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Book part
Publication date: 9 July 2004

Dawn T Robinson, Christabel L Rogalin and Lynn Smith-Lovin

After a vigorous debate in the late 1970s, the sociology of emotion put aside most discussion of whether or not the physiological arousal associated with emotion labels is…

Abstract

After a vigorous debate in the late 1970s, the sociology of emotion put aside most discussion of whether or not the physiological arousal associated with emotion labels is differentiated. Since this early period, scholars have made great progress on two fronts. First, theories about the interrelationship of identity, action and emotion have specified a family of new concepts related to emotion. Second, a large corpus of research on the physiological correlates of emotional experience emerged. In this chapter, we review the well-developed control theories of identity and emotion, and focus on the key concepts that might relate to different physiological states. We then review the general classes of physiological measures, discussing their reliability, intrusiveness and other features that might determine their usefulness for tracking responses to social interaction. We then offer a highly provisional mapping of physiological measures onto the concepts that they might potentially measure, given past research about how these physiological processes relate to environmental stimuli. While any linkage between concepts and measures must be speculative at this point, we hope that this review will serve as a stimulus to theoretically guided research that begins to assess the validity of these new measures for sociological use.

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Theory and Research on Human Emotions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-108-8

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Fatima Isiaka, Salihu Aish Abdulkarim, Kassim Mwitondi and Zainab Adamu

Detecting emotion on user experience of web applications and browsing is important in many ways. Web designers and developers find such approach quite useful in enhancing…

Abstract

Purpose

Detecting emotion on user experience of web applications and browsing is important in many ways. Web designers and developers find such approach quite useful in enhancing navigational features of webpages, and biomedical personnel regularly use computer simulations to monitor and control the behaviour of patients. On the other hand, law enforcement agents rely on human physiological functions to determine the likelihood of falsehood in interrogations. Quite often, online user experience is studied via tangible measures such as task completion time, surveys and comprehensive tests from which data attributes are generated. Prediction of users' emotion and behaviour in some of these cases depends mostly on task completion time and number of clicks per given time interval. However, such approaches are generally subjective and rely heavily on distributional assumptions making the results prone to recording errors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a novel method-a window dynamic control system that addresses the foregoing issues. Primary data were obtained from laboratory experiments during which forty-four volunteers had their synchronised physiological readings, skin conductance response (SCR), skin temperature (ST), eye movement behaviour and users’ activity attributes taken using biosensors. The window-based dynamic control system (PHYCOB I) is integrated to the biosensor which collects secondary data attributes from these synchronised physiological readings and uses them for two purposes. For both detection of optimal emotional responses and users' stress levels. The method's novelty derives from its ability to integrate physiological readings and eye movement records to identify hidden correlates on a webpage.

Findings

Results show that the control system detects basic emotions and outperforms other conventional models in terms of both accuracy and reliability, when subjected to model comparison that is, the average recoverable natural structures for the three models with respect to accuracy and reliability are more consistent within the window-based control system environment than with the conventional methods.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to using a window control system to detect emotions on webpages, while integrated to biosensors and eye-tracker.

Originality/value

The originality of the proposed model is its resistance to overfitting and its ability to automatically assess human emotion (stress levels) while dealing with specific web contents. The latter is particularly important in that it can be used to predict which contents of webpages cause stress-induced emotions to users when involved in online activities.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Fatima M. Isiaka, Awwal Adamu and Zainab Adamu

Basic capturing of emotion on user experience of web applications and browsing is important in many ways. Quite often, online user experience is studied via tangible…

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Abstract

Purpose

Basic capturing of emotion on user experience of web applications and browsing is important in many ways. Quite often, online user experience is studied via tangible measures such as task completion time, surveys and comprehensive tests from which data attributes are generated. Prediction of users’ emotion and behaviour in some of these cases depends mostly on task completion time and number of clicks per given time interval. However, such approaches are generally subjective and rely heavily on distributional assumptions making the results prone to recording errors. This paper aims to propose a novel method – a window dynamic control system – that addresses the foregoing issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were obtained from laboratory experiments during which 44 volunteers had their synchronized physiological readings – skin conductance response, skin temperature, eye movement behaviour and users activity attributes taken by biosensors. The window-based dynamic control system (PHYCOB I) is integrated to the biosensor which collects secondary data attributes from these synchronized physiological readings and uses them for two purposes: for detection of both optimal emotional responses and users’ stress levels. The method’s novelty derives from its ability to integrate physiological readings and eye movement records to identify hidden correlates on a webpage.

Findings

The results from the analyses show that the control system detects basic emotions and outperforms other conventional models in terms of both accuracy and reliability, when subjected to model comparison – that is, the average recoverable natural structures for the three models with respect to accuracy and reliability are more consistent within the window-based control system environment than with the conventional methods.

Research limitations/implications

Graphical simulation and an example scenario are only provided for the control’s system design.

Originality/value

The novelty of the proposed model is its strained resistance to overfitting and its ability to automatically assess user emotion while dealing with specific web contents. The procedure can be used to predict which contents of webpages cause stress-induced emotions to users.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Gabriel Levrini, Cristian Luis Schaeffer and Walter Nique

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to analyze whether musical priming induces greater recall of brands and, second, to study the emotional priming effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to analyze whether musical priming induces greater recall of brands and, second, to study the emotional priming effects of music, in comparison with non-emotional music, including gender comparison.

Design/methodology/approach

Through the utilization of neuromarketing tools and protocols (quantitative and qualitative), the study explores facial eltromyography (EMG) capabilities and skin conductance responses (SCR) measuring consumers’ emotional responses.

Findings

The findings show that at least, 40 percent of the total sample recognized a musical priming effect. The study measures the emotional response to musical priming as positive. Emotional video recognition was much higher in females. Both the self-report and physiological measures support the notion that emotional background music can elicit emotional responses in consumers.

Research limitations/implications

The research measured emotional response to musical priming without testing how these responses influence consumers’ attention and overall behavior.

Practical implications

The five senses, especially hearing, play an important role in the purchasing decision process and in the individual customer experience. People become aware of the products and brands that surround them and make their choice. In terms of digital trading activities and online sales, increasing physiological understanding of musical priming reactions may mean that, for companies, selling low-end online goods may be economically worthwhile to cooperate with platforms such as Spotify or iTunes to select individual users.

Social implications

More research is needed in priming process techniques in order to better understand how primes activate knowledge in the consumer’s mind. Understanding this process will inform marketers how close a prime needs to be to a target to have an effective influence, as well as when marketers should be concerned about negative priming effects.

Originality/value

At the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that music priming is analyzed in terms of self-report and physiological measures From the measurement’s perspective, the results reaffirm that physiological and self-report measures capture different levels of information. While SCR and EMG capture real-time subconscious responses, MAN scale self-report data provide information regarding how cognitive effort, in terms of intensity and valence, affects brand recall.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

V. Kumar, Veena Chattaraman, Carmen Neghina, Bernd Skiera, Lerzan Aksoy, Alexander Buoye and Joerg Henseler

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the benefits of data‐driven services marketing and provide a conceptual framework for how to link traditional and new…

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7606

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the benefits of data‐driven services marketing and provide a conceptual framework for how to link traditional and new sources of customer data and their metrics. Linking data and metrics to strategic and tactical business insights and integrating a variety of metrics into a forward‐looking dashboard to measure marketing ROI and guide future marketing spend is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

A detailed synthesis of the literature is conducted and contemporary sources of marketing data are categorized into traditional, digital and neurophysiological. The benefits and drawbacks of each data type are described and advantages of integrating different sources of data are proposed.

Findings

The findings point to the importance and untapped potential of data in its ability to inform tactical and strategic marketing decisions. Future challenges, including top management support, ethical considerations and developing data and analytic capabilities, are discussed.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate the need for executive service marketing dashboards that include key metrics that are service‐relevant, complementary and forward‐looking, with proven linkages to business outcomes.

Originality/value

This paper provides a synthesis of data‐driven services marketing and the value of traditional and contemporary metrics. Since the true potential of data‐driven service management in a connected world is still largely unexplored, this paper also delineates fruitful avenues for future research.

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Anurag Sharma, Arun Khosla, Mamta Khosla and Yogeshwara Rao M.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the face processing responses of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using skin conductance response (SCR) patterns…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the face processing responses of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using skin conductance response (SCR) patterns and to compare it with typically developed (TD) children.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments have been designed to analyze the effect of face processing. In the first experiment, learned non-face (objects) vs unknown face stimuli have been shown and in the second experiment, familiar vs unfamiliar face stimuli have been shown to ten ASD and ten TD children and SCR patterns have been recorded, analyzed and compared for both the groups.

Findings

It has been observed that children with ASD were able to differentiate faces out of learned non-face stimuli and their SCR patterns were similar as TD children in the first experiment. In the second experiment, children with ASD were unable to recognize familiar faces from unfamiliar faces but TD children could easily discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar faces as their SCR patterns were different from children with ASD.

Research limitations/implications

The present study advocates that impairment in face identification exists in children with ASD. Hence, it can be concluded that in children with ASD face processing is present but they do not recognize familiar faces or it can be said that face familiarization effect is absent in children with ASD.

Originality/value

There are very few findings that used SCR signal as main analysis parameter for face processing in children with ASD, in most of the studies; Electroencephalography signal has been used as analysis parameter. Moreover, familiar and unfamiliar face processing with multiple stimuli used in present work adds novelty to the literature.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2011

Ciara Staunton and Sean Hammond

The Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) is a psychophysiological questioning technique that can be used as part of a polygraph examination which purports to assess whether…

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2136

Abstract

The Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) is a psychophysiological questioning technique that can be used as part of a polygraph examination which purports to assess whether suspects conceal “guilty knowledge” by measuring their physiological responses while responding to a series of multiple choice questions. The present study sets out to consider a number of key issues in relation to the GKT paradigm. Specifically, the following questions were considered: Does response mode matter? Does motivation influence outcome? Are combined physiological measures better than single ones? Does gender have an effect on physiological responsivity during a polygraph examination? Results demonstrated real variations between the physiological measures used. Gender differences were also observed in polygraph response patterns. These findings are discussed in relation to the validity of the Guilty Knowledge Test.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Sebastiano Massaro

In light of the growing interest in neuroscience within the managerial and organizational cognition (MOC) scholarly domain at large, this chapter advances current…

Abstract

In light of the growing interest in neuroscience within the managerial and organizational cognition (MOC) scholarly domain at large, this chapter advances current knowledge on core neuroscience methods. It does so by building on the theoretical analysis put forward by Healey and Hodgkinson (2014, 2015), and by offering a thorough – yet accessible – methodological framework for a better understanding of key cognitive and social neuroscience methods. Classifying neuroscience methods based on their degree of resolution, functionality, and anatomical focus, the chapter outlines their features, practicalities, advantages and disadvantages. Specifically, it focuses on functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, heart rate variability, and skin conductance response. Equipped with knowledge of these methods, researchers will be able to further their understanding of the potential synergies between management and neuroscience, to better appreciate and evaluate the value of neuroscience methods, and to look at new ways to frame old and new research questions in MOC. The chapter also builds bridges between researchers and practitioners by rebalancing the hype and hopes surrounding the use of neuroscience in management theory and practice.

Details

Methodological Challenges and Advances in Managerial and Organizational Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-677-0

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

João Guerreiro, Paulo Rita and Duarte Trigueiros

– The purpose of this study is to explain how cognitive and emotional responses may influence decisions to purchase cause-related products.

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7083

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain how cognitive and emotional responses may influence decisions to purchase cause-related products.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design clarifies how autonomic reactions determine altruistic choices in a simulated shopping environment. Eye-tracking and electrodermal response measurements were set to predict choices of hedonic vs utilitarian cause-related vs unrelated products.

Findings

Emotional arousal, pleasure and attention to the cause-related bundle are associated with altruistic behaviour in hedonic choices. When facing utilitarian choices, customers focus on brand logo and donation amount while experiencing pleasure, but emotional arousal does not increase marketing effectiveness in this case.

Research limitations/implications

The experiment may be replicated in the real-world shopping environment, but spurious influences will be difficult to control. Distracting cues such as background music and scents used to increase positive emotions may affect intensity of emotive and cognitive processes.

Practical implications

The results highlight the prominence of automatic reactions in customers’ choices. In the present instance, managers’ effort should be directed to the raising of altruistic visual cues of the donation-based promotion and positive emotional responses through guilt reducing effects.

Originality/value

The study pioneers the use of eye-tracking coupled with skin conductance measurement in experimental designs aimed at clarifying the role of autonomic reactions such as emotional arousal, pleasure and attention in the effectiveness of emotionally charged marketing campaigns.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Gökhan Kazar and Semra Comu

Construction work involves high-risk activities and requires intense focus and physical exertion. Accordingly, working conditions at construction sites contribute to…

Abstract

Purpose

Construction work involves high-risk activities and requires intense focus and physical exertion. Accordingly, working conditions at construction sites contribute to physical fatigue and mental stress in workers, which is the primary cause of accidents. This study aims to examine the relation between construction accidents and physiological variables, indicative of physical fatigue and mental stress.

Design/methodology/approach

Four different real-time physiological values of the construction workers were measured including blood sugar level (BSL), electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate (HR) and skin temperature (ST). The data were collected from 21 different workers during the summer and winter seasons. Both seasonal and hourly correlation analyses were performed between the construction accidents and the four physiological variables gathered.

Findings

The analysis results demonstrate that BSL values of the workers are correlated inversely with construction accidents taking place before lunch break. In addition, except BSL a significant seasonal association between the physiological variables and construction accidents was found.

Originality/value

It is disclosed that variations in physiological risk factors at certain working periods pose a high risk for construction workers. Therefore, efficient work-cycle rests can be arranged to provide frequent but short breaks for workers to overcome such issues. Besides, an early warning system could be introduced to monitor the real-time physiological values of the workers.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

1 – 10 of 270