles was published in tourism and hospitality journals. In particular, there is a big gap in published papers in hospitality journals. An important gap from methodological aspect is limited number of qualitative studies with human subjects. The geographical limitation is high concentration of smart tourism studies in Korea.

Research limitations/implications

This study collected and analyzed only full papers published in peer-reviewed journals. Future research may consider including book chapters and/or conference proceedings. This study was mainly based on quantitative review techniques. Qualitative or mixed review techniques may be conducted.

Originality/value

This study is the first literature review on an increasingly popular topic of smart tourism.

研究目的

本研究旨在从以下几方面探讨智慧旅游的沿革:(1)出版量和研究主题, 2)主要学科、社会结构和合作趋势, 以及3)方法论和研究范式。

研究设计/方法论/方法

本研究对1995至2017年间发表的96篇文章进行了系统的定量评价, 并采用了评价和相关回顾的方法对文献进行了分析。

研究结果

研究结果阐释了智能旅游研究的生命周期。自2015以来, 相关文献的出版数量迅速增长, 2017年更是呈现出指数增长的趋势。2017年, 相关的国际合作也大幅增加。在学科重点方面, 智能旅游研究并不仅局限于旅游, 而是采用跨学科/多学科的方法。在社会结构方面, 智能旅游的知识在很大程度上是由具有相似社会文化背景和制度背景的学者建构的。在研究主题方面, 与目的地相关的文章占主导地位。在研究方法方面, 智能旅游研究采用的主要是定量研究, 其次是概念研究和混合方法研究。令人惊讶的是, 定性研究则十分有限。在研究范式方面, 由于研究样本主要来自韩国, 研究可能存在文化偏见, 。

研究局限/启示

本研究仅收集并分析了在同行评审期刊上发表的论文。未来的研究可以考虑加入书籍章节和/或会议论文。本研究主要采用定量评价, 未来的研究可以考虑可以采用定性或混合方法技术。

独创性/价值

本研究通过对社会结构、主题、方法和研究范式等方面的研究空白的分析, 为智能旅游研究提供了有意义的理论贡献, 并指出了未来的研究方向。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Chung Shing Chan, Mike Peters and Birgit Pikkemaat

The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceptions of visitors in terms of multiple aspects of smart cities to allow wise decisions to be made about smart tourist…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceptions of visitors in terms of multiple aspects of smart cities to allow wise decisions to be made about smart tourist destinations by municipal governments and tourism authorities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes a sample of inbound visitors (n=205) from Hong Kong as an empirical questionnaire-based survey on visitors’ perceptions of these smart city attributes, which are collected from literature, and framed in Cohen’s Smart City Wheel.

Findings

This paper identifies the distinctive factors for branding Hong Kong as a smart city. The results from the factor analysis identify four factors for determining what a smart city is from the perspective of visitors, namely, the quality of a smart society: energy consumption in an urban environment, smart city governance and smart city livelihood. The first two factors further become the determinants of a successful smart city brand considered by visitors, which contribute to their locational decisions and thus the strategies and policies of smart destination branding.

Research limitations/implications

The results obtained can serve as insights for tourism policy makers and destination marketers when considering significant information and communication technology, or other smart and sustainable attributes for city branding (e.g. Buhalis and Amaranggana, 2014; Marine-Roig and Anton Clavé, 2015), as well as common investment and resource allocation for shared benefits in similar metropolises.

Practical implications

The smartness factors represent important dimensions of urban smartness as prioritized areas for further development, innovation and marketing of tourism industries and enterprises in Hong Kong, as a mature urban destination incorporating the branding of a proposed smart district as a strategy of urban development.

Originality/value

Smart urban development and tourism development have increasingly become inseparable, especially when visitors utilize cities as tourist destinations but share other urban resources and spaces with local citizens. Unlike the development of smart tourist attractions, smart tourist destinations should have a wider scope of smartness. A smart tourist destination may carry similar and overlapping characteristics of smart cities, which may be interpreted by visitors and may eventually affect their perceived image of a city.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Abbie-Gayle Johnson and Ioanna Samakovlis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the production of smart tourism knowledge, thereby revealing the development of the concept through collaborative networks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the production of smart tourism knowledge, thereby revealing the development of the concept through collaborative networks.

Design/methodology/approach

A bibliometric analysis, which enables visual mapping and observation of the domain, was conducted using journal articles retrieved during the period of 2000 to 2018.

Findings

The understanding of smart tourism is shaped and enhanced through collaborative network of researchers. As the domain develops, its reach expands across different networks as well as core themes.

Research limitations/implications

Data for the study was generated from English-written journal articles that were produced from a database search of specific keywords associated with smart tourism.

Practical implications

Findings can prove useful to academic researchers and industry practitioners to aid their understanding of smart tourism research development, identify the underlying context and aid in coherent development of the concept.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first articles to provide a greater understanding of smart tourism as a research topic by examining its evolution in an academic context through bibliometric analysis.

研究目的

本论文对智慧旅游相关知识进行审阅, 并通过协作网络对其概念发展进行梳理。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用Gephi文献计量分析方法, 对其相关领域的发展进行视觉化处理, 构建出发展图。研究样本为2000年至2018年发表的期刊文章, 通过在线搜索数据库获得。

研究结果

通过研究者之间的协作网络, 本论文研究结果对智慧旅游的认识清晰形成并且更加深刻。自智慧旅游领域发展以来, 其发展扩展到不同网络以及多个核心主题。

研究理论限制/意义

研究样本只局限于数据库中的英文期刊文章, 以及采用有限的智慧旅游的关键词搜索。

研究实践意义

研究结果对学术学者和业界人士有着深刻效用, 以帮助他们对智慧旅游研究发展构筑清晰理解, 找到其研究背景以及概念发展的核心过程。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Sanaz Shafiee, Ali Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Alireza Hasanzadeh and Saeed Jahanyan

This study aims to present a systematic review of smart tourism articles using a meta-synthesis method. Effective systematic reviews are essential for assisting…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present a systematic review of smart tourism articles using a meta-synthesis method. Effective systematic reviews are essential for assisting stakeholders in implementing smart destinations. A systematic comprehension of studies on smart tourism is needed regarding the various components of smart tourism destinations, the metrics to map these components and their expected results. This study creates a framework for understanding how smart tourism destinations are theorized and developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the meta-synthesis approach, this study collects, analyzes and synthesizes relevant research in smart tourism published in online databases by following a predetermined review protocol.

Findings

This study contributes to the discourse on smart tourism destinations by increasing the knowledge on the subject of smart destinations in regard to different categories. The selected articles were analyzed according to the proposed research questions and classified into three main categories: components, measurement and outputs. This study presents a new archetype for developing smart destinations and addresses efforts to bridge the gap in this research field.

Practical implications

This paper is noteworthy for stakeholders because it provides a comprehensive vision into the components that influence the growth of smart destinations. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it creates a framework for understanding how smart destinations are theorized. Furthermore, it is helpful to use qualitative methodologies that efficiently allow the analysis of related literature and that also offer conceptual insights.

Originality/value

The findings provide information that can be used to help shape a fully conceptualized understanding of the smart destinations concept and can also prove important in providing a guide for policymakers and stakeholders in the tourism industry who seek to intelligently develop tourism destinations.

设计/方法论/方法

本研究基于综合集成方法, 遵循预先设计的回顾方案, 收集、分析和综合线上资料库中相关智慧旅游的研究成果

目的

本研究旨在运用综合集成方法对智慧旅游文献进行系统的回顾。有效的系统的综述对协助相关利益者实现智慧旅游目的地至关重要。有必要系统地理解智能旅游的研究, 包括智能旅游目的地的各个要素, 映射这些要素的指标及其预期结果。本研究为理解智慧旅游目的地如何理论化和发展提供了框架。

发现

本研究通过增加不同类别的智慧旅游目的地的相关知识, 推动对智慧旅游目的地的探讨。根据提出的研究问题和三大主要类别:组成要素、测量和产出, 对遴选的文章进行分析。本研究为开发智慧旅游目的地提供了新的典例, 并致力于这一研究领域的空白。

实践意义

本文对利益相关者是重要的, 因为它为影响智慧旅游目的地增长的要素提供了一个综合性视角。此方法的优点在于为理解智慧旅游目的地理论化提供框架。此外, 本文有助于运用定性方法有效地分析相关文献, 并提供概念化见解。

创意/价值

研究结果提供的信息可用于帮助形成对智慧旅游目的地概念的全面的概念化理解, 也对旅游业中寻求智能化开发旅游目的地的决策者和利益相关者提供指导具有重要意义。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Basándose en el enfoque de la metasíntesis, este estudio recoge, analiza y sintetiza las investigaciones pertinentes en materia de turismo inteligente publicadas en bases de datos en línea siguiendo un protocolo de revisión predeterminado.

Propósito

Este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar una revisión sistemática de los artículos de turismo inteligente utilizando un método de meta-síntesis. Las revisiones sistemáticas eficaces son esenciales para ayudar a los interesados a poner en práctica los destinos inteligentes. Se necesita una comprensión sistemática de los estudios sobre turismo inteligente en relación con los diversos componentes de los destinos de turismo inteligente, las métricas para trazar el mapa de estos componentes y sus resultados esperados. Este estudio crea un marco para comprender cómo se teorizan y desarrollan los destinos turísticos inteligentes.

Hallazgos

El presente estudio contribuye al discurso sobre los destinos turísticos inteligentes al aumentar el conocimiento sobre el tema de los destinos inteligentes en relación con diferentes categorías. Los artículos seleccionados fueron analizados de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación propuestas y clasificados en tres categorías principales: componentes, medición y resultados. Este estudio presenta un nuevo arquetipo para el desarrollo de los destinos inteligentes y aborda los esfuerzos para salvar la brecha en este campo de investigación.

Implicaciones prácticas

Este artículo es digno de mención para los interesados porque ofrece una visión global de los componentes que influyen en el crecimiento de los destinos inteligentes. La ventaja de la metodología propuesta es que crea un marco para comprender cómo se teorizan los destinos inteligentes. Además, es útil para utilizar metodologías cualitativas que permitan analizar eficazmente la literatura conexa y que también ofrezcan perspectivas conceptuales.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio ofrece una revisión sistemática de la investigación más reciente publicada sobre turismo inteligente. Los resultados de este estudio podrían ser importantes para proporcionar una guía a los responsables políticos y a los actores del sector turístico que buscan desarrollar inteligentemente sus destinos turísticos. Los resultados del análisis sistemático pueden servir de punto de partida útil para futuras investigaciones en este ámbito.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Francisco Javier Ballina

Smart tourism (ST) needs the development of smart business. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the future of the smart component of tourism companies, what their…

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1240

Abstract

Purpose

Smart tourism (ST) needs the development of smart business. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the future of the smart component of tourism companies, what their perspectives are and what factors can help to accelerate it.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 133 managers of tourist companies is the basis of the empirical information. The study was a personal survey carried out during FITUR 2019 International Tourism Fair of Madrid. The main element of the study is the future development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and smart tourism (ST) in business.

Findings

The results indicate that there is little development at present of the smart business eco-system and that development will continue to be slow in the future. Moreover, this is not a critical issue in the agendas of companies. It was found that tourists pressure tourism through the extensive use of their smartphones, but only at the level of tourism resources. Furthermore, it will be the consolidation of the smart tourism destination that marks the medium and long-term design of smart business.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations concern the problems of a sampling procedure. Firstly, it operates with a database of managers’ opinions; secondly, there are specificities of each company in particular.

Practical implications

The design of the smart tourism destination must incorporate the integration of tourism companies, both with a useful vision of ICTs towards the creation of experiences.

Originality/value

Research on smart business tourism is very scarce compared to smart destination and smart tourists. Also, the data are supported by managers of important tourism companies, as their companies are present at FITUR.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Nasir Azis, Muslim Amin, Syafruddin Chan and Cut Aprilia

The purpose of this study is to investigate how smart tourism technologies and memorable tourism experiences affect tourist satisfaction and tourist destination loyalty.

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1265

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how smart tourism technologies and memorable tourism experiences affect tourist satisfaction and tourist destination loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed, 360 were returned (60% response rate) and a covariance-based structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results of this study explain that smart tourism technologies and memorable tourism experiences play essential roles in enhancing tourist satisfaction and tourist destination loyalty.

Practical implications

This study specifies that tourists have pleasant memories and are satisfied at a tourist destination; as a result, they are more likely to revisit and recommend a tourist destination to their friends, family and other tourists. If a tourist has a negative experience with smart city info-structure facilities, a tourist might reach an overall conclusion to not revisit or recommend the location to other tourists.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence to support the importance of smart tourism technologies and memorable tourism experiences in enhancing tourist satisfaction and tourist destination loyalty.

研究目的

本论文旨在研究智慧旅游科技和难忘的旅游体验如何影响游客满意度和游客对目的地的忠诚。

研究设计/方法/途径

共600份问卷发放, 并收回360份数据(回应率为60%), 本论文采样基于协方差的结构方程模型以测验假设。

研究结果

研究结果表明智慧旅游科技和难忘的旅游体验对增强游客满意度和游客对目的地的忠诚度起到至关重要的作用。

研究实践启示

本论文证实游客有着美好的旅游回忆与对旅游目的地满意, 因此, 他们更愿意重游以及向他们的朋友、家人、以及其他游客推荐这个目的地。如果游客对智慧城市信息基础建设有不好的体验, 那么他们则会决定不会重游或者推荐这个城市给其他游客。

研究原创性/价值

本论文为证实智慧旅游科技和难忘的旅游体验对加强游客满意度和游客对目的地忠诚度的至关重要的作用方面, 提供了强有力的实践证实。

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