Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 22 August 2022

Manikandan Nachimuthu and Rajesh P.K.

This paper aims to provide a review of four-dimensional (4D) printing of shape memory polymers using inkjet printing technology. 4D printing refers to the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a review of four-dimensional (4D) printing of shape memory polymers using inkjet printing technology. 4D printing refers to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of smart materials capable of shape change or function modification with respect to time when activated by external stimuli. Inkjet printing has gained popularity because of the technical advantages such as non-contact deposition, multi-material printing, high resolution, high speed of printing and minimal post processing. This review will serve as a platform for understanding the inkjet 4D printing process and the shape memory capability of the polymer structures printed using inkjet printing.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used in this review was to search for and review research works related to inkjet 4D printing of shape memory polymers. The search period was limited for the duration 2013 to 2021 as the 4D printing technology came into light later in 2013. With the review of inkjet 4D printing of shape memory polymers, the shape memory capability of the inkjet-printed structures were also studied.

Findings

With the available research documents, it was found that the inkjet 4D printing technology gained momentum from 2016, three years after the introduction of the 4D printing technology. The key findings of this review show that inkjet 4D printing of shape memory polymers were primarily performed using commercial inkjet printers and polymer inks linked to the printers. Even though the inkjet printing technology is matured enough to print multiple materials, development of shape memory polymer inks for inkjet printability remains complex. To realize the full potential of inkjet 4D printing, novel polymer inks specific for inkjet printing needs development.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation to this review was the availability of research papers for review. Even though inkjet printing technology has grown to popularity in the graphics printing and publishing industry since its inception in the 19th century, the technology still needs to evolve in the printing of 3D structures due to the limitations in synthesizing inks that are inkjet printable. However, this research will serve as a platform for understating the current status of inkjet 4D printing and the limitations of the technology.

Originality/value

This review focuses only on the inkjet 4D printing of shape memory polymers among the generally summarized 4D printing review papers available. Currently, 4D printing of shape memory polymers is carried out using only the commercially available polymer printers. Also, researchers do not have the flexibility of modifying the polymer inks linked to the printers. This review can spur more research into the development of novel polymer inks specific for inkjet printing.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2022

Sena Demirbağ Genç and Sennur Alay-Aksoy

In this study, fabrication of polymer and cotton fabric exhibiting stimuli-responsive wetting and water vapor permeability features together with antibacterial activity was aimed.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, fabrication of polymer and cotton fabric exhibiting stimuli-responsive wetting and water vapor permeability features together with antibacterial activity was aimed.

Design/methodology/approach

Temperature and pH-responsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-graft-chitosan) (PNIPAM-g-CS) copolymer were produced via the free radical addition polymerization method and fixed to the cotton fabric using butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) cross-linker by double-bath impregnation method. The chemical structure of the graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy and H-Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) analyses. Thermo-responsive behavior of the fabric was investigated by wetting time and water uptake tests, contact angle measurement and surface energy calculation. Additionally, antibacterial activity of the fabric treated with copolymer was studied against S. aureus bacterium.

Findings

PNIPAM-g-CS graft copolymer was synthesized successfully, which had lower critical solution temperature (LCST) value of 32 °C and exhibited thermo-responsive property. The treated fabrics exhibited hydrophilic character at temperatures below the LCST and hydrophobic character at temperatures above the LCST. It was found that polymer-coated fabric could have regulated the water vapor permeability by the change in its pore size and hydrophilicity depending on the temperature. Additionally, treated fabric displayed a pH-responsive water absorption behavior and strong antibacterial activity against S.aureus bacterium.

Originality/value

In the study, it has been shown that the cotton fabrics can be fabricated which have antibacterial activity and capable of pH and temperature responsive smart moisture/water management by application of copolymer. It is thought that the fabric structures developed in the study will be promising in the production of medical textile structures where antibacterial activity and thermophysiological comfort are important.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

30

Abstract

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Shubham Shankar Mohol and Varun Sharma

Additive manufacturing has rapidly developed in terms of technology and its application in various types of industries. With this rapid development, there has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing has rapidly developed in terms of technology and its application in various types of industries. With this rapid development, there has been significant research in the area of materials. This has led to the invention of Smart Materials (SMs). The 4D printing is basically 3D printing of these SMs. This paper aims to focus on novel materials and their useful application in various industries using the technology of 4D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

Research studies in 4D printing have increased since the time when this idea was first introduced in the year 2013. The present research study will deeply focus on the introduction to 4D printing, types of SMs and its application based on the various types of stimulus. The application of each type of SM has been explained along with its functioning with respect to the stimulus.

Findings

SMs have multiple functional applications pertaining to appropriate industries. The 4D printed parts have a distinctive capability to change its shape and self-assembly to carry out a specific function according to the requirement. Afterward, the fabricated part can recover to its 3D printed “memorized” shape once it is triggered by the stimulus.

Originality/value

The present study highlights the various capabilities of SMs, which is used as a raw material in 4D printing.

Graphical abstract

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

haibao Lu, Yongtao Yao and Long Lin

This paper aims to present a phenomenological and quantitative model to study the constitutive relations and working mechanism for shape/temperature memory effect in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a phenomenological and quantitative model to study the constitutive relations and working mechanism for shape/temperature memory effect in polypyrrole (PPy)-based shape memory polymers (SMPs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the origin of relaxation law was used to theoretically predict the relationships between relaxation time and internal energy and temperature based on the thermodynamics of polymers.

Findings

A phenomenological model was proposed to quantitatively identify the factors that influence the stored mechanical energy, shape memory effect (SME) and temperature memory effect (TME) in PPy. Both structural relaxation law and Tool-Narayanaswamy (TN) model were used to couple the constitutive relations of stress and transition temperature as a function of relaxation frequency, respectively. Furthermore, the simulation of the phenomenological model was compared with experimental results reported in relevant literature for purpose of verification.

Research limitations/implications

Exploration of the working mechanism underpinning the experimental (or phenomenal) results and significant enhancement of the understanding of relevant experimental features reported previously.

Originality/value

The outcome of this study will provide a powerful phenomenological and quantitative tool for studies on SME and TME in SMPs.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Abstract

Details

Broadening Participation in STEM
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-908-9

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

George K. Stylios

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

1023

Abstract

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

George K. Stylios

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

1188

Abstract

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Haibao Lu, Yongtao Yao and Long Lin

This article aims to present a systematic and up-to-date account of carbon-based reinforcements, including carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon nanofibre (CNF), carbon black…

1590

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to present a systematic and up-to-date account of carbon-based reinforcements, including carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon nanofibre (CNF), carbon black (CB), carbon fibre (CF) and grapheme, in shape-memory polymer (SMP) for electrical actuation.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies exploring carbon-based reinforcement in SMP composites for electrically conductive performance and Joule heating triggered shape recovery have been included, especially for the principle design, characterisation and shape recovery behaviour, making the article a comprehensive account of the systemic progress in SMP composite incorporating conductive carbon reinforcement.

Findings

SMPs are fascinating materials and have attracted great academic and industrial attention owing to their significant macroscopic shape deformation in the presence of an appropriate stimulus. The working mechanisms, the physico requirements and the theoretical origins of the different types of carbon-based reinforcement SMP composites have been discussed. Current research and development on the fabrication strategies of carbon-based reinforcement SMP composites have been summarised.

Research limitations/implications

A systematic review is to evaluate carbon-based reinforcements in SMPs for electrical actuation and discuss recent developments and future applications.

Practical implications

Carbon-based reinforcements in SMPs can be used as smart deployable space structure in the broad field of aerospace technologies.

Originality/value

To reveal the research and development of utilising CNT, CNF, CB, CF and grapheme to achieve shape recovery of SMP composites through electrically resistive heating, which will significantly benefit the research and development of smart materials and systems.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

H.B. Lu, W.M. Huang and Y.T. Yao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying mechanism and physico‐chemical requirements of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers and to explore the…

1601

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying mechanism and physico‐chemical requirements of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers and to explore the future trend of development and potential applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Working mechanism in chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers is firstly identified. And then the physico‐chemical requirements for the representative polymers are characterized.

Findings

The different working mechanisms, fundamentals, physico‐chemical requirements and theoretical origins have been discussed. Current research and development on the fabrication strategies of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers have been summarised. The future trend and potential applications have been explored and estimated.

Research limitations/implications

This review examines physico‐chemical requirements and theoretical origins necessary to achieve chemo‐responsiveness, and then discusses recent developments and future trends.

Practical implications

Shape change/memory polymers can be used in the broad field of bio‐ and/or medicine.

Originality/value

Breakthroughs and rapid development of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers will significantly improve the research and development of smart materials, structures and systems.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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