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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Fiona Eva Bakas, Nancy Duxbury, Paula Cristina Remoaldo and Olga Matos

The purpose of this paper is to address the gaps in research on strategic planning for the social impacts of small-scale events in rural areas and small cities. This is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the gaps in research on strategic planning for the social impacts of small-scale events in rural areas and small cities. This is achieved by investigating the social utility inferred by small-scale art festivals with a creative tourism element in terms of increasing social capital and positive social change, from an event stakeholder perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The identified gap in knowledge is addressed by using interviews and fieldnotes from participant observation to co-create meaning with the organizers of four small-scale art festivals in small cities and rural areas in Portugal. Theoretical frameworks relating to creative tourism development and social capital creation are used to analyze the social utility of small-scale art festivals.

Findings

Creative tourism activities are integrated within small-scale art festivals in small cities and rural areas in various ways, mainly through art-related workshops. Significant empirical data give insight into how small-scale art festivals create social value by increasing the host community’s pride and reinforcing the social fabric of the festival’s local and “portable” community, in part through these creative tourism activities.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations of this study is that it focuses on the perspectives and insights of the festival organizers. An analysis of the festival participants’ views, local community stakeholder analysis and community impact analyses would offer further insights into how the creative tourism experiences and other moments of shared meaning generation within small-scale art festivals influence the creation of social utility.

Originality/value

This paper offers insights into how creative tourism activities are being integrated into small-scale art festivals in small cities and rural contexts, and how these activities foster social connections among festival participants and with the local community. This addresses significant gaps in the literature on strategic planning for the social impacts of events, particularly in the context of small-scale events in rural areas/small cities, and the strategic value of including creative tourism activities within small-scale festivals.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Niki Black

The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution of small-scale, rural festivals to the social sustainability of their host communities. Small-scale, community…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution of small-scale, rural festivals to the social sustainability of their host communities. Small-scale, community originated festivals proliferate the rural landscape throughout the UK and yet despite this, festival research has focussed predominantly on large, urban events and on their economic impact (Wood, 2009; Gibson and Connell, 2011). This paper seeks to address the perceived research gap by examining these events through a lens of social sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses a case study approach focussed on four festivals in Northumberland, UK. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with festival organisers, key figures and visitors. Following a constructivist grounded theory method four principle indicators were identified to determine festival contribution to community social sustainability. These indicators are: contribution to community pride and localness, enhancement of knowledge and understanding, contribution to the continuity of local culture and enablement of networks of connectivity.

Findings

The findings demonstrate the networks of connections which festivals enable between the culture, heritage and people (individuals and groups) of a place. By focussing on four indicators the paper shows the social impact of connections through the festival processes and content. The paper argues that small-scale festivals in rural locations can contribute to social sustainability if they demonstrate a balance of both consistency and innovation and accessibility and openness within the locale.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the gap in social impact research into rural festivals and presents an original approach to identify festival impact on community social sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Antonella Capriello

This chapter discusses emerging issues in event management with a focus on small-scale events. The author reflects on managerial approaches to stakeholder involvement and…

Abstract

This chapter discusses emerging issues in event management with a focus on small-scale events. The author reflects on managerial approaches to stakeholder involvement and engagement, and underlines the complexity of strategy formulation for destination development planning. This contribution also provides advanced conceptual instruments for event marketing as guiding principles that permeate destination-marketing strategies. In addition, the author investigates the role and nature of sponsorship linked to enhancing the value of small-scale events and highlights fundamental issues in developing a marketing management model for place marketing and the key drivers of event management strategies involving sponsors and event participants.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

S. Christofle, C. Papetti and M. Ferry

To know the role of online social media (OSM) on the experience and communication of a gay film festival (ZeFestival) in a tourist destination: Nice, France

Abstract

Purpose

To know the role of online social media (OSM) on the experience and communication of a gay film festival (ZeFestival) in a tourist destination: Nice, France

Methodology/approach

Literature review accompanied with a qualitative study and netnographic analysis.

Findings

Informs on the use of OSMs by both organizers and festival goers, with a much poorer involvement of stakeholders than was envisaged. Proposes avenues for finding the causes of this lack of communication and sharing of the online experience.

Research limitations/implications

An exploratory study of a single gay film festival. The research work should be extended to other gay cultural events in Nice and France as a whole.

Practical implications

Recommendations for online experience sharing and communication before, during, and after the event.

Originality/value

This theme has been hardly broached on an international scale and never in a French context.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2018

Michelle Catanzaro and Elissa James

This paper aims to explore how the entertainment economy excludes individuals and facilitates private investment, the problematic shift towards a “creative economy” and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how the entertainment economy excludes individuals and facilitates private investment, the problematic shift towards a “creative economy” and increased regulations within Sydney’s entertainment sector. It also examines how a grass-roots, rural festival can be regarded as an extension of the urban context. It discusses the alternative counterculture(s) that exist despite (or perhaps because of) increasing inaccessibility and regulation, using as a case study an activist collective created in this climate, the Marrickville Warehouse Alliance, focusing specifically on its Star Shitty River Retreat festival.

Design/methodology/approach

A phenomenological, mixed-method approach is used with a focus on qualitative in-depth interviews with festival organisers.

Findings

This paper demonstrates how politics, embedded within urban place, can be transported to a rural festival site. The phenomenological accounts recorded with the festival organisers, paired with key theories within the literature, demonstrate how organising committees can shape the understanding of place and politics in grass-roots festival environments.

Social implications

By leaving “no trace” on the site and engaging with and contributing to the indigenous community, the Star Shitty River Retreat festival can be categorised as a type of “creative enhancement”, in which a shared environment of political and communal understanding creates a unique, yet temporary, sense of place within a rural setting.

Originality/value

There is limited literature on the Australian festival context. The finding that rural festival sites can be regarded as an extension of the urban context lends itself to the concept of de-territorialisation or blurring of city boundaries, reinforcing how a festival’s geographical location is of little significance when supported by “portable communities”.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Adrian Bossey

This paper responds to a range of theory and industry reporting, to provide an informed narrative which explores the current state of accessibility at UK festivals for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper responds to a range of theory and industry reporting, to provide an informed narrative which explores the current state of accessibility at UK festivals for people who are Deaf or disabled and the potential implications of developments in ICT for enhancing design, marketing, operations and performances across all phases of festival delivery, in order to improve inclusivity and accessibility. To this end, the paper addresses the following question: What do representatives of the UK live music industry perceive as barriers to accessibility and exemplars of current best practice for music festival attendees who are Deaf or disabled? What do representatives of the UK live music industry consider as the role of ICT to increase accessibility for music festival attendees who are Deaf or disabled?

Design/methodology/approach

Primary research focused on supply-side considerations with a sample group of 10 UK live music industry professionals. The scope of the research was limited geographically to England and by artform to open-air music festivals, venues which host some music festival provision and a Sector Support Organisation. Open questions elucidated qualitative information around; awareness of accessibility and inclusivity initiatives; potential for co-creation; non-digital improvements; current technological influences; and potential digital futures for accessible “live” experiences. A conceptual framework was constructed and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were carried out with six respondents, and four respondents completed a structured, self-administered e-mail questionnaire.

Findings

Findings include: ICT can facilitate enhanced dialogue with existing and potential audience members who are Deaf or disabled to both; reduce existing social exclusion (Duffy et al., 2019) and improve the visitor experience for all attendees. All respondents agreed that physical enhancements are important and some mentioned communications and customer care. Respondents reported increasingly ambitious usages of ICT at music festivals, which may support suggestions of a virtual experience trend (Robertson et al., 2015). Online ticketing systems have potential to grant equal functionality to people who are Deaf or disabled, as recommended by the Department for Culture, Media & Sport (2015). Respondents broadly welcomed the potential for positive impacts of ICT on increasingly accessible live experiences at music festivals which retained a sense of authenticity and “liveness”. Challenges around “as live” ICT-derived experiences were identified including risks of creating second-class experiences for Deaf and disabled attendees.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this case study include the small sample size and limited scope.

Practical implications

Promoters should: consider further developing the co-creation of accessibility initiatives, utilising ICT to both deliver improvements and engage with potential audience members who are Deaf or disabled. Seek to pro-actively recruit staff members who are Deaf or disabled and significantly increase their programming of performers who are Deaf or disabled. Consider reviewing their ticketing processes for music festivals, to identify accessibility challenges for audience members and implement appropriate ICT-based solutions. Consider maximising accessibility benefits for audience members who are Deaf or disabled from existing ICT provision on site and explore additional bespoke ICT solutions at music festivals.

Social implications

Adopting the best practices described across the festival sector may improve inclusivity for disabled people at music festivals and other events. Event management educators should consider reviewing provision to ensure that best practice is embedded around accessibility for audience members who are Deaf or disabled. Additional public funding should be provided to drive ICT-derived improvements to accessibility for audience members who are Deaf or disabled at smaller-scale music festivals. Further research should be considered around inclusive approaches to digital experiences within a music festival environment for audience members who are Deaf or disabled and tensions between accessibility and notions of “liveness”.

Originality/value

The “snapshot” of digital aspects of accessibility at UK festivals within this research is of particular value due to paucity of other research in this area, and it's narrative from varied industry professionals. The paper makes recommendations to promoters, academics and public funders, to attempt to advance inclusion (or at least to mitigate current exclusion) and identify directions for future research into accessible digital experiences at music festivals for people who are Deaf or disabled.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2018

Hélène B. Ducros

The purpose of this paper is to explore a grassroot festival in rural France organized around the concept of soup. The annual fête de la soupe held in a village in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore a grassroot festival in rural France organized around the concept of soup. The annual fête de la soupe held in a village in Auvergne provides a small-scale example of the ways in which space, time and festivalization interact in placemaking.

Design/methodology/approach

Ethnographic research highlights the motivations and experiences of the organizers and volunteer-participants, as well as some of the organizational challenges.

Findings

Revealing that the profit motive and economic outcomes are not dominant, this paper shows instead that the fête constitutes a space of relation-building between place and people, between people themselves and an introspective moment over the past and future of place as “rural”. While preserving rurality symbolized and mediated by the exchange of soup as the ultimate peasant dish, the festival is also an opportunity for villagers to revitalize the rural and showcase it as a place of creativity.

Originality/value

The study addresses the experience of volunteers and organizers in festivals, uses qualitative methods to do so and focuses on festivals in the rural setting, filling three gaps identified by others in the literature.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

António Almeida, Sergio Jesus Teixeira and Mara Franco

The purpose of this paper is to get insights on a real-life portfolio of events from a demand-centred prospective, based on the identification of factors influencing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to get insights on a real-life portfolio of events from a demand-centred prospective, based on the identification of factors influencing the degree of attendee’s satisfaction, with the ultimate aim of identifying commonalities and prospective cross-leverage strategies among events.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from attendees to three major events taking place in Funchal, the capital city of Madeira, were analysed based on multivariate statistics and categorical regression owing to the overwhelming presence of categorical data in the database. The econometric analysis pursued in this paper is based on a sample of 1,830 tourists.

Findings

The research demonstrates that the impact of the socio-economic variables and travel arrangements on attendees’ satisfaction is rather irrelevant, irrespective of the event under analysis, with cross-cutting factors defining the overall quality of any event (mainly technical aspects such as aesthetical elements, organization and opening hours) determinant in predicting the overall degree of satisfaction. Another key finding relates to the existence of a number of commonalities among events, in terms of tourists’ profiles, market orientation, themes and resources laying ground to define ready-to-apply cross-leverage strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis concentrated on three major events taking place in the capital city of a peripheral region. The content of the questionnaire co-developed with the destination management organization with order to get access to a large sample of respondents.

Practical implications

Lessons to be learnt in terms of managing a disparate collection of events developed over time in an ad hoc manner. A few examples of cross-leverage strategies are put forward.

Originality/value

The analysis and empirical content portrayed in this study contribute to the literature on event portfolio via description of real-life case examples of how to develop competencies based on post-event analysis in a proactive manner.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2020

Nisan Yozukmaz, Serkan Bertan and Serap Alkaya

Interactions between local people and guests/visitors are the main elements of tourism experience. And local festivals, considered as a significant part of festival

Abstract

Purpose

Interactions between local people and guests/visitors are the main elements of tourism experience. And local festivals, considered as a significant part of festival tourism, are quite important in this context. Though many studies have been conducted about interaction between local residents and guests tourists, emotional solidarity remains as a concept which has not yet been studied much in tourism literature on local festivals. The aim of this study is to examine emotional solidarity in tourism festival literature and to determine the relationships between perceptions of local people related to social impacts of festivals and emotional solidarity they feel for guests/visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

In line with this purpose, a quantitative approach was adopted, and 19th weaving, culture and handicrafts festival held in Buldan was chosen to be studied as it is an important festival for local people dwelling in Buldan, Denizli province located in Aegean Region in Turkey. The study data were obtained through questionnaire method conducted with Buldan residents during the 19th festival (June, 28th–30th, 2019). The sample was determined with random sampling method.

Findings

The data were analyzed via factor and regression analyses. As a result of factor analysis, social impacts of the festivals were grouped under 6 factors (under 3 subfactors of social benefits: communal benefits, cultural–educational benefits, social unity benefits; under 3 subfactors of social costs: concerns related to social resources, concerns related to life quality and concerns related to social order).

Practical implications

Local people's perceptions of social impacts of festivals must be determined in order to find their impacts on emotional solidarity, and deficiencies must be remedied. Local governments who organize festivals to invigorate local economies usually try to attract more visitors with the purpose of maximizing economic impacts of festivals, and this is done without placing much importance on the social problems and social change that may arise in the future (Crandall, 1994).

Originality/value

Relationships were determined between emotional solidarity and residents' perceptions towards social and cultural–educational benefits as well as their concerns related to social resources and life quality.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Anne‐Marie Hede and Pamm Kellett

Relatively little is known about marketing communications within the context of special events. The aim of this paper is to begin to address this gap in knowledge by…

Abstract

Purpose

Relatively little is known about marketing communications within the context of special events. The aim of this paper is to begin to address this gap in knowledge by analysing managerial practice, consumer perceptions and preferences in relation to marketing communications for this market offering.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study analysis of Festival Melbourne 2006 was undertaken using marketing communications collateral, ethnographic (participant observations) and interview (in‐depth and focus group) data.

Findings

A centralised approach to marketing communications was adopted for this event, but was difficult to implement. In addition, it was found that the marketing communications in situ did not assist attendees to make the most of their event experiences. It was also found that research participants prefer to receive information about special events passively.

Practical implications

With the increasing levels of globalisation and standardisation in the event sector there is a need to attain a balance between centralisation and adaptation in relation to marketing communications strategies and their implementation. Furthermore, it is imperative that marketing communications are integrated across all stages of consumption.

Originality/value

This study adds to the body of knowledge about marketing communications, and more generally within events. It also adds to the debate surrounding the integration of marketing communications.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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