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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

George Tzetzis, Kostantinos Alexandris and Sophia Kapsampeli

– The purpose of this paper is to test if the service quality model, proposed by Shonk and Chelladurai (2008), can be applied in the context of a small-scale sport event.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test if the service quality model, proposed by Shonk and Chelladurai (2008), can be applied in the context of a small-scale sport event.

Design/methodology/approach

This model proposes the following dimensions: access quality, venue quality and contest quality. Furthermore the study aimed to test if satisfaction acts as a mediator of the relationships between service quality and behavioral intentions.

Findings

The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support for the factorial validity of the service quality model. The psychometric properties of all the scales were satisfactory. In terms of the mediation analysis the results provided partially support for the hypotheses. Satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between access, venue quality and intention and partially mediated the relationship between contest quality and intentions. Furthermore, satisfaction partially mediated all the relationships between the quality dimensions and word-of-mouth communications. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils a need to develop a service quality model and its influence for visitors’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions at small-scale sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Anestis Fotiadis, Chris Vassiliadis and Shang-Pao Yeh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate sports participants’ choice behaviour and draw useful conclusions about the ideal features of small-scale sporting events that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate sports participants’ choice behaviour and draw useful conclusions about the ideal features of small-scale sporting events that maximize attractiveness and desirability among potential competitors to attend and compete.

Design/methodology/approach

Conjoint analysis was used to determine how participants value different elements and features of two small-scale cycling events, one in Taiwan and the other in Greece. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 195 cyclists during the event in Kaohsiung, Taiwan and to 169 competitors of a similar competition in Sfendami, Greece. It consisted of two basic parts. The first presented 19 alternative scenarios that have been associated with such sporting events while the second assessed the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of participant’s in order to provide an average profile of the participants in each location. The conjoint data collected was analysed using the SPSS “Conjoint Module” at the aggregate level (i.e. pooled data).

Findings

Based on the preferences of these amateur cyclists the most important factors for Taiwanese events are “preferred season to organizing the event”, “registration cost”, and “preferred time period”, while those participating in the Greek event emphasized “registration cost” and “scenery”. Overall, the analysis highlights five differences and five similarities that exist between these two countries.

Research limitations/implications

The study is small-scale and although sample sizes are sufficient to be representative of the participants in each event there are limitations in generalizing these results to larger sports meetings and other countries.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide event coordinators and sport marketers practical insights into small-scale event planning and the development of effective marketing strategies designed to appeal to a greater range of participants. Furthermore, the comparative nature of the study can facilitate a transfer of know-how which can be used for development of sport events in Mediterranean area, whose sport events’ organizers can, in the future, more effectively approach potential East Asian participants.

Originality/value

This is the first study to use a combination of seven parameters in conjoint analysis to examine amateur cyclists’ preferences and is one on the few studies to examine the differences between Asian and European participants.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Susana Yu and Dean Leistikow

The purpose of this paper is to examine intra‐industry contagion and the following apparent violations of the efficient market hypothesis around large one‐day price…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine intra‐industry contagion and the following apparent violations of the efficient market hypothesis around large one‐day price decline events in individual stocks.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines daily stock returns around one‐day price declines of 10 percent or more for event stocks and their rivals. Using techniques similar to those used in Bremer and Sweeney and Cox and Peterson, the paper includes event stocks whose prices are at least $10 per share prior to the event to reduce the possible price reversal induced by bid‐ask price bounce. As is typical for the literature, the stock daily abnormal return (AR) is calculated as the difference between the actual daily stock return and the estimated stock return based on the market model estimated over a 200‐trading‐day pre‐event period [−220, −21]. Cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) for each stock are formed by aggregating the individual daily stock ARs. Denoting the large price decline event day as day 0, we examine the ARs of 41 trading days [−20,+20], the CARs for the [+1,+3] period, and the CARs for the [+4,+20] period. Cross‐sectional average ARs and CARs are calculated and tested for statistical significance. Furthermore, the paper examines whether the post‐event abnormal stock returns for the event firm and its rivals can be explained by prior event firm and industry variables.

Findings

On average, after an event, the event stock experiences a positive three‐day AR (S&P 600 stocks) followed by a 17‐day negative AR (both S&P 500 and 600 stocks). Moreover, for that 17‐day period: the rivals' stocks outperform the event firms' stocks and the event firms' returns are statistically significantly related to prior variables. The paper also finds statistically significant relationships between the prior variables and the rivals' post‐event stock returns. It provides an intra‐industry effects explanation for these results.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into abnormal stock returns, for the event firm and its rivals, following the event firm's large one‐day stock price drop.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Antonella Capriello

This chapter discusses emerging issues in event management with a focus on small-scale events. The author reflects on managerial approaches to stakeholder involvement and…

Abstract

This chapter discusses emerging issues in event management with a focus on small-scale events. The author reflects on managerial approaches to stakeholder involvement and engagement, and underlines the complexity of strategy formulation for destination development planning. This contribution also provides advanced conceptual instruments for event marketing as guiding principles that permeate destination-marketing strategies. In addition, the author investigates the role and nature of sponsorship linked to enhancing the value of small-scale events and highlights fundamental issues in developing a marketing management model for place marketing and the key drivers of event management strategies involving sponsors and event participants.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Emma H. Wood

In order to provide a deeper understanding of small business performance the study aims to analyse data from a national survey into small firms in the events sector.

Abstract

Purpose

In order to provide a deeper understanding of small business performance the study aims to analyse data from a national survey into small firms in the events sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis used logistic regression to determine a model which best predicts the performance of these firms. The data used were part of a larger scale and previously published survey into the business activities of small events firms in the UK. The resulting model identifies those organisational variables which greatly influence performance as well as identifying the business activities which have little or no effect on performance.

Findings

The greater influencing factors were found to be related to the age of the business, the variety of promotional methods used and the sources of finance employed. The more significant factors appeared to be those of a shorter term more operational nature whereas those factors having little effect were those that related more closely to areas of strategic planning.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that small firms in the event sector are likely to perform better if they use a variety of promotional methods, make use of quality tools, and use grants rather than family and friends for funding. The use of marketing planning and research and investment in training is unlikely to improve performance, although this may be only in the short term.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the areas of business operations which can significantly affect performance and is, therefore, of practical use for smaller firms operating in this industry. The analysis also uncovers aspects where further research is required if a more comprehensive understanding of small firm performance determinants is to be gained.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Balvinder Kaur Kler

The Climbathon is an annual mountain running championship that takes place in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Participants race to the peak (4,095.2 metres) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The Climbathon is an annual mountain running championship that takes place in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Participants race to the peak (4,095.2 metres) and back, a distance of 21 kilometres of rainforest and mountain terrain, with a steep vertical gain of 2,300 metres. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the first 25 years of the Climbathon and to identify the key success factors behind the staging of this small-scale international sports event in Southeast Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design for this study is interpretive, utilises a qualitative case study approach incorporating analysis of documents, oral history interviews, and personal observations gained through attendance and volunteering at the event which produced six insights, suggested as key success factors for the Climbathon. This study was guided by one key research question, to understand what has ensured the continuity of this small-scale international sports event known as the Climbathon.

Findings

Findings suggest the Climbathon has endured the test of time due to an innovative use of the summit trail, adherence to international sporting regulations, a pro sports tourism public policy led by the tourism ministry, membership to international sports organisations, corporate sponsorship, and a special sense of place towards Mount Kinabalu and the Climbathon for the event organisers, volunteers and officials.

Research limitations/implications

This case study presents knowledge about the Climbathon but findings are not generalisable. Any application of the success factors would have to be as guidelines adapted for a specific sport event. The use of oral history as part of a case study is subjective and open to interpretation. Future work could incorporate interviews with participants, spectators, volunteers and the local sub-committees to gain alternative perspectives.

Originality/value

This study makes an original contribution to the events and tourism field by presenting a case study on the success factors of the Mount Kinabalu International Climbathon. The study suggests a three pillar model of “Place-Plan-People” which may be used as a guiding philosophy for event development and delivery of small-scale international sports tourism events in Asia and elsewhere. The inclusion of oral history as part of a case study research design is novel and useful when knowledge is not available in any published form.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

David Parra-Camacho, Rómulo Jacobo González-García and Manuel Alonso-Dos-Santos

To examine the social impact of a small-scale sporting event and its influence on the willingness to support future events.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the social impact of a small-scale sporting event and its influence on the willingness to support future events.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-supplied questionnaire was used with 248 residents-sportspeople that participated in the Valencia Triathlon. Descriptive analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factorials were done through SPSS, FACTOR and EQS.

Findings

Three dimensions of positive impacts were identified; sporting participation and city image, social development and human capital and economic development. The impacts in sporting participation and in the improvement to the image of the city contribute to positively explaining the willingness to support the holding of sporting events. Local sportspeople highlight their participative component and the projection of the city image as key factors to endorse holding future sporting events as a strategy for tourism.

Research limitations/implications

The convenience sampling limits the extrapolation of the results.

Practical implications

Making the most of the intangible aspects is recommended due to the great potential these events have to generate social capital and increase the networks of social collaboration. Give a more active role to volunteers and local organizers in an organization. Transmit the pride of the community and the sense of belonging to this community to the media and advertising communication.

Social implications

Small scale sporting events can contribute to improving the quality of life, increasing pride, the sense of belonging of the residents, opportunities for entertainment and encouraging local participation.

Originality/value

A contribution to the empirical analysis of the social impact of small-scale sporting events from the perspective of local participants.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2018

Michael B. Duignan, Seth I. Kirby, Danny O’Brien and Sally Everett

This paper aims to examine the role of grassroots (food) festivals for supporting the sustainability of micro and small producers, whilst exploring potential productive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of grassroots (food) festivals for supporting the sustainability of micro and small producers, whilst exploring potential productive linkages between both stakeholders (festivals and producers) for enhancing a more authentic cultural offering and destination image in the visitor economy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is exploratory, qualitative and inductive. Evidence is underpinned by a purposive sample, drawing on ten in-depth interviews and 17 open-ended survey responses collected across 2014 and 2015 – drawing perspectives from traders participating in the EAT Cambridge festival.

Findings

This paper unpacks a series of serendipitous [as opposed to “strategic”] forms of festival and producer leveraging; strengthening B2C relationships and stimulating business to business networking and creative entrepreneurial collaborations. Positive emergent “embryonic” forms of event legacy are identified that support the longer-term sustainability of local producers and contribute towards an alternative idea of place and destination, more vibrant and authentic connectivity with localities and slower visitor experiences.

Originality/value

This study emphasises the importance of local bottom-up forms of “serendipitous leverage” for enhancing positive emergent “embryonic” legacies that advance “slow” tourism and local food agendas. In turn, this enhances the cultural offering and delivers longer-term sustainability for small local producers – particularly vital in the era of “Clone Town” threats and effects. The paper applies Chalip’s (2004) event leverage model to the empirical setting of EAT Cambridge and conceptually advances the framework by integrating “digital” forms of leverage.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Yunduk Jeong and Sukkyu Kim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structural relationships between destination image, tourist satisfaction, attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty, with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structural relationships between destination image, tourist satisfaction, attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty, with an emphasis on the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction on the relation between destination image and loyalty in the context of a small-scale recurring sporting event held in Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

Validity and reliability of the measurement scale were proved through a confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach’s α analyses and correlation analyses. A structural equation modeling test with maximum likelihood estimation was conducted to test the relationships among the research variables using 440 participants.

Findings

The results revealed destination image had a direct influence on tourist satisfaction, attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty, and that tourist satisfaction had a direct influence on attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty. Moreover, tourist satisfaction was found to partially mediate relationships between destination image and attitudinal loyalty, and between destination image and behavioral loyalty.

Practical implications

First, destination marketers and organizers of a small event should provide tourists with an international or domestic newsletter of the small event. Second, destination marketers should place well-educated employees at popular hotels and restaurants and the event organizers should arrange that trained volunteers be positioned at stadiums, to enable tourists to find the locations of interest, which would help develop a positive image of the destination. Third, marketers and organizers should actively use social media to improve destination images and promote sporting events.

Originality/value

The authors offer a new perspective of tourist satisfaction as a mediating effect. Existing studies show tourist satisfaction fully mediates on the relation between destination image and loyalty, but the present study shows tourist satisfaction partially mediates this relation. In this respect, the term “sporting event” should be regarded important when attempting to understand tourist psychology and behavior because the level of tourist satisfaction can be affected by a term like “sporting event” in the mediating effect context.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Terry Eddy and Benjamin Colin Cork

The purpose of this paper is to measure participants’ sponsorship awareness, and assess a model designed to predict participants’ behavioral intentions toward the sponsors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure participants’ sponsorship awareness, and assess a model designed to predict participants’ behavioral intentions toward the sponsors of the Fayetteville Race Series.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on non-experimental survey research design using path analysis.

Findings

Perceived sponsor goodwill had a positive direct effect on participants’ sponsor behavioral intentions, as well as a positive indirect effect partially mediated by sponsor image. Sponsor image and future event participation also had positive direct effects on behavioral intentions. Overall, participants had very positive perceptions of the sponsors’ goodwill and image, and indicated positive future intentions. Participants’ ability to identify event sponsors through aided recall was inconsistent between the two events studied.

Practical implications

The positive outcomes for sponsors observed in this study should make small, regional, participant-based sport events appealing marketing channels, especially for generating goodwill in the community. Further, even small sponsorship spends can have a significant impact on these smaller events, since traditional funding sources continue to be cut.

Originality/value

Existing literature on sponsorship of participant sport-based events has generally focused on large events (i.e. marathons that draw participants nationally), despite the prevalence of smaller scale, regional events around the world.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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