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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2007

J.M.P. Venter and B. de Clercq

In his 2006 State of the Nation Address, President Thabo Mbeki indicated that the regulatory environment for small businesses would be improved, as this sector plays an…

Abstract

In his 2006 State of the Nation Address, President Thabo Mbeki indicated that the regulatory environment for small businesses would be improved, as this sector plays an important role in the national strategy for accelerated and shared growth. The aim of this study is to determine whether the size of an enterprise and the sector in which the enterprise operates has an impact on how the enterprise’s tax responsibilities are administered and managed. A survey was conducted amongst small and medium enterprises in the manufacturing, retail and business services sectors in Gauteng. The study focused on Gauteng because the majority of small, medium and microenterprises (SMMEs) are located in this province. The study found that most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the business services sector outsource their tax responsibilities because they lack the time needed to manage these functions. It was also found that the size and type of organisation affects the role taxation inputs play in business decisions. The SMEs included in the survey preferred a reduction in interest and penalties charged as a taxation relief measure.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2007

J.M.P. Venter and B. de Clercq

In his 2006 State of the Nation Address, President Thabo Mbeki indicated that the regulatory environment for small businesses would be improved, as this sector plays an…

Abstract

In his 2006 State of the Nation Address, President Thabo Mbeki indicated that the regulatory environment for small businesses would be improved, as this sector plays an important role in the national strategy for accelerated and shared growth. The aim of this study is to determine whether the size of an enterprise and the sector in which the enterprise operates has an impact on how the enterprise’s tax responsibilities are administered and managed. A survey was conducted amongst small and medium enterprises in the manufacturing, retail and business services sectors in Gauteng. The study focused on Gauteng because the majority of small, medium and microenterprises (SMMEs) are located in this province. The study found that most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the business services sector outsource their tax responsibilities because they lack the time needed to manage these functions. It was also found that the size and type of organisation affects the role taxation inputs play in business decisions. The SMEs included in the survey preferred a reduction in interest and penalties charged as a taxation relief measure.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Bill Richardson

This paper explains what business planning is and why it is being criticized. It differentiates between business planning (which focuses on the strategic development of…

Abstract

This paper explains what business planning is and why it is being criticized. It differentiates between business planning (which focuses on the strategic development of the small firm or business unit) and corporate planning (which deals with the strategic direction and activities of the bigger, multi‐operation corporation). Ultimately, the paper comes to the defence of business planning by identifying where and how it can still be a useful tool for organizational leaders to employ in their job and primary drivers of the strategic development function. The secret of successful business planning is to use it in appropriate contexts as one aspect of a more comprehensive repertoire of strategic leadership approaches and to avoid the pitfalls which detract from its otherwise efficacy.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Eric L. Teksten, Steven B. Moser and Dennis J. Elbert

Today the governance and management structure of business organizations, particularly publicly traded corporations uti lizes a board of directors. Organization use of…

Abstract

Today the governance and management structure of business organizations, particularly publicly traded corporations uti lizes a board of directors. Organization use of boards of directors is considered an openly accepted and utilized structure to provide leadership and management direction in business organization. Because large public companies recognize the value to the corporation and because of the increased regulatory requirements placed on publicly traded companies, the use of boards of directors are strongly endorsed. For small businesses and privately held companies, however, a board of directors is not always viewed as a useful part of the corporate structure. This paper reports on the results of a study which focused on the board functions and operations of small privately held corporations. A survey of 180 small, of ten family owned, non‐public corporations was conducted in one Mid western state. The study corroborated the expanding body of literature suggesting the lack of formality in board functions for small privately held companies. Critical factors influencing board function and action included needs of the company, abilities of the directors, sophistication of ownership and management, as well as life cycle stage, percent of family ownership and trading status of the corporation’s stock.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2014

Michael T. Schaper

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of the SME sector in Australia, concentrating on a number of key areas: small business definitions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of the SME sector in Australia, concentrating on a number of key areas: small business definitions and numbers; the role of government; the emergence of key industry groups; and the evolution of education, training and research services.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a result of extensive literature reviews, desk research and the recollections of various participants in the field.

Findings

There have been major changes to the Australian small business sector over the last 40 years. In 1983-1984 there were an estimated 550,000 small firms, and by 2010 this had grown to almost two million. Government involvement in, and support for, SMEs was virtually non-existent before 1970. Following the delivery of the Wiltshire report (1971), however, both state and federal governments responded by developing specialist advisory services, funding programmes and other support tools. Virtually non-existent before the 1970s, several peak industry associations were formed between 1977 and the 1990s. At the same time, formal education and teaching in the area expanded in the 1970s and 1980s and is now widespread.

Practical implications

Development of the small business sector in Australia has often paralleled similar trends in other OECD nations. State and territory governments have often (but not always) been the principal drivers of policy change.

Originality/value

There has been no little, if any, prior documentation of the evolution of the small business sector in Australia in the last 40 years.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

M. Balachandran

The institution of an annual series devoted to current and ongoing research in economics and business should be considered one of the notable developments during the…

Abstract

The institution of an annual series devoted to current and ongoing research in economics and business should be considered one of the notable developments during the period under review. Long standing need for such a reference not withstanding, there has been until this year no systematic attempt to organize a continuing series which concentrated on selected areas of ongoing research, especially adapted to the Jahrbucher format. By facilitating the publication of research papers which are longer than the conventional journal‐length article yet shorter than a monograph, publishing outlets available to scholars in the field have been infinitely expanded. Two years ago, the Royal Economic Society and the Social Science Research Council of Great Britain, developed an experimental series, published by Macmillan, entitled Surveys of Applied Economics. The JAI Press, Greenwich, Conn., has now come out with an annual series, which is expected to fill the gaps in at least seventeen areas of economic theory and business. These are briefly listed below, with pertinent bibliographical citations: Research in Economic Anthropology: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, George Dalton. vol. 1. Sept. 1977‐ $22.00 ISBN 0‐89232‐040‐9; Research in Economic History: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Paul Uselding. vol. 1. Sept. 1976‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐001‐X; Research in Health Economics: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Richard M. Scheffler. vol. 1. Sept. 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐042‐7; Research in Human Capital and Development: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Ismail Sirageldin. vol. 1. June/July 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐019‐2; Research in International Business and Finance: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Robert G. Hawkins. vol. 1. May/June 1977‐ $23.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐031‐1; Research in Labor Economics: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Ronald G. Ehrenberg. vol. 1. March 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐017‐6; Research in Law and Economics: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Richard O. Zerbe. vol. 1. Sept. 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐028‐1; Research in Marketing: An Annual Compilation in Research. Series editor, Jagdish N. Sheth. vol. 1. June 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐041‐9; Research in Philosophy and Technology: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Paul T. Durbin. vol. 1. March 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐022‐2; Research in Political Economy: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Paul Zarembka. vol. 1. Sept. 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐020‐6; Research in Population Economics: An Annual Compilation of Research. Series editor, Julian L. Simon. vol. 1. April 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐018‐4; Applications of Management Science. Series editor, Matthew J. Sobel. vol. 1. 1977‐ $22.50. ISBN 0‐89232‐023‐0; Research in Econometrics. Series editor, Dennis J. Aigner. vol. 1. 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐039‐7; Research in Experimental Economics. Series editor, Vernon L. Smith. vol. 1. 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐030‐3; Research in Finance. Series editor, Haim Levy. vol. 1. 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐043‐5; Research in Organizational Behavior. Series editor, Barry Staw. vol. 1. 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐045‐1; Research in Public Policy and Management. Series editor, Colin Blaydon. vol. 1. 1977‐ $22.50 ISBN 0‐89232‐044‐3.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

D. Scheepers

The progressive importance of the small business sector to the facilitation of economic growth that is necessary for the creation of job opportunities in South Africa…

Abstract

The progressive importance of the small business sector to the facilitation of economic growth that is necessary for the creation of job opportunities in South Africa, cannot be overemphasised. The role which tax reform plays in the encouragement of the small business sector is of the utmost importance in providing an enabling environment. The purpose of this article is to address the less advantageous treatment of, especially, assessed losses in the corporate form as opposed to the non‐corporate form. In the course thereof an alternative tax proposal, based on the working of the S Corporation in the United States of America, is put forward, which could improve neutrality between the various enterprise forms. The tax treatment and functioning of the S Corporation is investigated to determine the applicability and practicality of such a treatment of assessed losses and profits for the corporate form in South Africa. Such an application is necessary because of the assumed influence that the treatment of assessed losses have in the choice of an enterprise form. This choice should, however, be based on economic considerations rather than on tax considerations. A neutral tax system should not influence people to choose one course of action above another mainly or solely because their position is more favourable under one of the options.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Marc Johnstone

The purpose of this article is to help corporates learn from the small business owner so they can implement winning strategies in their own business and/or also sell more…

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to help corporates learn from the small business owner so they can implement winning strategies in their own business and/or also sell more effectively to their customers, the small business owner. Shirlaws has 250 small business clients globally and has spent ten years developing its models in the marketplace. These strategies can be applied to any corporate. Just as importantly, Shirlaws knowledge of small businesses can provide corporates insights into their client base to increase sales and improve customer retention.

Details

Handbook of Business Strategy, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1077-5730

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

Stephen M. Mutula and P. Van Brakel

The paper aims to present the findings of an empirical study carried out as part of an ICT (Information and Communications Technology) data‐gathering exercise that would…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present the findings of an empirical study carried out as part of an ICT (Information and Communications Technology) data‐gathering exercise that would culminate in the promulgation of a national ICT policy for Botswana. The purpose of the study is to characterize the ICT sector in terms of, among other things, the skills needs in the sector for the purpose of powering the emerging digital economy. Moreover, the study – through review of literature – extends, to cover the status of ICT skills for the digital economy both in developed and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used qualitative design. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from key stakeholders in the ICT sector. The stakeholders included: ICT enterprises, Citizen Owned IT companies lobby group (CORBIT), Botswana Telecommunication Corporation, Botswana Power Corporation, business community, academia, and legal experts. Data collected were analyzed using thematic categorization. Results were presented using descriptive and narrative form.

Findings

The findings generally suggest that there is an acute global shortage of high skilled and hands‐on personnel necessary for steering the emerging digital economy in both developed and developing countries including Botswana. In addition, there is a serious skills gap for certified specialists to help develop the sophisticated applications necessary to power the digital economy and more so the applications that depend on it.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical part of the study was limited to the ICT sector of the economy in Botswana. A similar study covering all sectors of the national economy will provide a complete picture of ICT skills needs for the nation and its preparedness to partake in the emerging digital economy.

Practical implications

ICT, particularly the internet, is having a significant impact on the operations of business enterprises and is claimed to be essential for the survival and growth of nations' economies. Botswana Government has realized the folly of depending largely on diamond mining for long‐term economic development. Consequently, it is encouraging the development of the ICT sector as a way to diversify its economy and position itself to play a leading role in the global emerging digital economy.

Originality/value

This study provides a framework for ICT skills development strategies that can enable countries to participate competitively in the emerging digital economy.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Kathleen Grace

Small businesses file taxes in accordance with the personal income tax code because they are considered flow-through entities. Thus, personal income tax reforms directly…

Abstract

Purpose

Small businesses file taxes in accordance with the personal income tax code because they are considered flow-through entities. Thus, personal income tax reforms directly affect the incentives small business owners face regarding employment and operations. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the changes in personal income tax rates during the 1993 and 2001-2003 reforms and micro-level data to estimate the effect of statutory tax rate changes on small business employment decisions.

Findings

The authors add two contributions to the current literature: first, the author allow for intertemporal tax planning and second, the author allow the firm’s decision to employ labor to be correlated with the firm’s wage bill decision. Estimation of a Heckman selection model for wage bills shows that the probability that a business will employ labor is 1.18 percent higher when current tax rates increase by one percentage point and 0.70 percent lower when future rates are expected to increase by one percentage point. Among firms that already employ labor, the median wage bill elasticity with respect to current tax rates is −0.64. These estimates are larger than those reported in previous research because my model includes future taxes and allows for correlation between the firm’s employment and wage bill decisions. Omitting the intertemporal tax responses biases the estimates of previous researchers upwards, whereas assuming the two firm decisions are independent biases estimates towards zero.

Originality/value

This paper has been cited in publications published in Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy.

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