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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2017

Rolf van der Velden and Dieter Verhaest

The explicit assumption in most literature on educational and skill mismatches is that these mismatches are inherently costly for workers. However, the results in the…

Abstract

The explicit assumption in most literature on educational and skill mismatches is that these mismatches are inherently costly for workers. However, the results in the literature on the effects of underqualification or underskilling on wages and job satisfaction only partly support this hypothesis. Rather than assuming that both skill surpluses and skill deficits are inherently costly for workers, we interpret these mixed findings by taking a learning perspective on skill mismatches. Following the theory of Vygotski on the so-called “zone of proximal development,” we expect that workers who start their job with a small skill deficit, show more skill growth than workers who start in a matching job or workers with a more severe skill deficit. We test this hypothesis using the Cedefop European skills and jobs survey (ESJS) and the results confirm these expectations. Workers learn more from job tasks that are more demanding than if they would work in a job that perfectly matches their initial skill level and this skill growth is largest for those who start with a small skill deficit. The learning opportunities are worst when workers start in a job for which they have a skill surplus. This is reflected in the type of learning activities that workers take up. Workers with a small skill deficit are more often engaged in informal learning activities. Finally, workers who started with a small skill deficit are no less satisfied with their job than workers who started in a well-matched job. We conclude that a skill match is good for workers, but a small skill deficit is even better. This puts some responsibility on employers to keep job tasks and responsibilities at a challenging level for their employees.

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Skill Mismatch in Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-377-7

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Asad Khan, Mohamad Noorman Masrek and Fuziah Mohd Nadzar

– The purpose of this study is to assess the training needs on emotional intelligence (EI) of librarians serving in the university libraries of Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the training needs on emotional intelligence (EI) of librarians serving in the university libraries of Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was used to gather data from a randomly selected sample of Pakistani university librarians. A paired sample t-test was used to examine the significance of difference between the four indicators of EI. Further, descriptive statistics were used to assess the training needs on EI.

Findings

The difference between all indicators of EI was found to be significant. The results showed less than 50 per cent of deficit, more than 50 per cent of surplus and 20 per cent of job best fit in terms of EI of university librarians. Further, results illustrated that librarians require training to cover the skill deficiencies. Similarly, top-down allocation of tasks is required to produce more person-job fit and control surplus or over utilisation of the skills.

Practical implications

Findings of this study have several implications for university librarians, such as designing of training programs, incorporation of EI in the performance evaluation to investigate the causes of deficit and surplus in EI, etc.

Originality/value

This study is a first attempt that extended the scope of EI towards librarianship in Pakistan. The findings probably motivate university librarians to improve the current level of their EI.

Details

Library Review, vol. 64 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

Clifton P. Campbell

By supplying the skilled workers needed, occupational training plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of a healthy economy. Although planners are not accountable for…

Abstract

By supplying the skilled workers needed, occupational training plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of a healthy economy. Although planners are not accountable for ensuring a perfect fit between training offerings and employment opportunities, they should anticipate shortages and surpluses of skilled workers. Decision makers can then take corrective action to expand, improve, curtail, or discontinue existing training or add new offerings. In order to discern skilled worker shortages/surpluses, the labour market demand must be determined. Workforce projection and forecasting approaches and labour market signalling approaches are used to make these determinations. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach must be considered when selecting the ones to use. Discusses a number of viable approaches and lists their strengths and weaknesses in tables to facilitate comparisons. Also includes supplemental instruments as examples and to provide guidance in determining workforce requirements. An appendix defines the terminology used.

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Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Anjula Gurtoo

This paper seeks to develop a framework for Indian labour reforms that lay emphasis on economic growth and social development by balancing growth needs of firms and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to develop a framework for Indian labour reforms that lay emphasis on economic growth and social development by balancing growth needs of firms and socio‐economic imperatives of a developing nation. It proposes four management systems and details their interactional dynamics at three levels, namely, at the level of economic security, employment regulation and system flexibility.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a literature review of current developments in India with respect to employment, and an analysis of existing labour relations frameworks for similar country contexts.

Findings

Labour relations in developing countries is characterised by recent shift to market driven external environment, economically vulnerable surplus labour, low skills, inflexible employment laws, politicised unions with low labour representation, and low corporate involvement in governance. There is a need for policy changes that incorporate economic stability for labour, employment regulation for organisational flexibility, union management for true representation and corporate contribution in labour security and governance.

Originality/value

While market driven, privatization policy regime, are being adopted as a strategy by developing economies to promote economic growth, the resultant need for constant innovation faced by the organisations demand a new policy system for effective labour regulation. Governments are unable to define an effective labour relations policy, constrained and discouraged by the difficulty in balancing the socio‐economic complexity of a developing country. The framework proposed in this paper is a multilevel model, which allows for more efficient and socially effective balance between needs of the firm and the labour.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Jørgen Goul Andersen

This chapter analyses the recovery of the Danish economy from the crisis of the 1980s, its elevation to a bit of an ‘economic miracle’ or at least an ‘employment miracle…

Abstract

This chapter analyses the recovery of the Danish economy from the crisis of the 1980s, its elevation to a bit of an ‘economic miracle’ or at least an ‘employment miracle’ from 1995 to 2005 and its subsequent decline during the financial crisis, which revealed more long-standing problems that precluded a quick recovery. The solution of Denmark's structural balance of payment problems in the early 1990s paved the way for long-term prosperity, and Denmark managed the challenges of globalisation and deindustrialisation almost without social costs. However, an accumulation of short-term policy failures and credit liberalisation facilitated a credit and housing bubble, a consumption-driven boom and declining competitiveness. In broad terms, the explanation is political; this includes not only vote- and office-seeking strategies of the incumbent government but also ideational factors such as agenda setting of economic policy. Somewhat unnoticed – partly because of preoccupation with long-term challenges of ageing and shortage of labour – productivity and economic growth rates had slowed down over several years. The Danish decline in GDP 2008–2009 was larger than in the 1930s, and after the bubble burst, there were few drivers of economic growth. Households consolidated and were reluctant to consume; public consumption had to be cut as well; exports increased rather slowly; and in this climate, there was little room for private investments. Financially, the Danish economy remained healthy, though. Current accounts revealed record-high surpluses after the financial crisis; state debt remained moderate, and if one were to include the enormous retained taxes in private pension funds, net state debt would de facto be positive. Still, around 2010–2011 there were few short-term drivers of economic growth, and rather unexpectedly, it turned out that unemployment problems were likely to prevail for several years.

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The Nordic Varieties of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-778-0

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Abstract

Details

Histories of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-997-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Mohamed Mohamud, Chris Jennings, Mike Rix and Jeff Gold

Aims to consider scenarios created by work‐based learning (WBL) providers in the Tees Valley in the UK

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to consider scenarios created by work‐based learning (WBL) providers in the Tees Valley in the UK

Design/methodology/approach

The context of WBL is examined in relation to the notion of the skills gap. The method of scenario development is described

Findings

A key task of WBL is to raise the skills levels of young people. WBL providers who deliver over 80 per cent of work‐based, vocational learning across the UK. However, the future of such providers is becoming very uncertain and already their numbers are declining as funding cuts and quality inspections begin to bite. The context of WBL is examined in relation to the notion of the skills gap. Four scenarios are presented of the future of WBL with implications for the present.

Practical implications

Of major concern is the persistence of the low skills equilibrium in UK which will continue to affect the attitudes of learner and the decisions of employers. It becomes necessary to work with employers to consider how skill formation can be deepened.

Originality/value

This paper provides an insight into the views of WBL providers, caught between government requirements to tackle the UK skills problem and employers who define the skills required.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Sumanjeet Singh

The purpose of this paper is to identify e‐skills shortages, gaps and mismatches in Europe, and the reasons behind these. In this light, the paper explores some key…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify e‐skills shortages, gaps and mismatches in Europe, and the reasons behind these. In this light, the paper explores some key issues/aspects related to development of e‐Skills, while attempting to provide some benchmarking tools by which European countries may be able to access their current and future challenges regarding e‐Skills.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins with an overview of the problem highlighted in the literature and then moves on to what has already been done to solve the problem in European countries. Several policy options are proposed which could be implemented to deal with the problems of shortages, gaps and mismatches of e‐Skills.

Findings

The paper presents recent developments in the field of e‐Skills and highlights the various dimensions/aspects and issues of e‐Skills in the European perspective and prescribes innovative policy options to solve the problems of e‐Skills shortage/gap/mismatch in Europe.

Practical implications

The paper presents a discussion and provides some policy options to solve the problems of e‐Skills shortage/gap/mismatch in Europe, which will be helpful for policy‐related discussions and in suitable policy formulations.

Originality/value

The paper provides a detailed analysis of the issues related to e‐Skill by a comprehensive survey of literature and the existing framework. It also prescribes some alternative ways to resolve the problems of e‐Skills shortage/gap/mismatch in Europe.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Asad Khan and Mohamad Noorman Masrek

Training improves workers’ competencies by eliminating or reducing mismatch between the levels of acquired and required skills. However, the question of who needs the…

Abstract

Purpose

Training improves workers’ competencies by eliminating or reducing mismatch between the levels of acquired and required skills. However, the question of who needs the training can be pertinently managed by training needs analysis (TNA). Thus, the purpose of this paper was to explore the training needs of Pakistani university librarians on collection management skills.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted on a randomly selected sample of Pakistani university librarians. Using survey questionnaire method, a five-point Likert scale was utilized to measure the acquired and required levels of collection management skills (CMS). A paired sample t-test was used to ascertain the significance of difference between the acquired and required skills. Further, descriptive statistics were used to perform TNA.

Findings

Results of the paired sample t-test showed a significant difference among all indicators of CMS. Further, findings of TNA specified more than 50 per cent of deficit (over-utilization), less than 50 per cent of surplus (under-utilization) and 20 per cent of job best-fit in terms of CMS. Based on these results, training and top-down allocation of tasks are suggested to the higher authorities to manage over and under-utilization of CMS and to produce more job best-fits.

Originality/value

These findings are significant to design training programs on CMS, to revise courses on collection management, to evaluate performance of collection managers and understand the causes of under and over utilization of CMS. Moreover, findings inform librarians to eliminate mismatch in the levels of acquired and required CMS through training programs that may further enhance job best-fits.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Riccardo Leoni

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the coherence between competency mismatches and the objective of European policymakers to transform the higher education system…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the coherence between competency mismatches and the objective of European policymakers to transform the higher education system through the Bologna Process and the Dublin Descriptors, moving from the transfer of knowledge from the teacher to learning by the student and from disciplinary knowledge to competencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based first on the theoretical arguments that confront the European reform of the tertiary education system and the nature of competency mismatches, and second on graduate earnings function estimates using two Italian databases. The paper demonstrates the waning signalling power associated with university degrees and the disruptive assertion of the competency concept.

Findings

The theoretical arguments developed suggest that competency mismatches are not only responsible for the medium-low positioning of the competency profile with respect to a counterfactual constituted by a graduate with a good match but also tend to affect the growth path of the competencies themselves: the bigger the initial gap, the smaller the steps in their growth. The econometric estimates carried out document that the level of expressed competencies drives graduate remuneration.

Originality/value

By disentangling educational outcomes (i.e. disciplinary knowledge) from requested competencies, the study demonstrates that firms remunerate competencies and to a far lesser extent disciplinary knowledge per se, and that cultural background tends to assume greater importance than formal education in forging transversal competencies. The Bologna Process could overturn this situation, provided it is integrated with a constructivist pedagogical approach, a tool that is lacking today but is vital in providing education processes that enable students to acquire and develop the competencies required by modern production techniques.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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