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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Finlay Maclean, Renzo Cordina and Martin J. Gannon

The purpose of this study is to investigate the Union of European Football Associations’s Financial Fair Play (FFP) Regulations in the context of the European football…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the Union of European Football Associations’s Financial Fair Play (FFP) Regulations in the context of the European football industry. This study seeks to explore whether these regulations are perceived by member organisations as contributing to the creation of a “poverty trap”. To do so, this study turns towards what are traditionally perceived as smaller clubs operating in smaller member associations and, in doing so, explores whether the regulations limiting benefactor payments are suitable for smaller leagues.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with key individuals involved in the management of Scottish football clubs. The Scottish context was chosen because of the disparity in revenues amongst competing teams and the limited broadcasting revenues achieved in comparison to some other European member associations.

Findings

FFP Regulations are perceived to be an effective tool for monitoring clubs and ensuring financial stability. However, the findings suggest that participants believe that these regulations consolidate the financial position of larger teams who rely on broadcasting and extant brand power for revenue generation. Further, smaller leagues demonstrate a lesser reliance on benefactor payments, and therefore, the restriction on benefactor payments inherent within FFP Regulations is posited by participants as holding little consequence and/or relevance within the Scottish football context.

Originality/value

Most prior studies on FFP Regulations have focused on generating quantitative insight into the application of FFP Regulations in large, resource-rich European football leagues. Through a qualitative approach, this study provides nascent exploratory insight into FFP Regulations from the perspective of smaller leagues.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2022

Patrick Massey and Vincent Hogan

The introduction of professionalism in 1995 posed serious challenges for Rugby Union in Ireland, Scotland and Wales given their limited fan bases and broadcast markets. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The introduction of professionalism in 1995 posed serious challenges for Rugby Union in Ireland, Scotland and Wales given their limited fan bases and broadcast markets. It led to the creation of a new league, the Pro14, with teams from all three countries. The paper asks whether the Pro14 has been a success and whether it might offer lessons for other sports. It thus seeks to extend the knowledge base on professional team sports and derive lessons for management of professional sports leagues in small countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyse Pro14 performance using a range of metrics, including attendances, competitive balance and team performances, in European competitions. The authors also analyse the limited financial data available for Pro14 teams.

Findings

Pro14 teams have competed successfully in European competition, offering support for claims that mergers of smaller country leagues could improve competitive balance in European soccer. The Pro14 has increased attendances through specific measures and increased broadcast income through geographic expansion. Many Pro14 teams have struggled financially. Several English and French rugby clubs have also experienced financial problems, suggesting that European rugby may need to introduce financial fair play rules (FFPs) similar to soccer.

Practical implications

The paper has implications for the Pro14 and its member clubs, particularly with reference to competition design. It may also have lessons for European football where some have suggested that mergers of smaller country leagues could improve competitive balance in European competitions.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the academic discussion on professional team sports, particularly Rugby Union. The paper has implications for Pro14 clubs and league organisers, particularly with reference to competition design. It may also have lessons for European soccer where some have suggested that mergers of smaller country leagues could reduce the dominance of larger country leagues.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Young Joon Park, Fan Zhang and Yeujun Yoon

This study aims to examine the “external effect” of a migrated star player on their domestic sport industries. By exploring the new aspect of star power, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the “external effect” of a migrated star player on their domestic sport industries. By exploring the new aspect of star power, this study provides important insight and critical implication to many relevant stakeholders in the professional sports league. Particularly, this is critical under the recent circumstance where the globalization of sports products becomes the central strategic issue of the world-class leagues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the external effect of star players migrated from three Asian leagues (Japan, Korea and Taiwan) to Major League Baseball in the USA, the world-class baseball league, on their domestic league attendance demand was empirically investigated. For the analysis, comprehensive historical data from various reliable sources from each league were collected.

Findings

The findings of the paper strongly support the external effect of migrated stars significantly existing in all the three leagues. The effect is consistent across various measurements of migrated star players. More interestingly, the effect was found to be mixed across different leagues; for example, migrated star players increases in domestic league attendance in Japan, while it decreases in Korea and Taiwan. This indicates that the external effect of migrated star players depends on the characteristics of the domestic leagues. In addition, it was found that the external effect was substantial enough to compare to the effect of major demand drivers such as team winning, competitive balance and star power. For managerial implications, this study also provides revenue projections induced by the impact of migrated star players.

Originality/value

This study opens a new chapter related to star power topic and immediately calls for future studies regarding this external effect, particularly, theoretical and behavioral approaches.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 January 2022

Ümit Hasan Gözkonan, Selim Baha Yıldız and Erdi Bayram

The new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) has deeply affected football, the most followed sport in the world, financially and socially. The clubs that have been heavily hit…

Abstract

The new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) has deeply affected football, the most followed sport in the world, financially and socially. The clubs that have been heavily hit financially will certainly focus more on the digital world to overcome this problem. Competition in the field will take place in the digital world at the same rate. Three factors will be very important for clubs in the new period: firstly, reassuring the loyal fans' expectation of success as before; secondly, adjusting themselves to the rules of financial fair play and being financially successful; and lastly, meeting the expectations of the new and digitalized fan generation. As a result, the football industry should find the most suitable way for itself, considering the negative consequences of COVID-19 and the changing dynamics of the industry.

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2016

Dan Xiong, Junhao Xiao, Huimin Lu, Zhiwen Zeng, Qinghua Yu, Kaihong Huang, Xiaodong Yi and Zhiqiang Zheng

The purpose of this paper is to design intelligent robots operating in such dynamic environments like the RoboCup Middle-Size League (MSL). In the RoboCup MSL, two teams…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design intelligent robots operating in such dynamic environments like the RoboCup Middle-Size League (MSL). In the RoboCup MSL, two teams of five autonomous robots play on an 18- × 12-m field. Equipped with sensors and on-board computers, each robot should be able to perceive the environment, make decision and control itself to play the soccer game autonomously.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the design of our soccer robots, participating in RoboCup MSL. The mechanical platform, electrical architecture and software framework are discussed separately. The mechanical platform is designed modularly, so easy maintainability is achieved; the electronic architecture is built on industrial standards using PC-based control technique, which results in high robustness and reliability during the intensive and fierce MSL games; the software is developed upon the open-source Robot Operating System (ROS); thus, the advantages of ROS such as modularity, portability and expansibility are inherited.

Findings

Based on this paper and the open-source hardware and software, the MSL robots can be re-developed easily to participate in the RoboCup MSL. The robots can also be used in other research and education fields, especially for multi-robot systems and distributed artificial intelligence. Furthermore, the main designing ideas proposed in the paper, i.e. using a modular mechanical structure, an industrial electronic system and ROS-based software, provide a common solution for designing general intelligent robots.

Originality/value

The methodology of the intelligent robot design for highly competitive and dynamic RoboCup MSL environments is proposed.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

16

Abstract

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Matteo Balliauw and Tomas Van Den Spiegel

Academics have studied the finances of football clubs, but not the financial situation of professional football players. To fill this gap in literature, the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Academics have studied the finances of football clubs, but not the financial situation of professional football players. To fill this gap in literature, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the financial situation of individual players, the causes of financial problems and the probability of encountering financial difficulties.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey has been conducted of 102 players of five clubs in the Belgian first division. Based on this unique data set, a multivariate nominal logistic regression model allows the causes of financial difficulties to be identified. A derived classification model is estimated in order to predict the probability of professional players encountering financial problems.

Findings

About one out of four professional players is confronted with occasional financial problems. Next to the use and investment of income; personal, family and career status factors have a peculiar impact on the individual financial situation of professional sports players.

Practical implications

The results allow better identification of professional players likely to incur financial problems and better assisting them avoid problems.

Originality/value

Given the gap in the sports management literature, the findings from the econometric approach provide both researchers and practitioners with new insights into financial management issues of athletes. The findings may help athletes, their managers and club managers in their decision making. Future research can further build on these findings.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Peter Wilke and Thomas Bräunl

For intelligent robots in a multi‐agent system communication is essential for cooperative behavior. Here we describe the explicit communication between individual robots…

1165

Abstract

For intelligent robots in a multi‐agent system communication is essential for cooperative behavior. Here we describe the explicit communication between individual robots acting as team members of a RoboCup team playing soccer. The robots are based on the EyeBot platform. An overview of communication systems being published and a discussion of their advantages and drawbacks is followed by an introduction into multi‐agent systems and the problems we faced applying them to the task of playing soccer. Then we describe the wireless communication network in detail including the EyeBot platform, message structures, self‐configuration and error recovery. The communication allows transmission of messages between individuals, broadcasts and communication with a remote computer workstation. The communication system is a layer beneath the multi‐robot console, which is the user interface, and above the EyeBot hardware.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Margaret C. Keiper and John Barnes

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of initially controllable market factors on franchise success within NBA's Development League (D-League).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of initially controllable market factors on franchise success within NBA's Development League (D-League).

Design/methodology/approach

The open systems theory provided the foundation for analyzing characteristics contributing to small business success, as measured by attendance capacity for NBA D-League teams. Multiple regression analysis was utilized.

Findings

The results of this study indicate specific market characteristics increase franchise success in NBA's D-League. Population, income, facility size and ownership model all influenced attendance capacity.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the teams that have operated in NBA's D-League. Contextual factors related to new business survival are not unique to minor league basketball and can be applied by scholars or professionals to any new business to help understand new business survival.

Practical implications

This research is also useful to cities looking to invest in a professional sports franchise and for all small business owners to understand market characteristics that can contribute to success.

Originality/value

The results from this study significantly contribute to small business literature by being the first empirical study on NBA's D-League.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Morten Kringstad, Harry Arne Solberg and Tor Georg Jakobsen

Attendance at matches in the smaller European football leagues is challenged by the increased number of live broadcast matches, particularly covering the biggest leagues

1056

Abstract

Purpose

Attendance at matches in the smaller European football leagues is challenged by the increased number of live broadcast matches, particularly covering the biggest leagues. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of live broadcasting, match scheduling and other factors on stadium attendance in the top division of Norwegian football.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a fixed effects regression model on attendance at match levels covering the period 2005 to 2011.

Findings

The main results show two different effects. While live broadcast domestic matches on “free TV” is positively correlated to stadium attendance, the increased number of “imported” matches from the big-five leagues is a substitute. Moreover, matches played on weekdays have a lower level of attendance than weekend matches.

Practical implications

The increased number of imported live broadcast football matches from the biggest European leagues influences and widens the financial gap between the biggest and the smaller football leagues. One possible solution for reducing the substitution effect from these matches is a more efficient match schedule in the Norwegian top division in football.

Originality/value

Norway has a small population with a high interest for football. This paper measures effects on attendance in the Norwegian top division in football matches with regards to the increased number of live broadcast matches both from the domestic league and from the big five football leagues.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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